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Full text of "The general biographical dictionary : containing an historical and critical account of the lives and writings of the most eminent persons in every nation ; particularly the British and Irish ; from the earliest accounts to the present time .."

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xtoi    e    v^s 








Nichols,  Son,  and  Bentley,  Printers, 
1U<1  Lion  Passage,  Fleet  Stieet,  Loudoa. 















VOL.  in. 



1812.       ^t-^ 





ArNULPH  or  EARNULPH,  or  ERNULPH,  bishop  of 
Rochester  in  the  reign  of  king  Henry  I.  was  a  Frenchman 
by  birth,  and  for  some  time  a  monk  of  St.  Lucian  de 
Beativais.  Observing  some  irregularities  among  his  brieth- 
ren,  which  he  could,  neither  remedy  nor  endure,  he  re- 
solved to  quit  the  monastery ;  but  first. he  took  the  advice 
of  Lanfranc  archbishop  of  CanterbtiTy,;  ur  '?r  whom  he  had 
studied  in  the  abbey  of  Bee.  That  prelate,  who  was  well 
acquainted  with  his  merit,  invited  him  over  into  England, 
and  placed  him  in  the  monastery  of  Catnterhury,  where  he 
lived  till  Lanfranc^s  death.  'cAftejftwards,  when  Anselm 
came  into  that  see,  Arnulph  was  itiilidid^ptior  of  the  monas-- 
tery  of  Canterbury,  and  afterwards  abbot  of  Peterborough, 
and  to  both  placeshe  was  a  considerable  benefactor,  hg,ving 
rebuilt  part  /of  the  church  of  Canterbury,  which  had  fallen 
down,  and  also  that  of  Peterborough,  but  this  latter  viras 
destroyed  by  an  accidental  fire,  and  our  prelate  removed 
to. Rochester  before  he  could  repair  tlie  loss.  In  1 1 15,  he 
"was  consecrated  bishop  of  that  see,  in  the  room  of  Ra- 
dulphus  or  Ralph,  removed  to  the  see  of  Canterbury.  He 
sat  nine  years  and  a  few  days,  und  died  in  March  1124, 
aged  eighty- four.  He  is  best  known  by  bis  work  concern- 
ing the  foundation,  endowment,  charters,  laws,  and  other 
things  relating  to  the  church  of  Rochester.  It  generally 
passes  by  the  name  of  Textus  Roffensis,  and  is  preserved  in 
the  archives  of  the  cathedral  church  of  Rochester.  Mr. 
Wharton,  in  his  Anglia  Sacra,  has  published  an  extract  of 
this  history,  under  the  title  of  "  Ernulphi  Episcopi  Rof- 
fensis  Collectanea  de  rebus  Ecclesiae  Roffensis,  a  prima 
sedis  fundaXione  ad  sua  tempora.  £x  Textu  Roffensi^ 
Vot.111.  B 


xjiiem  eomposuit  Emulphus."  This  extract  consists  of 
the  names  of  the  bishops  of  Rochester,  from  Justus,  who 
was  translated  to  Canterbury  in  the  year  624,  to  Ernulfus 
inclusive;  benefactions  to  the  church  of  Rochester;  of  the 
agreement  made  between  archbishop  Lanfranc,  and.Odo 
bishop  of  Bayeux ;  how  Lanfranc  restored  to  the  monks 
the  lands  of  the  church  of  St.  Andrew,  itnd  others,  which 
had  been  alienated  from  them  ;  how  king  William  the' son 
of  king  William  did,  at  the  request  of  archbishop  Lanfranc, 
grant  unto  the  church  of  St.  Andrew  the  apostle,  at  Ro- 
chester, the  manor  called  Hedenham,  for  the  maintenance 
of  the  monks ;  and  why  bishop  Gundulfus  built  for  the 
king  the  stone  castle  of  Rochester  at  his  own  expence ; 
a  grant  of  the  great  king  William  ;  Of  the  dispute  between 
Gundulfus  and  Pichot;  benefactions  to  the  church  of 
Rochester.  Oudm  is  of  opinion,  our  Arnulph  had  no  band 
in  this  collection ;  but  the  whole  was  printed,  in  1769,  by 
the  lat^  Mr.  Thorpe,  in  his  "  Registrum  KoflFense." 

There  are'  extant  likewise,  "  Tomellus,  sive  epistola 
^rnulfi  ex  Monacho  Benedictino  Episcopi  Rofiensis  de  In« 
cestis  Conjugiis,''  and  ^^  Epistola  solutiones  quasdam  con^ 
.tinens  ad  varias  Lamberti  abbatis  Bertiniani  qusestiones, 
praecipue  de  Corpore  et  Sanguine  Domini."  Bale,  who 
confounds  our  Arnulph  with  Arnoul  bishop  of  Lisieux,  and 
with  Arnoul  abbot  of  Bonneval,  atid  Arnulphus  the  pres- 
byter, informs  us,  that  Arnulphus  went  to  Rome,  where, 
inveighing  strongly  against  the  vices  of  the  bishops,  par- 
ticularly their  lewdness,  grandeur,  and  worldlyrminded- 
ness,  he  fell  a  sacrifice  to  the  rage  and  resentment  of  the 
Roman  clergy,  who  caused  him  to  be  privately  assassinated. 
But  this  was  Arnulphus  the  presbyter,  who,  as  Platina 
tells  us,  was  destroyed  by  the  treachery  of  the  Roman 
clergy,  in  the  time  of  pope  Honorius  IL  for  remonstrating 
with  great  severity  against  the  corruptions  of  the  court  of 
Rome.  Nor  could  this  possibly  be  true  of  our  Arnulph,  in 
the  time  of  that  pope  :  for  this  bishop  of  Rochester  died 
before  Honorius  II.  was  raised  to  the  pontificate.  As  to 
the  works  ascribed  by  Bale  to  Arnulphus,  such  as  *^  De 
Operibus  sex  dierum,"  &c.  they  were  written  either  by 
Arnoul  bishop  of  Lisieux,  or  by  Anioul  abbot  of  Bonneval.  * 

ARNWAY  (John),  descended  of  a  good  family  in  the 
€0|ioty  of  Salop,  from  which  he  inherited  a  considerable 

>  Biof.  BriUmiica* 

A  R  N  W  A  Y.  « 

estate,  was  bom  in  1601,  educated  in  granuxiatical  learn- 
ing in  bis  own  country,  and  in  1618  became  a  commoner 
of  St.  Edmund's  baU,  in  Oxford,  wbere  be  remained  till 
he '  bad  taken  bis  degrees  in  arts,  and  bad  also  received 
boly  orders.     He  tben  went  down  again  into  Shropsbire, 
wbere,  in  process  of  time,  be  obtained  tbe  rectories  of 
Hodnet  and  IgbtBeld,  wbicb  be  enjoyed  to  the  breaking 
out  of  the  civil  war.     He  was  a  man  of  much  learning  and 
very  extensive  charity,  so  that  though  bis  income  was  con- 
siderable, yet  be  laid  up  very  little,    jit  was  bis  custom  to 
clothe  annually  twelve  poor  people  according  to  their  sta* 
tion,  and  every  Sunday  he  entertained  as  many  at  bis  table^ 
.  not  only  plentifully,  but  with  delicate  respect.    His  loyalty 
to  bis   prince  being  as  warm  as  his  charity  towards  his 
neighbours,  be  raised  and  clothed  eight  troopers  for  bis 
service,   and   always  preached  warmly   against  rebellion* 
The  parliament  having  a  garrison  in  the  town  of  Wem,  a 
detachment  was  sent  from  thence  who  plundered  him  of 
every  thing,  besides  terrifying  him  with  the  cruellest  in- 
sultSi     In  1 640  be  repaired  to  Oxford,  to  serve  tbe  king 
in  person,  and  there  was  created  doctor  in  divinity,  and  bad 
also  the  archdeaconry  of  Coventry  given  him,  on  the  pro- 
motion of  Dr.  Brownrig  to  the  bishopric  of  Exeter.     His 
former  misfortunes  did  not  hinder  Dr.  Arnway  from  being 
as  active  afterwards  in  the  king's  service,  which  subjected 
him  to  a  new  train  of  hardships,  his  estate  being  seques« 
tered,  and  himself  imprisoned.    At  length,  after  the  king's 
murder,  be  obtained  his  liberty,  and,  like  many  other  loy- 
alists^ was  compelled  by  the  laws  then  in  being  to  retire 
to  Holland.     While  at  the  Hague,  in  1650,  he  published 
two  little  pieces  ;  the  first  entitled  "  The  Tablet ;  or,  the 
Moderation  of  Charles  I.  the  Martyr.''     In  this  he  endea- 
vours to  wipe  off  all  tbe  aspersions  that  were  thrown  on  that 
prince's  memory  by  Milton  and  his  associates.     The  se- 
cond is  called  ^*  An  Alarm  to  the  Subjects  of  England,"  in 
wbicb  be  certainly  did  bis  utmost  to  picture  the  oppressions 
of  the  new  government  in  the  strongest  colours ;  and  in  this 
work  he  gives  some  very  remarkable  anecdotes  of  himself. 
His  supplies  from  England  failing,  and  his  hopes  in  that 
country  being  also  frustrated,  be  was  compelled  tp  accept 
an  offer  that  was  made  him  of  going  to  Virginia,  where, 
oppressed  vrith  grief  a|:>d  caxes,  he  died,  in  1653,  leaving 
behind  him  the  character  of  a  pious,  upright,  and  con- 
sistent loyalist.  The  tracts  above  mentioned  were  reprinted 

B  2 

4  A  R  N  W  A  Y. 

in  England,  1661,  by  the  care  of  Mr.  William  Rider,  of 
Mertou  College,  who  married  a  relation  of  the  author,  but 
this  volume  is  very  scarce.  * 

AROMATARI  (Joseph),  a  learned  Itarlian  physician, 
was  born  at  Assisi,  about  the  year  1586.  His  father,  who 
was  also  a  physician  of  character,  spared  nothing  to  give 
him  an  education  suitable  to  the  profession  which  he  wished 
him  to  follow.  He  began  his  studies  at  Perugia,  and  meant 
to  have  completed  them  at  Montpellier,  but  he  was  sent 
to  Padua,  where  he  attended  the  logical,  philosophical, 
and  medical  classes.  Having  obtained  his  doctor's  degree 
in  his  eighteenth  year,  he  went  to  Venice  and  practised 
physic  there  for  fifty  years,  during  which  he  refused  very 
advantageous  offers  from  the  duke  of  Mantua,  the  king  of 
England,  and  pope  Urban  VIII.  and  died  there  July  16,1660. 
He  had  collected  a  copious  library,  particularly  rich  in 
manuscripts,  and  cultivated  general  literature  as  well  as 
the  sciences  connected  with  his  profession,  in  which  last 
he  published  only  one  tract,  to  be  noticed  hereafter.  His 
first  publication  was  ^^  Riposte  alle  considerazion  di  Ales- 
sandro  Tassoni,  sopralerime  del  Petrarca,"  Padua,  1611^ 
8vo,  to  which  Tassoni  replied  under  the  assumed  name  of 
Crescendo  Pepe ;  "  Awertimenti  di  Cres.  Pepe  a  Guiseppe 
degli  Aromatari,  &c."  1611,  8vo.  Aromatari  answered 
this  by  "  Dialoghi  di  Falcidio  Melampodio  in  riposta  agli 
awertimenti  date  sotto  nome  di  Cres.  Pepe,  &c.'*  Venice, 
1613,  8vo.  But  the  work  which  has  procured  him  most 
reputation  was  a  letter  on  the  generation  of  plants,  ad- 
dressed to  Bartholomew  Nanti,  and  printed  for  the  first 
time,  prefixed  to  his  (Aromatari's)  **  Disputatio  de  rabie 
contagiosa,"  Venice,  1625,  4to,  Francfort,  1626,  4to,  and 
the  Letter  was  afterwards  printed  among  the  **  Epistolse 
selects"  of  G.  Richt,  Nuremberg,  16^62,  4to.  It  was  also 
translated  into  English,  and  published  in  the  Philoso- 
phical Transactions,  No.  CCXI,  and  again  reprinted  with 
Jungius's  works,  in  1747,  at  Cobourg.  His  opinions  on 
the  generation  of  plants  were  admired  for  their  ingenuity, 
and  if  his  health  and  leisure  had  permitted,  he  intended  to 
have  prosecuted  the  subject  more  minutely.  * 

ARON  (Peter).  See  AARON. 

ARPINO  (Joseph  d'),  the  son  of  a  painter  named  Ce- 
sari  at  Arpiuo,  was  born  at  Rome  in  1560.     While  yet  in 

.   ^  Biog.  Britannica.— Atb.  Ox.  vol.  II. 
*  Uio^,  Uuirefsetle.-^MaD^  BibUScript  Med.— Ualler.^ 

A  R  P  I  N  O.  5 

hislSth  year  his  father  placed  him  with  the  artists  em- 
ployed by  Gregory  XIII.  in  painting  the  lodges  of  the 
Vatican,  whom  he  served  in  the  humble  employment  of 
preparing  tBeirpaUetS' and  colours.  But,  in  this  situati(^n. 
he  discovered  such  talents,  that  the  pope  gave  orders  to 
pay  him  a  golden  crown  per  day  so  long  as  he  continued 
to  work  in  the  Vatican.  Pope  Clement  VIII.  distinguished 
him  by  adding  new  and  higher  favours  to  those  of  Gregory 
XIII.  He  made  him  chevalier  of  the  order  of  Christy  and 
appointed  him  director  of  St.  John  de  Lateran.  In  1600 
he  followed  the  cardinal  Aldobrandini,  who  was  sent  legate 
on  occasion  of  the  marriage  of  Henry  IV.  with  Mary  de 
Medicis.  Caravagio,  his  enemy  and  his  rival,  having  at- 
tacked him,  Arpino  refused  to  fight  him  be<iause  he  was^ 
not  a  knight,  and  in  order  to  remove  this  obstacle,  Cara- 
vagio was  obliged  to  go  to  IVIalta  to  be  admitted  chevalier- 
servant  Arpino  wanted  likewise  to  measure  swords  with 
Annibal  Carachid,  but  the  latter,  with  becoming  contempt, 
took  a  pencil  in  his  hand,  and,  shewing  it  to  him,  said, 
"  With  this  weapon  I  defy  you."  Arpino  died  at  Rome 
in  1640,  at  the  age  of  four-score.  He  was  among  painters, 
what  Marino  was  among  poets,  born  to  dazzle  and  to  seduce, 
and  both  met  with  a  public  prepared  to  prefer  glitter  ta 
reality.  He  is  said  to  have  conducted  some  of  his  first 
pictures  from  designs  of  Michel  Angelo,  but  it  was  less 
their  solidity  that  made  him  a  favourite,  than  the  facility, 
the  fire,  the  crash,  and  the  crowds,  that  filled  his  compo^ 
sltions.  The  horses  which  he  drew  with  great  felicity,  the 
decisive  touch  that  marked  his  faces,  pleased  all ;  few  but 
artists  could  distinguish  manner  from  style,  and  them  his 
popularity  defied.  The.  long  course  of  his  practice  was 
distinguished  by%two  methods,  in  fresco  and  in  oil.  The. 
first,  rich,  vigorous,  amene,  and  animated,  has  sufficient 
beauties  to  balance  its  faults  ;  it  distinguishes,  with  several 
altar-pieces,  his  two  first  frescos  in  the  Campidoglio,  the 
Birth  of  Romulus,  and  the  Battle  of  the  Sabines  ;  and  with 
this  class  might  be  numbered  some  of  his  smaller  works, 
with  lights  in  gold,  and  exquisitely  finished  ;  this  method, 
however,  soon  gave  way  to  the  second,  whose  real  prin- , 
ciple  was  dispatch,  free  but  loose  and  negligent ;  in  this 
he  less  finished  than  sketched,  with  numberless  other 
works,,  the  remainder  of  the  frescos  in  the  Campidoglio, 
forty  years  after  the  two  first.  He  reared  a  numerous" 
school,  distis]guished   by  little  more  than  the  barefacted 


e  A  R  P  I  N  O. 

imitation  of  bis  faults,  and  a  brother  Bernardino  Cesari^ 
who  was  an  excellent  copyist  of  the  designs  of  Michel 
Angelo,  but  died  young.  Among  painters  he  is  some-- 
times  known  by  the  name  of  II  Cavalier  d'Arpino,  and 
sometimes  by  that  of  Josephin.  Mr.  Fuseli  has  given  the 
above  character  of  him  under  that  of  Cesari. ' 

ARRIAGA  (RoDERic  de),  a  Spanish  Jesuit,  was  born  at 
Logrona,  in  CastiUe,  Jan.  17,  1592.  Reentered  into  the 
society  Sept.  17,  1606,  and  taught  philosophy  with  great 
applause  at  Valladolid,  and  divinity  at  Salamanca.  After- 
wards, at  the  instigation  of  the  society,  he  went  to  Prague 
in  1624,  where  he  taught  scholastic  divinity  three  years, 
was  prefect  general  of  the  studies  twenty  years,  and  chan- 
cellor of  the  university  for  twelve  years.  He  took  the  de* 
gree  of  doctor  in  divinity  in  a  very  public  manner,  and 
gained  great  reputation.  The  province  of  Bohemia  de- 
puted him  thrice  to  Rome,  to  assist  there  at  general  con- 
gregations of  the  order,  and  it  appears  that  he  afterwards 
refused  every  solicitation  to  return  to  Spain.  He  was 
highly  esteemed  by  Urban  VIII.  Innocent  X.  and  the  em- 
peror Ferdinand  IIL  He  died  at  Prague,  June  17,  1667. 
His  works  are,  "  A  course  of  Philosophy,"  fol.  Antwerp, 
1632,  and  at  Lyons,  1669,  much  enlarged;  •*  A  course 
of  Divinity,"  8  vols.  fol.  printed  at  different  periods  from 
1645  to  1655,  at  Antwerp.  Other  works  have  been  at- 
tributed to  him,  but  without  much  authority.  By  these^ 
however,  he  appears  to  have  been  a  man  of  great  learning, 
with  some  turn  for  boldness  of  inquiry ;  but,  in  general, 
his  reasoning  is  perplexed  and  obscure,  and  perhaps  the 
abb6  I'Avocat  is  right  in  characterising  him  as  one  of  the 
most  subtle,  and  most  obscure  of  the  scholastic  divines. 
Bayle  says  he  resembles  those  authors  who  admirably  dis-- 
cover  the  weakness  of  any  doctrine,  but  never  discover 
the  strong  side  of  it :  they  are,  be  adds,  like  warriors,  who 
bring  fire  and  sword  into  the  enemijBS*  country,  but  are  not 
able  to  put  their  own  frontiers  into  a  state  of  resistance.  * 

ARRIAN,  a  celebrated  historian  and  philosopher,  lived 
under  the  emperor  Adrian  and  the  two  Antonines,  in  the 
second  century.  He  was  born  at  Nicomedia  in  Bithynia, 
wias  styled  the  second  Xenophon,  and  raised  to  the  most 

1  Pilkington's  Dict.««-Abrege  de  Vies  des  Peintres. — ^Moreri  in  arC  Pin« 

*  Gen.  Dict.-«'Moreri««f^AntoBio  Bibl.  Hi8p^ii.*^I^Ayocat  Piyt.  Hist.**— Bioji^. 

A  R  R  I  A  N.  f 

considerable  dignities  of  Rome.    Tillemont  takes  him'  to 
be  the  same  person  with  that  Flaccus  Arrianus,  who,  being 
governor  of  Cappadocia,   stopped  the  incursions  of  the 
Alani,  and  sent  an  account  of  his  voyage  round  the  Euxine 
to  Adrian.     He  is  also  said  to  have  been  preceptor  to  the 
philosopher  and  emperor  Marcus  Antoninus.    There  are 
extant  four  books  of  his  Diatribe,  or  Dissertations  upoii 
Epictetus,  whose  disciple  he  had  been ;  and  Photius  tella 
us  that  he  composed  likewise  twelve  books  of  that  philo- 
sopher's discourses.     We  are  told  by  another  author,  that 
he  wrote  the  Life  and  death  of  Epictetus.     The  most  ce- 
lebrated of  his  works  is  his  History,  in  Greek,  of  Alexan- 
der   the   Great,  in   seven  books,    a   performance    much 
esteemed  for  more  accuracy  and  fidelity  than  thatof  Quin- 
tus  Curtius.  Photius  mentions  also  his  History  of  Bithynia, 
another  of  the  Alani,  and  a  third  of  the  Parthians,  in  se- 
venteen books,  which  he  brought  down  to  the  war  carried 
oij  by  Trajan   against  them.     He   gives  us  likewise  an 
abridgement  of  Arrian's  ten  books  of  the  History  of  the 
[Successors  of  Alexander  the  Great;   and   adds,  that   he 
wrote  an  account  of  the  Indies  in  one  book,  which  is  still 
extant.     The  work  which  he  first  entered  upon  was  his 
History  of  Bithynia ;  but  wanting  the  proper  memoirs  and 
materials  for  it,  he  suspended  the  execution  of  this  design 
till  he  had  published  some  other  things.     This  history  con- 
sisted  of  eight  books,  and  was  carried  down  till  the  time 
when  Nicomedes  resigned  Bithynia  to  the  Romans ;  but 
there  is  notliing  of  it  remaining  except  what  is  quoted  iii 
Photius  and  Stephanus  Byzantinus.     Arrian  is  said  to  have 
written  several  other  works :  Lucian  tells  us,  that  he  wrote 
the  life  of  a  robber,  whose  name  was  Tiliboru«,  and  when 
Lucian  endeavours  to  excuse  himself  for  writing  the  life  of 
Alexander  the  impostor,  he  adds,  "  Let  no  person  accuse' 
me  of  having  employed  my  labour  upon  too  low  and  mean 
a  subject,  since  Arrian,  the  worthy  disciple  of  Epictetus, 
who  is  o«e  df  the  greatest  men  amongst  the  Romans,  and 
who  has  passed  his  whole  life  amongst  the  muses,  conde- 
scended to  write  the  Life  bf  Tiliborus.'*    There  ii  likewisie, 
under  the  name  of  Arrian,  a  Periplus  of  the  Red- sea,  that 
is,  of  the  eastern  coasts  of  Africa  and  Asia,  as  fer  as  the 
Indies  ;  but  Dr.  Vincent  thinks  it  was  not  his.     There  is 
KkewiSTe  a  b6o"k  of  Tacti<is  under  his  name,  the  beoinrtlnop  of 
which  is  loj$t;  to  these  is  adde4  the  order  whicii  he  gave 
for  the  marching  of  the  Roman  army  against  the  Aiant,' 

9  A  R  R  I  A  N*. 

and  giving  them  battle,  which  may  very  properly  be  as- 
cribed to  our  author^  who  was  engaged  in  a  war  against 
thiit  people. 

The  best  editions  of  Arrian  are,  that  of  Gronovius,  Gr. 
&  Lat.  Ley  den,  1704,  fol. ;  of  Raphelius,  Gr.  &  Lat.  Aip^ 
sterdam,  1757,  8vo;  and  of  Schmeider,  Leipsic,  1798,  8vo. 
Schmeider  also  published  the  "  Indica  cum  Bonav.  Vul- 
canii  interpret.  Lat."  8vo.  ibid.  1798.  jDodwell's  "Disser- 
tatio  de  Arriani  Nearcho,"  in  which  the  authenticity  of 
the  voyage  of  Nearchus  is  contested,  is  affixed  to  this 
edition  of  the  Indica,  in  connexion  with  Dr.  Vincent's 
able  refutation  of  that  attack.  The  expedition  was  trans- 
lated into  English  by  Mr.  Rook,  Lond.  1729,  2  vols.  8vo. 
illustrated  with  historical,  geographical,  and  critical  notes^ 
with  Le  Clerc's  criticism  on  Quintus  Curtius,  and  some 
remarks  on  Perizonius's  vindication  of  that  author.  Rook 
also  added  the  Indica,  the  division  of  the  empire  after 
Alexander's  death,  Raderus's  tables^  and  other  useful  do- 
cuments. ^ 

ARRIGHETTI  (Philip),  a  native  of  Florence,  where, 
he  was  born  in  1582,  and  died  in  1662,  was  appointed  by 
pope  Urban  VIII.  canon  of  the  cathedral.  He  wrote  a 
great  many  books,  among  which  are,  1.  "The  Rhetoric 
of  Aristotle,^'  divided  into  fifty-six  lessons  ;  2..  *^  A  trans- 
lation of  the  Poetic",  of  the  same  author ;  3.  "  Four  Aca- 
demical discourses,"  on  pleasure,  laughter,  spirit,  and 
honour.  4.  "  A  life  of  St.  Francis.'*.  '5.  Some  pious  writ- 
ings, particularly  a  "  Treatise  on  vocal  and  mental 
Prayer."  His  father,  Nicholas  Arrighetti,  died  at  Florence 
in  1639,  and  was  a  man  of  learning,  and  skilled  in  mathe- 
matics. There  was  also  a  Jesuit  of  the  same  name,  who 
published  "  The  theory  of  Fire,"  in  1750,  4to  ;  and  died 
at  Sienna  in  1767.* 

ARRIGHETTO  or  ARRIGO  (Henry),  a  Latin  poet 
of  the  twelfth  century,  was  born  at  Settimello  near  Florence, 
and  for  some  time  was  curate  of  Calanzano.  Disturbed 
by  the  yexations  he  met  with  from  certain  enemies,  he 
gave  up  his  benefice,  and  beca^me  so  poor  that  he  was 
obliged  to  subsist  on  charity ;  from  which  circumstance  he 
obtained  the  surname  of  II  Pavero,     He  painted  his  dis<* 

1  Gen.  Diet.— <-Fabr.  Bibl.  Grasc— Voss.  de  Higt.  Gnec.<fc->M«rerl.— Clark'i 
Bibliog.  Diet.—- Saxii  Onomasticon. 

s  Diet  Hist,  s  and  for  Nteholas*  Biog.  Unirenelle.— Fabroni  Vit.  Ital«n 



grace  and  his  misfortunes  in  elegiac  verse,  in  a  manner  so 
pure  and  pathetic,  that  tbejr  were  prescribed  as  models  at 
all  public  schools.  They  remained  in  manuscript  in  vari- 
ous libraries  until  about  a  century  ago,  when  three  edition* 
of  them  were  published  in  Italy.  The  first  is  that  of  1684, 
8vo ;  the  second  is  incorporated  in  the  History  of  the  Poets, 
of  the  middle  ages  by  Leiser ;  and  the  third  was  printed 
at  Florence  in  1730,  4to,  with  a  very  elegant  translation 
iuto  Italian,  by  Dominic  Maria  Manni.  ^ 

ARRIGHI  (Francis),  a  native  of  Corsica,  was  profes-* 
sor  of  law  at  Padua,  where  he  died  May  28,  1765.  He 
was  remarkably  tenacious  of  his  opinions,  .and  carried  on  a^  . 
long  controversy  with  some  antiquaries  relative  to  the  ex- 
planation of  an  ancient  epitaph.  His  principal  writings^ 
are,  "  A  History,"  in  Latin,  "  of  the  war  of  Cyprus,"  in 
seven  books  ;  and  a  "  Life  of  Franciscus  Maurocenus."  * 

ARRIGONI  (Francis),  of  Bergamo,  was  born  there 
Dec.  1,  1610,;  and  died  July  28,  1645.  He  applied  him*- 
self  to  the  study  of  the  Greek  language,  and  was  employed 
by  the  cardinal  Frederick  Boromeo,  in  decyjjhering  the 
Greek  manuscripts  of  the  Ambrosian  library.  He  wrote 
some  **  Eulogies,"  and  "  Discourses,"  which  were  col- 
lected and  published  at  Bergamo  in  1636  ;  "The  Theatre 
of  Virtue,"  and  other  pieces,  which  are  noticed  by  Vaerini. 
in  his  history  of  the  writers  of  Bergamo.  ^ 

ARRIVABENE  (John  Francis),  of  a  noble  family  of 
Mantua,  flourished  about  the  year  1546.  £njo}ring  much 
intimacy  with  Possevin  and  Franco,  he  imbibed  their  t^ste 
for  poetry,  and  composed  "  Maritime  Eclogues,"  which, 
were  printed  with  the  "JMaritime  Dialogues"  of  Botazzo, 
at  Mantua,  in  1547.  Arriyabene  was  no  less  distinguishedj 
as  a  prose  writer,  and  there  are  many  of  his  letters  and| 
essays  in  RufHnelli's  collection,  pubUshed  at  Mantua  aboul; 
the  same  time.  *  . 

ARRIVABENE  (John  Peter),  of  the  same  family  a% 
the  preceding,  became  bishop  of  Urbino,  where  he  died  iix 
1504,  in  the  sixty- third  year  of  his  age.  He  bad  been  thj, 
scholar  of  Philelphus,  under  whom  he  studied  the  Greek, 
language  with  great  diligence.  KJe  wrote,  1.  "Gpnza- 
gidos,"  a  Latin  poem,  in  honour  of  Ludovico,  marquis  pfj 
MantUa,  a  celebrated  general^  who  died  in  1 47  8.  2.  *^  Latin 
epistles,"  with  those  of  James  Piccolomini,  called  the  car'C. 

1  Bidg.  Uni7eTselle.-.Dict.  Hist.  •^  Diet  Hist  •  Ibid.. 

*  Ibid.— Biog.  UniTersellei 

10  A  R  R  I  V  A  B  E  N  E. 

dinal  of  Pavia,  printed  at  Milan  in  1506.  From  his  Gon- 
zagidosy  first  printed  by  Meuschenius  in  his  collection 
entitled  **  Vitae  sumtnorum  dignitate  et  eruditione  viro- 
rum,"  vol.  III.  Cobourg,  1738,  it  appears  that  the  author 
had  been  present  at  many  of  the  victories  and  transactions 
which  he  there  relates.  * 

ARRIVABENE  (Hyppolito),  a  descendant  of  the  same 
family,  who  died  March  22,  1739,  practised  with  great 
reputation  as  a  physician  at  Rome.  He  printed  his 
**  Poems'*  at  Modena  in  1717,  and  an  academical  disser- 
tation, the  title  of  which  is,  "  La  vera  idea  della  Medi* 
cina,"  Reggio,  1730,  4to. ' 

ARROWSMITH  (John),  an  English  divine  and  writer, 
was  born  at  or  near  Newcastle-upon  Tyne,  March  29, 
1602.  He  was  admitted  of  St.  John*s  college,  in  Cam-* 
bridge,  in  1616,  and  took  his  first  two  degrees  from  thence 
in  1619  and  1623.  In  this  last  year  he  was  chosen  fellow 
of  Katherine  hall,  where  he  is  supposed  to  have  residecj 
some  years,  probably  engaged  in  the  tuition  of  youth ; 
but  in  1631  he  married,  and  removed  to  Lynn  in  Norfolk. 
He  continued  in  this  town,  very  much  esteemed,  for  about 
ten  or  twelve  years,  being  first  assistant  or  curate,  and 
afterwards  tninister  in  his  own  right,  of  St.  Nicholas 
chapel  there.  He  was  afterwards  called  up  to  assist  in 
the  assembly  of  divines ;  had  a  parish  in  London,  and  is 
named  with  Tuckney,  Hill,  and  others,  in  the  list  of 
Triers,  as  they  were  called  :  i.  e.  persons  appointed  to  exa- 
mine and  report  the  integrity  and  abilities  of  candidates  for 
the  eldership  in  London,  and  ministry  at  large.  When 
Dr.  Beale,  master  of  St.  John's  college,  was  turned  out 
by  the  earl  of  Manchester,  Mr.  Arrowsmith,  who  had 
taken  the  degree  of  B.  D.  from  Katherine  hall  eleven  years 
before,  was  put  into  his  place ;  and  also  into  the  royal  di- 
vinity chair,  from  which  the  old  professor  Collins  was  re-^ 
inbved;  and  after  about  nine  years  possession  of  these 
honours,  to  which  he  added  that  of  a  doctor's  degree  in 
divinity,  in  1649,  he  was  farther  promoted,  on  Dr.  HilPs 
death,  to  the  mastership  of  Trinity  college,  with  which 
be  kept  his  professor's  place  only  two  years ;  his  health 
toeing  considerably  impaired.     He  died  in  Feb.  1658-9. 

Dr.  Arrowsmith  is  represented  as  a  learned  and  able 
divine,  but  somewhat  stiff  and  narrow ;  his  natural  temper 

^  Biog.  Vnlrerselle. — ^Roscoe's  Leo.— Mazzucbelti.  *  Diet.  Hist.    . 

A  R  R  6  W  Sf  M  I  T  H.  If 

is  said  to  have  been  incomparably  better  than  his  princi-i 
ples^  and  all  agree  that  he  was  a  ihan  of  a  most  sweet  and 
engaging  disposition.  This,  says  Dr.  Salter,  appears 
through  all  the  sourness  and  severity  of  his  opinions,  in 
his  **Tactica  Sacra,"  a  book  written  in  a  clear  style,  and* 
with  a  lively  fancy ;  in  which  is  displayed  at  once  much 
weakness  and  stiffness,  but  withal  great  reading ;  and  a 
very  amiable  candour  towards  the  peraons  and  characters' 
of  those,  from  whom  he  found  himself  obliged  to  differ. 
This  book  he  dedicated  to  the  fellows  and  students  of  his* 
college,  and  published  it  in  1657,  to  supply  the  place  of 
his  sermons,  which  his  ill  health  would  not  permit  him  to 
preach  in  the  chape).  He  also  printed  three  sermons; 
and  in  1659  bis  friends,  Horton  and  Dillingham,  masters 
of  Queen's  and  Emanuel  colleges,  published  a  collection 
of  his  theological  aphorisms  in  quarto,  with  the  title  of 
"Armilla  Catechetica."  Dr.  Whichcote,  in  one  of  his 
letters,  speaks  of  him  with  high  respect,  although  he  had 
no  agreement  with  him  in  his  principles,  which  were  Cal- 
vinistic.  Mr.  Cole  praises  him  for  being  remote  from  the 
latitudinarian  principles  of  modern  times.  ^ 

ARSENIUS,  bishop  of  Constantinople,  was  called  to' 
the  metropolitan  see,  firom  a  private  monastic  life,  in  12^5^ 
by  the  emperor  Theodore  Lascans ;  who,  a  little  before' 
his  death,  constituted  him  one  of  the  guardians  of  his  son 
John,  an  infant  in  the  sixth  year  of  his  age.     Arsenius 
was  renowned  for  piety  and  simplicity;  but  these  afforded 
no  security  against  the  ambition  ai>d  perfidy  of  the  age. 
Michael! Palaeologus  usurped  the  sovereignty;  and  Arse- 
nius at  length,  with  reluctance,  overpowered  by  the  influ-* 
cnce  of  the  nobility,  consented  to  place  the  diadem  on  hisr^ 
head,  with  this  express  condition,  that  he  shotild  resign 
the  empire  to  the  royal'  infant  when  he  came  to  maturity. ' 
But  after^  he  had  made  this  concession,  he  found  his  pupii' 
treated  with  great  disregard,  and,  probably  repenting  of 
what  he  had  done,  he  retired  from  his  see  to  a  monastery.  '■ 
Sometime  after,  by  a  sudden  revolution,  Palseologus  re-  • 
covered  Constantinople  from  thie  Latins;  and  Amidst  his' 
successes,  found  it  necessary  to  his  reputsitibn  to  recall  the 
bishop,  and  he  accordiiigly  fixed  him  in 'the  metropolitan  ' 
see ;   such  was  the  ascendancy  of  Arsemus*s  character. 

'.       ■  ■   .  .  .; 

1  Dr.  Salter's  Preface  to  Whichcote's  Letters  appended  to  Dr.  W's  Aphorisms, 
1753.— Ncal'i  Hist,  of  the  Puritans,  vol.  II.— Cole's  MS  Athenss  CanUb.  if 
Brit  Mas: 

\t  .  ;  A  B  S  E  N  I  U  S. 

Palaeologus,  however,  still  dreaded  the  youtb,  whom  he 
had  so  deeply  injured  ;  and,  to  prevent  him  from  recover- 
ing bis  throne,  he  had  recourse  to  the  barbarous  poUcy  of 
putting  out  his  eyes.  Arsenius  bearing  this,  excommuni- 
<;ated  the  empejror,  who  then  exhibited  some  appearance 
of  repentance.  But  the  bisbop  refused  to  admit  him  into 
the  church,  and  Palseologus  meanly  accused  him  of  cer- 
tain crimes  before,  an  assembly,  over  which  he  had  abso- 
lute sway.  Arsenius  was  accordingly  condemned,  and; 
banished  to  a  small  island  of  the  Propontis,  Conscious  of 
his  integrity,  he  bore  his  sufferings  with  serenity ;  and  re-, 
questing  that  an  account  might  be  taken  of  the  treasures 
of  the  church,'  h^  shewed  that  three  pieces  of  gold,  which- 
he  had  earned  by  transcribing  psalms,  were  the  whole  of 
his  property.  The  emperor,  after  all  this,  solicited  him. 
tp  repetal  his  ecclesiastical  censures,  but  he  p<ersisted  iri, 
his  refusal ;  and,  it  is  supposed,  died  in  his  pbscure  retreat.  ^ 
Gibbon,  with  his  usual  suspicions  respecting  the  piety  and 
virtue  of  an.  ecclesiastic,  endeavouiB  to  lessen  the  character 
of  this  patriarch.  *  , 

ARSENIUS,  archbishop  of  Mon^mbasia,  or  Malvasia  in: 
the  Morea,  was  a. learned  philologist  of  the  fifteenth  cen- 
tpry.. :  He  was  the  particular  friend  of  pope  Paul  IIL  and 
wrote  to  him  some  very  elegant  letters.     He  submitted 
also  to  the  Romish  church,  which  gave  so  much  offence  to^ 
the.  heads  of  the  Greek  church,  that  they  excommunicatedi. 
liim.     There  are  of  bis  extant,  a  "Collection   of  Apo* 
phthegmp,"  printed  at  Rpme,  in  Greek  5  and  another  ^'Cplr.; 
leQtion  of  Scholia  on  seven  of  the  trigigedies  of  Euripides,'*, 
printed  at  Venice  in   1518,  8f:o;  >Biasil,  1544';  and  agaia. 
at  Venice  in  15S3.     His  collection  , of  Apophthegms,, pr^ 
'VPfaecl^ra  dicta  Philosophorum,'V  has  no  date  of  year^.i 
-The  time  pf  his  death  is  uncertain^  but  he  was  alive  ii^j 

1535.^  .-'      ■:.;■.. 

:.ARSILLI  (Francis),  a  celebrated  poet  and  physician,  r 
flpurished  in^the  beginning  of  th^  sixteenth  century,  undejr. 
the  pontificates  of  Leo  X.  and  Clement; VIL  He  was  a. 
native  of  Sinigaglia,  and. after  bavip^  studied  at^  Paduf^,  , 
practiced  medicine  91  Rome;  but,,  according  tp  the  eloge, 
of  his  friend  Paul  Jdvius,,  sel(jloni.>pjEi^sed  a  day  without 
produciiig  spme  poetical  composition.  He  either  possessed, 
or  affected  that  independence  of  mind  which  does  not  ac- 

}  Cav€.— Du  Pin.— Miln^r^s  Churcli  Hist.  vol.  IV.  p.  16, 

*  Gen.  Diet.— Hodius  de  Grecis  illust.-^Fabr^  "Bibl.  Graec.—* Saxli  OnpnnsU     , 

A  R  S  I  L  L  L  IS 

cord  witb  the  pliant  manners  of  a  court;  and  avoided  thd 
patronage  of  the  great,  while  he  complains  (rf  their  neg- 
lect. He  died  in  the  66th  year  of  his  age,  at  Sinigaglia, 
1540.  He  wrote  a  poem  in  Latin  verse,  "  De  poetis  Ur- 
banis,"  addressed  to  Paul  Jovius ;  in  which  he  celebrates 
the  names,  and  characterises  the  works,  of  a  great  number 
of  Latin  poets  resident  at  Rome  iii  the  time  of  Leo  X.  It 
was  first  printed  in  the  Coryciana,  Rome,  1524,  4to ;  and 
reprinted  by  Tiraboschi,  who  obtained  a  more  complete 
copy  in  the  hand-writing  of  the  author,  with  the  addition 
of  many  other  names.  It  has  also  been  reprinted  by  Mr. 
Roscoe,  in  his  life  of  Leo,  who  is  of  opinion  that  his  com- 
plaint of  the  neglect  of  poets  in  the  time  of  that  pontiff 
was  unjust.  * 

ARTALIS,  or  ARTALE  (Joseph),  an  Italian  poet, 
was  born  at  Mazzareno  in  Sicily,  1628,  and  had  an  early 
passion  for  poetry,  and  a  strong  inclination  for  arms.  He 
finished  his  studies  at  1 5  years  of  age,  about  which  time 
he  fought  a  duel,  in  which  he  mortally  wounded  his  adver- 
sary. He  saved  himself  by  taking  shelter  in  a  church ; 
and  it  was  owing  to  this  accident  that  he  afterwards  ap- 
plied himself  to  the  study  of  philosophy.  His  parents 
being  dead,  and  himself  much  embarrassed  in  his  circum- 
stances, he  resolved  to  quit  his  country,  and  seek  his  for- 
tune elsewhere.  He  accordingly  vvent  to  Candia,  at  the 
time  when  that  city  was  besieged  by  the  Turks,  and  dis- 
played there  so  much  bravery,  that  he  obtained  the  ho- 
nour of  knighthood  in  the  military  order  of  St.  George. 
When  he  was  upon  his  return  for  Italy,  he  was  often 
obliged  to  draw  his  sword,  and  was  sometimes  wounded  in 
these  rencounters ;  but  his  superior  skill  generally  gave  him 
the  advantage.  He  rendered  himself  so  formidable  even 
in  Germany,  that  they  used  to  style  him  Chevalier  de 
Sang.  Ernest  duke  of  Brunswic  and  Lunenburg  appointed 
him  captain  of  his  guards,  but  no  appointment  could  de« 
tach  him  from  the  Muses.  He  was  member  of  several 
academies  in  Italy,  and  became  highly  in  favour  with 
many  princes,  especially  the  emperor  Leopold.  He  died 
Feb.  11,  1679,  at  Naples,  where  be  was  interred  in  the 
church  of  the  Dominicans,  with  great  magnificence  :  the 
academy  DegP  Intricati  attended  his  funeral,  and  Vin- 
cent Autonio  Capoci  made  his  funeral  oration.     His  works 


^  Bio;.  VaiverfliiBller— Roscoe's  Leo. 


14  A  R  T  A  L  1  5* 

are,  1.  "Dell'  Encyclopedia  poetica/*  2  parts,  1658,  1679, 
12mo ;  and  a  third,  Naples,  same  year.  2.  "  La  Pasife," 
a  musical  drama,  Venice,  1661,  12mo.  3.  ^^  La  Bellezza 
atterrata,  elegia,"  Naples,  1646;  Venice,  1661,  12mo.  * 

ARTAUD  (Peter  Joseph),  born  at  Bonieux  in  the 
comtat-Venaissin,  went  to  Paris  in  1706,  when  yery  young, 
and  filled  in  a  distinguished  manner  tjbe  several  chairs  of 
that  capital.  He  was  afterwards  miide  curate  of  8.  Tilery ; 
in  which  preferment  he  instructed  bis  flocfk  by  his  dis** 
courses,  and  edified  it  by  his  example.  He  was  appointed 
bishop  of  Cavaillon  in  1756,  and  died  in  176a,  aged  54 ; 
lea,ving  behind  him  the  reputation  of  ^n  exemplary  prelate 
and  an  amiable  Bpan*  His  works  are:  1.  "  Panegyric  on 
S.  Louis,'*  1754,  4to.  2.  "Discourse  on  Marriage;"  on 
occasion  of  the  birth  of  the  due  de  Bourgogne,  1757,  4to. 
3.  Several  Charges,  and  Pastoral  Letters.  In  all  his  writ- 
ings a  solid  and  Christian  eloquence  prevails,  and  his  ser« 
mons,  which  have  not  been  printed,  are  said  to  have  been 
models  of  a  familiar  and  persuasive  style.  ^ 

ARTEAGA  (Stephen),  a  learned  writer  on  music  and 
poetry,  was  a  Spanish  Jesuit,  and  very  young  when  that 
order  was  suppressed  in  Spain.  He  then  went  to  Italy, 
and  lived  a  considerable  time  at  Bologna,  in  the  house  of 
cardinal  Albergati.  He  afterwards  accompanied  his  friend 
the  chevalier  Azara,  the  Spanish  ambassador,  to  Paris; 
and  died  in  his  house  Oct.  30,  1799;  His  fii-st  publication 
was  a  treatise  on  '^  Ideal  Beauty,*'  in  Spanish ;  but  that 
which  has  contributed  most  to  his  fame,  was  his  "  Revo- 
luzioni  del  teatro  musicale  Italiano,  dalla  sua  origine,  fine 
al  presente,'*  Venice,  1785,  3  vols.  8vo.  This  is  the  se- 
cond edition,  but  the  only  complete  one ;  the  first  con- 
sisting of  only  one  volume,  printed  at  Bologna^  1783; 
and  now  entirely  changed  and  augmented.  An  excellent 
analysis  and  criticism  on  this  work,  from  the  pen  of  a  ve- 
teran scholar  in  the  musical  art,  appeared  in  the  Monthly 
Review,  vols.  LXXVII.  and  LXXIX.  He  left  also  some 
learned  dissertations  on  Greek  and  Latin  poetry,  and  an  ela- 
borate work  on  rhythm,  which  he  intended  to  have  printed  at 
Parma,  at  the  Bodoni  press ;  these  manuscripts  appear  to 
have  been  confided  to  Grainville,  who  died  soon  after. ' 

ARTEDI  (Peter),  a  Swedish  physician  and  naturalist, 
the  friend  and  contemporary  of  Linnaeus,    was  born  in 

'  Moreri.— Diet  Hist  Amsterdam,  l740.-«-Life  of  Artale  by  Caballone. 
*  Diet.  Hist.<^Biog.  Uuirerselle.  >  Ibid, 

A  R  T  E  D  I.  15 

1705,  in  the  province  of  Angermaniay  of  poor  parents^ 
who  intended  him  at  first  for  the  church ;  but  incliaa* 
tion  led  him  to.  the  pursiuit  of  natural  history,  tie  began 
his  studies  at  Upsal,  where,  in  1728,  he  first  became  ac- 
quainted with  Linnaeus,  who  informs  us  that  at  that  time 
the  name  of  Artedi  was  heard  everywhere ;  and  that  the 
remarks  Artedi  made,  and  the  knowledge  he  displayed, 
struck  him  with  astonishment  A  higher  character  cannot 
well  be  supposed :  and  here  their  friendship  and  amicable 
rivalship  commenced.  Even  the  dissimilitude  of  their 
tempers  turned  out  to  advantage.  Artedi  excelled  Lin- 
naeus in  chemistry^  and  Linnaeus  out-did  him  in  the  know- 
ledge of  birds  and  insects,  and  in  botany.  Arte^di  finally 
restricted  his  botanical  studies  to  the  umbelliferous  plants, 
in  which  he  pointed  out  a  new  method  of  classification, 
which  was  afterwards  published  by  Linnaeus.  But  the 
chief  object  of  his  pursuits,  and  which  transmitted  his 
fame  to  posterity,  was  Ichthyology ;  and  Linnaeus  found 
himself  so  far  excelled  in  point  of  abilities,  that  be  relin- 
quished to  him  this  province,  on  which  Artedi  afterwards 
bestowed  all  his  juvenile  labours.  In  the  course  of  his  in- 
vestigations, he  projected  a  new  classification  in  Ichthy- 
ology, which  encouraged  Linnaeus  in  his  similar  design  in 
hotany.  In  1734  Artedi  left  Sweden,  and  went  to  En- 
gland for  the  purpose  of  making  greater  improvements  in 
the  knowledge  of  fishes ;  and  from  England  he  proceeded 
to  Holland,  where  he  wished  to  have  taken  his  doctor's 
degree ;  but  was  prevented  by  the  want  of  money.  On 
this  occasion  Linnaeus  recommended  him  to  the  celebrated 
apothecary  Seba,  of  Amsterdam,  a  lover  of  natural  history, 
and  who  had  formed  a  very  extensive  museum.  Seba  re- 
ceived Artedi  as  his  assistant,  and  the  latter  would  proba- 
bly have  beeiT  enabled  to  pursue  his  studies  with  advan- 
tage, had  he  not  lost  his  life  by  falling  into  one  of  the 
canals  in  a  <lark  night,  Sept.  25,  1735.  "No  sooner," 
says  Linnaeus,  "  had  I  finished  my  ^  Fundamenta  Botanica,* 
than  I  hastened  to  communicate  them  to  Artedi;  he 
shewed  me  on  his  part  the  work  which  had  been  the  result 
pf  several  years  study,  his  ^  Philosophia  Ichthyologia,* 
and  other  manuscripts.  I  was  delighted  with  his  familiar 
conversation;  Ji>ut,   being  overwhelmed  with  business,  I 

frew  impatient  at  his  detaining  me  so  long.     Alas !  had  I 
nown  that  this  was  the  last  visit,  the  last  words  of  mf 

16  A  R  T  E  D  I. 

friend,  how  fein  would  I  have  tarried  to  prolong  bis  exist- 

When  Artedi  and  Linneeus  were  at  Upsal,  they  recipro*' 
cally  constituted  themselves  heirs  to  each  other's  books, 
and  manuscripts.  Linnseus  was  now  ready  to  assert  hit 
right,  that  he  might  rescue  at  least  the  fame  of  his  de«- 
ceased  friend  from  oblivion.  But  the  landlord  of  Artedi,  at 
whose  house  his  situation  had  compelled  him  to  contract 
some  small  debts,  would  not  deliver  up  his  effects,  which  he 
threatened  to  sell  by  public  auction..  Through  the  generous 
liberality,  however,  of  Dr.  ClifTort,  a  princely  patron  of 
natural  history,  the  wish  of  Linnseus  was  accomplished. 
CliiFort  purchased  the  manuscripts,  and  made  him  a  pre- 
sent of  them.  The  principal  one  was  the  general  work  on 
fishes,  which  Linnaeus  published  under  the  title  "  Petri 
Artedi,  Sueci  medici,  Ichthyologia,  sive  opera  omnia  de 
Piscibus,"  Leyden,  1738,  4to;  with  the  life  of  the  author. 
But  a  more  valuable  edition  was  published  by  Dr.  Wal- 
baum  of  Lubeck,  3  vols.  4to,  1788,  1789,  1792;  includ- 
ing not  only  all  the  modern  discoveries  and  improvements; 
but  a  history  of  the  science  of  ichthyology,  from  the  earliest 
accounts  to  the  present  times.  Schneider  also  published 
a  new  edition  of  a  part  of  this  work,  under  the  title  "  Pe- 
tri Artedi  Synonymia  Piscium,"  Leipsic,  1789,  4to.  * 

ARTEMIDORUS,  celebrated  for  a  superstitious  trea- 
tise upon  Dreams,  was  born  at  Ephesus,  but  took  the  sur- 
name of  Daldianus  in  this  book,  out  of  respect  to  the 
country  of  his  mother,  and  he  styled  himself  the  Ephesian 
in  his*other  performances.  He  lived  under  the  emperor 
Antoninus  Pius,  as  himself  informs  us,  when  he  tells  u» 
that  he  knew  a  wrestler,  who,  having  dreamed  he  had  lost 
his  sight,  carri<?d  the  prize  in  the  games  celebrated  by 
command  of  that  emperor.  He  not  only  bought  up  all 
that  had  been  written  concerning  the  explication  of  dreams, 
which  amounted  to  many  volumes,  but  likewise  spent 
many  years  in  travelling,  in  order  to  contract  an  acquaint- 
ance with  the  tribe  ofc  fortune-tellers  :  he  also  carried  on 
an  extensive  correspondence  with  all  persons  of  this  de- 
scription ill  Greece,  Italy,  and  the  most  populous  islands, 
collecting  at  the  same  time  all  reports  of  dreams,  and  th^ 
events  which  are  said  to  have  followed  them.  He  despised 
the  reproaches  of  those  supercilious  persons,  who  treat 

t  Bi«;.  Vniverselle.— *Mor«ri,— Stoerer's  Life  of  LianiBus/S«ct.  1I«  and  Sect  IV. 


the  foretellers  of  events^'as  cheats^'  impostors^  and  jugglers, 
and  frequented  much  the  company  of  those  diviners  for 
several  years.  He  was  the  more  assiduous  in  his  study  and 
search  after  the  interpretation  of.  dreams,  being  moved 
thereto,  as  he  fancied,  by  the  advice,  or,  in  some  measure, 
by  the  command  of  Apollo.  The  work  which  he  wrote  on 
dreams  consists  of  five  books ;  the  three  first  were  dedi« 
cated  to  one  Cassius  Maximus,  and  the  two  last  to  his  son, 
whom  he  took  a  good  deal  of  pains  to  instruct  in  the  na- 
ture and  interpretation  of  dreams.  The  work  was  first 
printed  in  Greek,  at  Venice,  1518,  8vo;  and  Regaltius 
published  an  edition  at  Paris,  Greek  and  Latin,  in  1603, 
4to,  and  added  some  notes.  Artemidorus  wrote  also  a 
treatise  upon  Auguries,  and  another  upon  Chiromancy, 
but  they  are  not  extant.  Contemptible  as  his  work  is,  it 
contains  some  curious  particulars  respecting  ancient  rites 
and  customs.  Bayle  remarks,  what  may  indeed  be  said  of 
all  works  of  the  kind,  that  there  is  not  one  dream  which 
Artemidorus  has  explained  in  a  particular  manner,  but  what 
will  admit  of  a  very  different  explication,  and  tjiis  with 
the  same  degree  of  probability,  and  founded  upon  as 
reasonable  principles  as  those  upon  which  Artemidorus 

ARTEMIDORUS,  an  ancient  geographer,  who  lived 
about  JOG  years  B.  C.  wrote  a  *^  Description  of  the  Earth," 
which  is  often  qaentioned  by  Strabo  and  Pliny ;  and  the 
only  fragments  remaining  are  inserted  -in  the  6rst  vol.  of 
Hudson's  Minor  Greek  Geographers,  Oxford,  1703.  * 
'  ARTEPHIUS,  a  hermetic  philosopher,  lived  ^about 
1130.  He  wrote  1.  ^^  Clavis  majoris  sapiential,''  printed 
in  the  Chemical  Theatre,  Francfort,  1614,  8vo;  Stras* 
burgh,  1699,  and  afterwards  translated  into  French.  2. 
^'  Liber  secretus."  3.  *^  De  characteribus  planetarum, 
cantu  et  motibus  avium,  rerum  prsteritarum  et  futurarum^ 
lapideque  philosophico."  4.  ^^  De  vita  propaganda,"  a 
work,  of  the  merit  of  which  we  may  judge  from  being 
gravely  told  that  he  wrote  it  at  the  age  of  1025  years* 
5.  *^  Speculum  speculorum."  Artephius'  treatise  on  the 
philosc^er's  stone,  was  translated  into  French  by  Peter 
Amauld,  and  printed  with  those  of  Synesius  and  Flamel, 
Paris,  1612,  1659,  and  1682,  4to,  no  inconsiderable  proof 
of  the  attention  bestowed  on  that  delusion. ' 

\  Q£n.Dict— Vois.  deHiit.  Orsc— Pabric.  Bibl.  Qrac«<>-Sftzu  OncmasticoB. 
*  Ibid.  3  Biog.  UnivwrieUe. 

Vol.  Ill,  C 

18  A  R  T  H  UH. 

ARTHUR  (Archibau)),  professor  of  moral  phild; 
sophy  in  the  university  of  Glasgow,  the  eldest  son  of 
Andrew  Arthur,  a  farmer,  was  born  at  Abbots- Inchj  in ' 
the  shire  of  Renfrew,  Sept.  6,  1744.  After  being  edu* 
cated  in  the  elements  of  knowledge  and  piety  by  his 
parents,  he  was,  at  the  age  of  eight,  placed  at  ^e  gram-*^ 
mar*8chool  of  Paisley,  where  he  was  taught  Latin.  In  his 
thirteenth  or  fourteenth  year,  he  was  removed  to  the  uni« 
versity  of  Glasgow,  where  his  uncommon  proficiency  was 
soon  noticed  and  encouraged  by  his  teachers,  who  dis* 
cerned  a  brilliancy  of  genius  and  strength  of  understanding 
which  were  concealed  from  more  superficial  observers  by 
an  almost  invincible  bashfulness,  and  hesitation  in  his 
speech,  from  which  he  never  was  altogether  free.  After 
having  gone  through  the  usual  course  of  classical  studies 
with  increasing  reputation,  he  determined  on  the  clerical 
profession,  and  with  that  view  attended  the  philosophical 
and  theological  lectures.  Such  was  the  intenseness  of  his 
application,  and  the  vigour  of  his  intellect,  that,  we  are 
told,  long  before  his  nomination  to  an  academical  chair, 
there  were  few  or  no  departments,  whether  literary,  phi« 
losophical,  or  theological,  with  the  exception  of  the  me--^ 
dical  school  only,  in  which  he  could  not  have  been  an 
eminent  teacher.  On  one  occasion,  during  the  necessary 
absence  of  the  professor  of  Church  History,  he  lectured 
for  a  whole  session  of  college  in  that  department,  highly 
to  the  satisfaction  and  improvement  of  his  hearers,  which 
many  of  them  acknowledged  at  a  distant  period  when  their 
own  researches  rendered  such  an  opinion  valuable.  He 
was  also,  during  the  period  of  his  academical  studies, 
employed  as  private  tutor  in  some  families  of  rank.  In 
October  1767,  after  the  usual  trials,  according  to  the 
forms  of  the  church  of  Scotland,  he  was  licensed  to  be  a 
preacher,  although  not  without  some  opposition,  owing  to 
his  reluctance  to  embrace  the  creed  of  that  church  in 
its  full  extent.  Soon  after  he  was  apppinted  chaplain  to 
the  university  of  Glasgow,  and  assistant  to  the  rev.  Dr« 
Craig,  one  of  the  clergy  of  Glasgow.  About  the  same 
time  he  wais  appointed  librarian  to  the  university,  ia  which 
office  he  compiled  the  catalogue  of  that  library  on  the 
model  of  that  of  the  Advocates^  library  in  Edinburgh. 
In  1780  he  was  appointed  assistant  and  successor  to  the 
learned  and  venerable  Dr.  Reid,  professor  of  moral  phi- 
losophy, and  delivered  a  course  of  lectures^  of  the  meritpf 

ARTHUR.  19 

which  a  judgment  may  be  formed  from  the  parts  now  pub* 
lished.  In  sentiments  he  nearly  coincided  with  his  colleague 
«nd  predecessor.  He  taught  this  class  for  fifteen  years,  as 
assistant  to  Dr.  Reidy  who  died  in  1796,  when  he  sue** 
ceeded  a$  professor,  but  held  this  situation  for  only  one 
session.  A  dropsical  disorder  appeared  in  his  habit  soon 
after  the  commencement  of  1797,  and  proved  fatal,  June 
14  of  that  year.  In  1803.,  professor  Richardson,  of  the 
same  university,  published  some  part  of  Mr.  Arthur's  lec«* 
tures,  under  the  title  of  ^<  Discourses  on  Theological  and 
Literary  Subjects,"  8vo,  with  an  elegant  sketch  of  his  life 
and  character,  from  which  the  above  particulars  have  been 
borrowed.  These  discourses  amply  Justify  the  eulogium 
Mr,  Richardson  has  pronounced  on  him,  as  a  man  of  just 
taste,  and  correct  in  his  moral  and  religious  principles, 
nor  were  bis  talents  and  temper  less  admired  in  private 

ARTIGNI  (Anthony  Gachet  d'),  canon  of  the  cathe* 
dral  church  at  Vienna,  was  born  in  that  metropolis,  the 
9th  of  March  1704.  He  shewed  an  early  inclination  for 
literature  and  bibliographical  inquiries,  and  wrote  some 
verses,  which  he  afterwards  judiciously  suppressed.  Hia 
first  publication,  in  1739,  was  a  piece  entitled  <<  Relation 
d'une  assemiblee  tenue  au  has  de  Pamasse,  pour  la  reforme 
des  Belles  Lettres,"  12mo.  Mr.  Sabathier,  with  more 
spleen  than  reason,  observes  that  the  place  for  this  as« 
sembly  was  very  happily  chosen.  But  Artigni  is  more 
advantageously  known  by  his  '^  Memoires  d'histoire,  de 
critique  &  de  Utterature,''  Paris,  1749,  &  seqq.  7  vols.  12mo.. 
Though  this  book  is  a  compilation,  it  sufficiently  proves 
him  to  have  been  endowed  with  the  spirit  of  disquisition 
and  criticism.  It  is,  however,  necessary  to  mention  that 
the  nK>st  interesting  articles  are  taken  from  the  manuscript 
bistory  of  the  French  poets  by  the  late  abb6  Brun,  dean 
of  S.  Agrjcola  at  Avignon.  This  history  existed  in  MS. 
in  the  library  belonging  to  the  seminary  of  S.  Sulpice  de 
Lyon,  yrhere  the  abb^le  Clerc,  the  friend  of  abb6  Brun, 
bad  lived  a  long  time ;  and  it  was  by  means  of  «ome 
member  of  the  seminary  that  the  abb6  d' Artigni  j^rocured 
it.  Before  bis  death  he  was  employed  op  an  abridgement 
of  the  Universal  History,  part  of  which  was  found  among 
bis  manuscripts.     He  died  at  Vienna  the  6th  of  May  1768> 

},  J3tm«iiis«f»  l((.  vkVi  supr9. — ^WoodhouB«]te>t  lift  of  Lord  Kiuntt. 

C  2 

20  A  R  T  I  G  N  I. 

in  his  65th  year.  He  was  of  a  polite,  obliging,  and  cheer- 
ful temper ;  and  his  conversation  was  rendered  highly 
agreeable  by  the  great  number  of  anecdotes  and  pleasant 
stories  with  which  his  memory  was  stored.  * 

ARTOIS  (Jean  Van),  an  eminent  landscape  painter, 
was  born  at  Brussels  in  1613,  and  having  been  carefully 
instructed  in  the  art  of  painting  by  Wildens  (as  spme  au« 
thors  imagine),  he  perfected  himself  by  a  studious  ob- 
servation of  nature.-  His  landscapes  have  an  agreeable 
solemnity,  by  the  disposition  of  his  trees,  and  the  breaking 
of  his  grounds ;  the  distances  are  well  observed,  and  die 
away  perspectively,  with  a  bluish  distance  of  remote  hills ; 
and  his  figures  are  properly  and  very  judiciously  placecT. 
His  pencil  is  soft,  his  touch  light  and  free,  particularly  in 
the  leafing  of  his  trees ;  and  there  is  generally  a  pleasing 
harmoiry  in  the  whole.  It  is  said  that  Teniers  either 
painted  or  retouched  the  figures  of  his  landscapes.  He  is 
remarkable  for  always  ornamenting  the  stems  of  his  treesf 
with  moss,  ivy,  or  other  plants,  the  extremities  of  which 
are  often  loosely  hanging  down.  His  pictures  are  coloured 
with  a  force  resembling  those  of  Titian,  except  that  some- 
times t^ey  are  a  little  too  dark.  Mechlin,  Brussels, 
Ghent,  and  the  gallery  of  Dusseldorp,  were  ornamented 
with  many  of  his  pictures.  In  the  course  of  his  practice^ 
he  acquired  a  good  fortune,  but  is  said  to  have  dissipated 
it  by  giving  entertainments  to  persons  of  rank.  He  died 
in  1665,  aged  fifty-two.  ' 

ARTUSI  (GiOMARiA,  or  John  Maria),  a  musical  cri- 
tic, who  flourished  in  the  sixteenth  century,  was  a  native 
of  Bologna,  and  a  canon-regular  of  the  congregation  del 
Salvatore.  Though  be  is  ranked  only  among  the  minor 
writers  on  music,  yet  if  his  merit  and  importance  are  es- 
timated by  the  celebrity  and  size  of  his  volumes,  he  cer- 
tamly  deserves  the  attention  of  students  and  collectors  of 
musical  tracts.  In  his  ^^  Arte  del  Contrappunto  ridotta  in 
tavole,"  published  at  Venice,  in  1586,  he  has  admirably 
analyzed  and  compressed  the  voluminous  and  diffused 
works  of  Zarlino  and  other  anterior  writers  on  musical 
composition,  into  a  compendium,  in  a  manner  almost  as 
clear  and  geometrical  as  M.  d^Alembert  has  abridged  the 
theoretical  works  of  Rameau.  In  1589,  he  published  a 
i^econd  part  of^  his  *^  Arte  del  Contrappunto,'*  which  is  a 

I  Biag.  UniTeneUe.--Pict;  flUt.  1  lbld.«»PilkiDgtMi'i  IMct 

A  RT  U  S  L  21 

useful  and  excellent  supplement  to  his  former  eompendium.. 
And  in  1600^  and  1603,  this  intelligent  writer  published 
^t  Venice,  the  first  and  second  part  of  another  work, 
'^  Delle  Imperfettioni  della  moderna  musioa/^  in  which 
he  gives  a  curious  account  of  the  state  of  instrumental 
music  in  his  time,  and  strongly  inveighs  against  the  inno- 
vations then  attempted  by  Monteverde.  The  time  oi 
Artusi's  decease  is  not  known.  * 

ARVIEUX  (Laukence  d'),  a  French  eastern  scholar 
and  traveller,  was  born  at  Marseilles  in  1635,  of  a  family 
originally  from  Tuscany,  and  from  his  infancy  discovered 
an  uncommon  aptitude  for  learning  languages,  apd  a  strpng 
^passion  for  travelling.  In  1653  he  accompanied  his  father^ 
who  was  appointed  consul  at  Saida,  and  resided  for  twelve 
years  in  the  different  ports  of  the  Levant,  where  he  learned 
the  Persian,  Hebrew,  Arabic,  and  Syriac  languages.  After 
his  return  to  France,  he  was,  in  1668,  sent  to  Tunis,  to 
negociate  a  treaty  with  the  Dey,  and  was  the  means  of 
delivering  three  hundred  and  eighty  French  slaves,  who 
wished  to  show  their  gratitude  by  making  up  a  purse  of 
600  pistoles,  which  he  refused  to  accept.  In  1672,  he 
was  sent  to  Constantinople,  where  beiiad  a  principal  hand 
in  concluding  ^  treaty  with  Mahomet  IV.  and  succeeded 
chieBy  by  ^he  facility  with  which  he  spoke  the  Turkish 
language,  and  which  strongly  recommended  him  to  th^ 
coniidfeqce  of  tij^e  grand  visier.  M.  Turenne  had  also  re-*- 
quested  him  to  obtain  information  respecting  the  opinions 
of  jthe  Greeks  on  the  eucharist,  which  he  found  to  be  the 
^iaiqe  with  that  of  t;he  Latins.  On  his  return,  he  was  n^ade 
^  knight  pf  St.  La;9arus,  and  received  a  pension  of  1000 
livres.  The  knowledge  he  had  now  so  often  displayed  la 
the  affairs  of  the  Levant,  induced  the  court  to  Sjend  him  aiS 
consul  to  Algiers,  and  afterwards  to  Aleppo.  Pope  In- 
nocent XI.  in  jcon^ideration  of  the  services  he  nad  r^lr 
dered  to  religiopj  made  him  an  offer  of  the  l9ii3hopric  of 
Babylon,  which  he  refused,  but  agreeab^  tQ  (he  pope'« 
permission,  named  father  Pidou  for  that  o.ffice9  which  the 
Pope  confirmed.  During  the  latter  part  of  his  life,  the 
chevalier  d'Arvieux  lived  in  retireiuent  at  Marseilles,  de- 
voting, his  time  to  the  study  of  the  sacred  scriptures,  which 
bfi  read  in  the  originals.  He  diecj  in  that  pity,  Oct.  3,  170^, 
He  bad  written  the  history  of  a  voyage  made  by  order  of 

*  Bumey's  Hist,  of  Music,  vql.  III.-rBioj^.  Uoiverselle. 

t2  A  R  V  I  E  U  X. 

Loois  XrV.  to  ihe  grand  Emir,  the  chief  of  the  Arabiatl 
princes,  and  a  treatise  on  the  manners  knd  customs  of  the 
Arabians,  both  pnblished  by  M.  de  la  Roque,  Paris,  1711^, 
12mo.  His  *^  Memoires**  were  published  by  father  Labat, 
Paris,  1735,  6  vols.  12mo.  This  work  was  attacked  in 
^  Lettres  critiques  de  Hadji-Mehemet-Effendi,'*  Paris, 
1735,  12tno,  supposed  to  hare  been  written  under  this 
name  by  M.  Petis  de  la  Croix.  ^ 

ARUM  (Dominic  Van),  or  ARUMCEUS,  a  nobleman 
of  Friesland,  was  born  atLeuwarden  in  1579,  and  studied 
law  at  Franeker,  Oxford,  and  Rostock.  In  1599  he  went 
to  Jena,  where,  in  1605,  he  was  appointed  professor  of 
law,  and  where  he  died  Feb.  24,  J  637.  He  is  esteemed 
one  of  the  most  able  writers  on  the  German  law,  and  one 
of  the  first  who  reduced  it  to  a  regular  system.  His 
principal  works  are:  1.  **  Discursus  academici  de  jure 
publico,"  Jena,  1617 — 23,  5  vols.  4to.  ,  2.  "Discursus 
academici  ad  auream  bullam  Caroli  IV."  ib.;i617,  4to. 
3.  **  Gommentaria  de  comitiis  Roman.  German,  imp."  ib* 
1630,  4to.* 

'ARUNDEL  (Thomas),  archbishop  of  Canterbury  in  the 
reigns  of  Richard  II.  Henry  IV.  and  Henry  V;  was  thfe 
(second  son  of  Robert  Fitz- Alan,  eari  of  Arundel  and  War^. 
)ren,  and  brother  of  Richard  earl  of  Arundel,  who  was  af» 
terwards  beheaded.  He  was  but  twenty -two  years  of  age 
Vfhen,  from  being  archdeacon  of  Taunton,  he  was  pro- 
moted to  the  bishopric  of  Ely,  by  the  pope^s  provision, 
and  consecrated  April  9,  1374,  at  Otteford.  He  was  a 
ebhsiderable  bene&ctor  to  the  church  and  palace  of  that 
iee.  He  almost  rebuilt  the  episcopal  palace  in  Holborn, 
and,  among^'other  doltations,  be  presented  the  cathedral 
with  a  very  curious  table  of  massy  gold,  enriched  with 
precious  stones ;  which  had  been  given  to  prince  Edward 
by  the  king  of  Spain,  and  sold  by  the  latter  to  bishop 
Arundel  for  three  hundred  marits.  In  the  year  1366,  the 
tenth  of  Richard  II.  he  was  made  lord  high  chancellor  of 
England ;  but  resigned  it  in  1389 ;  was  again  appointed  ii^ 
1391,  and  resigned  it  finally,  upon  his  advancement  to  the 
see  of  Canterbury.  After  he  nad  sat  about  fourteen  years 
in  the  see  of  Ely,  he  was  translated  to  the  archbishopric  of 
York,    April  3,  1388,   where  he  expended  a  very  larg^ 

.1  Morari. — ^Blof  .  Unirenelle.— •Saxii  OnomasU 
f  Popptu  BibI*  lelg.— Bicf  •  UBiyenelle, 


warn  a£  money  in  building  a  pakce  for  the  afcbbishopsi^ 
and,  besi4e$  other  rich  omaments^  gave  to  the  church 
aeTeral  pieces  of  silver-gilt  plate^  In  1393,  being  then 
chancellor,  he  removed  the  courts  of  justice  from  London 
to  York ;  and,  as  a  precedent  for  this  unpopular  step,  be 
alledged  the  exsunple  of  archbishop  Corbridge,  eighty 
years  before*  The, see  of  Canterbury  being  vacant  by  the 
death  of  Dr.  William  Courtney,  archbishop  Arundel  was 
translated  thither,  January  13V6.  The  crosier  was  deli- 
vered into  his  hands  h^  Henry  CheUenden,  prior  of  Can- 
terbury, in  the  presence  of  the  king,  and  a  great  nuiaber 
of  the  nobility,  and  on  the  19th  of  February  lid?,,  be  was 
enthroned  with  great  pomp  at  Canterbury,  the  first  in- 
stance of  the  translation  of  an  archbishqfi  of  York  to  the 
see  of  Canterbury.  Soon  after  be  had  a  contest  with  the 
university  of  Oxford  about  the  right  of  visitation,  which 
was  detennined  by  Kidg  Richard,  to  whom  the  decisioa 
was  referred,  in  fevour  of  the  archbishop*  At  bis  visita*- 
(ion  in  London,  he  revived  an  old  constilnition,  first  seit 
on  foot  by  Siqion  Niger,  bishop  of  London^  by  which  the 
inhabitants  of  the  respective  parisdies  were  obliged  to  pay 
to  their.rector  one  halfpenny  in  d»e  pound  out  of  the  rent 
of  their  houses*  In  the  second  year  of  his  translation,  a 
parliament,  was  held  at  Lonidoa^  in  which,  the  commons, 
with  the  fcing'f  >I|ea,ve^  hnpeaobed  the  archbishop,  together 
with  his  brother  the  esari  of  Arundel^  and  the  diuce  of 
Gloueesteiv  of  high^treason,  for  comp^Uing  the  king^  in 
the  tenth  year  of  lus  reign,  to  grant  them  a  conounissiop  to 
govern  the,  kingdom*  The  Jdrchbishop  was  sentenced  to 
be  banished^  and  had  fofty  days  allowed  him  to  prepare 
for  his  exile,  within  which  time  he  was  to  depart  the  king^ 
dom  on  pain  of  death.  Upoa  this  he  retired  first  into 
France,  and  then  to  Ron^^  where  pope  Qonifaoe  IX.  gav^ 
him  a  v«ry  friendly  r^iception,  and  wrote  a  letter  to^  aing 
Jlichard,  desiring  him  to  receive  the  archbishop  agpun  intoi 
&veur.  But  not  meeting  with  suocess,  his  hoHuesa  «^ 
solved  to  interpose  his  authority  in  fi&vour  of  Arundd* 
Accordingly  he  nominated  him  t^  the  archbishopric  of 
St.  Andrews,  and  declared  his  intention  of  giTit>g  him 
several  other  preferments  in  England,  by  way  of  provision. 
The  king,,  upon  this,  wrote  an  expostuktosy  letter  to  the 
pope,  which  induced  him  not  only  to  withhold  the  intended 
favours  from  Arundel,  but  likewise,  at  the  king^s  request, 
to  promote  Roger  Walden  dean  of  York  and  lord  treasurer 


of  England^  to  the  see  of  Canterbury.  That  prelate,  boir* 
ever,  was  soon  obliged  to  quit  bis  new  dignity ;  for,  next 
year,  Arundel  returned  into  England  with  the  duke  of 
Lancaster,  afterwards  king  Henry  IV.  upon  whose  acces* 
sion  to  the  throne,  the  pope  revoked  the  bull  granted  to 
Walden,  ^nd  restored  Arundel;  and  among  the  articles  of 
misgovernment  brought  against  king  Richard,  one  was  his 
usage  and  banishment  of  this  prelate.  The  throne  j>eing 
vacant  by  Richard's  resignation,  and  the  duke  of  Lancas^ 
-ter's  title  being  allowed  in  parliapaent,  Arundel  bad  the 
honour  to  crown  the  new  king;  and,  at  the  coronation- 
dinner,  sat  at  his  right  hand;  the  archbishop  of  York 
being  placed  at  his  left.  In  the  first  year  of  king  Henry's 
reign,  Arundel  summoned  a  synod,  which  sat  at  St.  Paurs. 
'Harpsfield,  and  the  councils  fromiiim,  have  mistaken  this 
synod  for  one  held  during  the  vacancy  of  the  see.  He 
also  by  his  courage  and  resolution,  preserved  several  c^ 
the  bishops,  who  were  in  king  Henry's  army,  from  being 
plundered  of  their  equipages  and  money.  The  next  year, 
the  commons  having  moved,  that  the  revenues  of  the  church 
inight  be  applied  to  the  service  of  the  public,  Arundel  op* 
posed  the  motibn  so  vigorously,  that  the  king  and  lords 
promised  him,  the  church  should  never  be  plundered  in 
.their  time.  Afiter  this,  he  vbited  the  univevsity  of  Cam- 
bridge, where  he  made  several  statutes^  suppressed  seve- 
ral bad  customs,  and  punished  the  students  for  their  nus« 
behaviour.  And, .  when  the  visitation  was  ended,  at  the 
request  of  the  university,  he  reserved  all  those  matters 
and  causes,  which  had  been  laid  before  him,  to  his  own 
4Sognizance  and  jurisdiction.  In  the  year  1408,  Arundel 
began  to  exert  himself  with  vigour  against  the  Lollards  or 
Wickliffites,  To  this  end,  he  summoned  the  bishops  and 
clergy  at  Oxford,  to  ^cheek  the  progress,  of  this  new  sect, 
and  prevent^  that  university's  being  farther  tinctured  with 
their  :opinii>ns.  But  the  doctrines  of  Wickliff  still  gaining 
•ground,. the  archbishop  resolved  to  visit  the  university, 
attended  by  the  earl  of  Arundel,  his  nephew,  and  a  splendid 
.  retinue.  When  he  c^me  near  the  town,  he  was  met  by 
^the  principal  members  of  the  university,  who  told  him, 
.that,. if  \ie  came  only  to  see  the  town,  he  was  very  weU 
.come,  but  if  he  came  in  the  character  of  a  visitor,  they 
refused  to  acknowledge  his  jurisdiction.  The  archbishop, 
.ireseoting  this  treatment,  left  Oxford  in  a  day  or  two,  and 
vrpte  to  the  king  oo  account  of  his  disappointment    Afteir 


a  warm  contest  between  the  university  and  the  archbi^op^ 
both  parties  agreed  to  refer  the  dispute  to  the  king's  deci<« 
sion ;  who,  governing  himself  by  the  example  of  his  pre* 
decessors,  gave  sentence  in  favour  of  the  archbishop.  Soon 
after  this  controversy  was  ended,  a  convocation  being  held 
at   St.  Paul's  in    London,    the  bishops  and  clergy  com* 
plsuned  of  the   growth  of  Wicklevitism  at  Oxford,   and 
pressed  the  archbishop  to  visit  that  university.     He  ac-» 
cordingly  wrote  to  the  chancellor  and  others,  giving  them 
notice,  that  he^intended  to  hold  a  visitation  in  St.  Mary's 
<hurcfa.     Hia  delegates  for  this  purpose  were  sent  down 
soon  after,  and  admitted  by  the  university,  who,  to  make 
some   satis&ction   for  their  backwardness   in    censuring 
WicklifPs  opinions,  wrote  to  the  archbishop,  and  asked 
his  paidon:  after  which  they  appointed  g  committee  of 
twelve  persons,  to  examine  heretical  books,  particularly 
those  of  Wickiiff.    These  inquisitors  into  heretical  pravity, 
bavijig  censured  some  conclusions  extracted, out  of  Wick* 
liflPs  books,  sent  an  account  of  theiar  proceedings  to  the 
archbishop,  who  confirmed  their  censur^  and  sent  an 
authority  in  writing  to  some* eminent  members  of  the  uni- 
versity, empowering  them. to  inquire  into  persons  suspect- 
ed of  heterodoxy,  and  oblige^  them  to  declare  their  opi- 
nions.     These  rigorous  proceedings  made  Arundel  ex*, 
tremely  bated  by  the  Wickliffiteff,  and  certainly  form  the 
deepest  stain  on  bis  character.     However  he  went  on  with 
the  prosecution,  and  not  only^  solicited  the  pope  tb  con* 
demn  the  abovementioned  conclusions,  bat  desired  like- 
wise  a  bull  for  the  digging  up  WicklifF's  bones..  The  pope 
granted  the  first  of  these  requests,  but  refused  the  other^ 
not  thinking  it  any  useful  part  of  discipline  to  disturb  the 
ashes  of  the  dead.     Arundel's  warm  zeal- for  ^suppressing 
the  Lollards,  or  Wickliifites,  carried  him  to-  several  un* 
.ju$tiftahle  severities,  against  the  heads  of  that  sect,  particu* 
larly  against  sir  Jolm  Oldcastle,  lord  Cobbam;  and  in- 
duoed  him   to  procnre  a  synodical  constitution,  which 
forbad  the  translation  of  the  scriptures  into  the  vulgar 
tongue.     This  prelate  died  at  Canterbury,  after  having  sat 
seventeen  years,^he  20th  of  February,  1413.     The  Lol* 
lards  pf  those  times  asserted  the  immediate-  hand  of  hea^ 
ven  in  the  manner  of  bis  deadi.     He  died  of  an  inflamnfia* 
tion  in  his  throat,  and  it  is  said  that  he  was  struck  with 
this  disease,  as  he  was  pronouncing  sentence  of  excom* 
fnuuication  and  condemnation  on  the  lord  Cobham ;  and 


from  that  time,  notwithstanding  all  the  assistance  of  medi** 
cine,  he  could  swallow  neither  meat  nor  drink,  avd  was 
stan^ed  to  death.  The  Lollards  imputed  this  lamentable 
end  to  the  just  judgment  of  God  upon  him,  both  for  his 
severity  towards  that  sect,  and  forbidding  the  scriptures 
to  be  translated  into  English ;  and  bishop  Godwin  seems  to 
lean  to  the  same  opinion.  He  was  buried  in  the  cathedral 
of  Canterbury,  near  the  west  end,  under  a  monument  erect*' 
ed  by  himself  in  his  life-time.  He  was  a  considerable  bene<* 
faetor  to  that  church,  having  built  the  Lanthorn  Tower, 
and  great  part  of  the  Nave ;  and  he  gave  a  ring  of  five 
b^lls,  called  from  him  '^  Arundel's  Ring,*'  several  rich 
vestments,  a  mitr^  enchased  with  jewels,  a  silver  gilt 
crosier,  a  golden  chalice  for  the  high  altar,  and  another 
to  be  used  only  on  St  Thomas  Socket's  day.  He  be- 
stowed also  the  church  of  Godmersham,  out  of  the  in- 
ccnne  of  which,  he  ordered  six  shillings  and  eight  pence 
to  be  given  annually  to  every  monk  of  the  convent,  on  "the 
foresaid  festival.  Lastly,  he  gave  several  valuable  boc^s^ 
particularly  two  Missals,  and  a  collection  in  one  volume  of 
St.  Gregory's  works,  with  mmthema  to  any  person  who 
should  semove  it  out  of  the  church.  He  appears  to  have 
possessed  a  great  natural  capacity,  and  was  a  splendid 
benefactor  to  many  of  our  ecclesiastical  structures.  As  a 
pcditician,  he  took  a  very  active  share  in  the  principal 
measures  of  very  turbulent  times,  and  it  is  perhaps  now 
difficult  to  appreciate  his  character  in  any  other  particu- 
lars than  what  are  most  prominent,  his  zeal  for  the  catho- 
lic religion,  and  bis  munificence  Ik  the  various  offices  he 


ARZACHEL  (Abraham),  or  EIZARAKEL,  a  native 
of  Toledo,  in  the  twelfth  century,  was  one  of  the  most 
celebrated  astronomers  who  appeared  after  the  time  of  the 
Greeks,  and  before  the  revival  of  learning.  He  wrote  a 
treatise  on  the  *^  obliquity  of  the  Zodiac,**  which  he  fixed, 
for  his  time,  at  23^  34',  and  determined  the  apogee  of  the 
sun  by  four  hundred  and  two  observations.  The  famous 
Alphonsine  Tables,  published  by  order  of  Alphonsus,  king 
of  Castille,  were  partly  taken  from  the  works  of  ArzacheL 
Few  particulars  are  known  of  the  personal  history  of  this 

1  Biog.  Brit  -^Some  correctioni  and  sdditioM  to  tbat  sooount  ar«  given  ia 
B«Btham'f  History  of  Ely. 


astronomer^  unless  that  he  was  of  the  Jewish  persuasion* 
Montucla  says  that  his  tables  are  preserved  in  several 
libraries,  in 'manuscript,  with,  an  introduction  wMch  ex* 
plains  their  use.  ^ 
^  ASAPH  (ST.)f  who  gave  his  name  to  the  episcopal  sed 
^  of  St.  Asaph  in  Wales,  was  descended  of  a  good  f&mily  iu 
North  Wales,  and  became  a  monk  in  the  convent  of 
.  Llanelvy,  over  which  Kentigern  the  Scotch  bishop  of  thai 
place  presided.  That  prelate,  being  recalled  to  his  own 
country,  resigned  his  convent  and  cathedral  to  Asaph,  who 
demeaned  himself  with  such  sanctity,  that  after  his  death 
Uanelvy  lost  its  name,  and  took  that  of  the  saint.  St. 
Asaph  flourished  about  the  year  590,  under  Carentius,  king 
of  the  Britons.  He  wrote  the  ordinances  of  his  churcl^ 
the  life  of  his  master  Kentigern,  and  some  other  pieces* 
The  time  of  bis  death  is  not  certainly  known.  After  hb 
death  the  see  of  St  Asaph  continued  vacant  500  years. ' 

ASCH  (George  Thomas  Baron  d'),  an  eminent  Rus- 
sian physician,  counsellor  of  state,  and  member  of  mauy 
academies,  was  born  at  Petersburgh  of  German  parents^ 
in  1729,  and  died  in  that  city  iu  1807.  He  studied  in 
the  university  of  Gottingen,  under  Haller,  and  his  repu*^ 
tatiou  is  in  a  great  measure  owing  to  the  respect  he  pre* 
served  for  that  celebrated  school,  and  to  the  princely 
contributions  he  made  to  it.  His  fortune  enabled  him  to 
make  vast  collections  during  his  various  travels,  a  part  of 
which  he  regularly  sent  every  year  to  Gottingen.  In  par- 
ticular he  enriched  the  library  with  a  complete  collection 
of  Russian  writers,  a  beautiful  Koran,  Turkish  manu« 
scripts,  and  many  other  curious  articles  ;  and  he  added  to 
the  museum  a  great  number  of  valuable  articles  collected 
throughout  the  Russian  empire,  curious  habits,  armour, 
instruments,  minerals,  medals,  &c.  He  was  also  a  liberal 
contributor  to  Blumenbach's  collection.  A^  a  writer,  he 
had  a  principal  part  in  the  Russian  Pharmacopoeia,  Peters- 
burgh, 1778,  4to,  and  wrote  many  essays,  in  Latin  and 
German,  on  different  subjects  of  physiology  and  medicine, 
of  which  a  list  may  be  seen  in  the  ^^  Gelehrtes  Deutsche 
land'*  of  M.  Meusel,  fourth  edition,  vol.  I.  p.  98.  What 
he  published  on  the  plague  has  been  highly  valued  by 
practitioners,  and  there  are  two  curious  papers  by  him 
in  No.  171  and  176  of  our  Philosophical  Transactions, 

>  MorcrK'^Bioff.  CToiTcrMlle.  *  BUif.  Brit. 

S»  A  S  C  H. 

His  memory  was  honoured  by  Heyne  with  an  elegant 
eulogium,  <^  De  Obitu  Bar.  de  Asch,  ad  vivos  amahtissi* 
mos  J.  Fr.  Blumenbach,  et  J.  D.  Reuss,"  4to.  * 

ASCHAM  (Roger),  an  illustrious  English  scholar,  was 
bom  at  Kirby-Wiske,  near  North- AUerton,  in  Yorkshire, 
libout  the  year  1515.  His  father,  John  Ascham,  was  of 
moderate  fortune,  but  a  man  of  understanding  and  probity^ 
and  steward  to  the  noble  family  of  Scroop ;  his  mother's 
name  was  Margaret,  descended  of  a  genteel  femily,  and 
allied  to  several  persons  of  great  distinction;  but  her 
maiden  name  is  not  recorded.  Besides  this,  they  had  two 
odier  sons,  Thomas  and  Anthony,  and  several  daughters; 
and  it  has  been  remarked  as  somewhat  singular,  that  after 
living  together  forty-seven  years  in  the  greatest  harmony, 
and  with  the  most  cordial  affection,  the  father  and  mother 
died  the  same  day,  and  almost  in  the  same  hour.  Roger, 
some  time  before  his  father's  death,  was  adopted  into  the 
family  of  sir  Anthony  Wing&eld,  and  studied  with  his  two 
sons  under  the  care  of  Mr.  Bond.  The  brightness  of  his 
genius,  and  his  great  affection  for  learning,  very  early  dis* 
covered  themselves,  by  his  eagerly  reading  all  the  English 
books  which  came  to  his  hands.  This  propensity  for  study 
was  encouraged  by  his  generous  benefactor,  who,  when  he 
had  attained  the  elements  of  the  learned  languages,  sent 
him,  about  1530,  to  St  John's  college  in  Cambridge,  at 
that  timie  one  of  the  most  flourishing  in  the  university.   . 

"  Ascham  entered  Cambridge,"  says  Dr.  Johnson,  *'  at 
a  time  when  the  last  great  revolution  of  the  intellectual 
world  was  filling  every  academical  mind  with  ardour  or 
anxiety.  The  destruction  of  the  Constantinopolitan  em- 
pire had  driven  the  Greeks,  with  tlieir  language,  into  the 
interior  parts  of  Europe,  the  art  of  printing  had  made  the 
books  easily  attainable,  and  Greek  now  began  to  be  taught 
in  England.  "^Tbe  doctrines  of  Luther  had  already  filled 
all  the  nations  of  the  Romish  communion  with  controversy 
and  dissention.  New  studies  of  literature,  and  new  tenets 
of  religion,  found  employment  for  all  who  were  desirous  of 
truth,  or  ambitious  of  fame.  Learning  was,  at  that  time, 
prosecuted  with  that  eagerness  and  perseverance,  which, 
in  this  age  of  indifference  and  dissipation,  it  is  not  easy  to 
conceive.  To  teach  or  to  learn,  was  at  once  the  business 
and  the  pleasure  of  academical  life ;  and  an  emulation  of 

I  Biog«  Unirerselle.— Diet,  pistoriqoe. 

.A  S  C  H  A  M.  29 

study  was' raised  by  Cheke  and  Smith,  to  which  even  the 
present  age,  perhaps,  owes  many  advantages,  without  re-* 
membering  or  knowing  its  benefactors.** 

The  master  of  St.  John*s  college  at  this  time,  Nicholas 
Medcalf,  was  a  great  encourager  of  learning,  and  his  tutor, 
Mr.  Hugh  Fitzherbert,  had  not  only  much  knowledge,  but 
also  a  graceful  and  insinuating  method  of  imparting  it  to  bis 
pupils.    To  a  genius  naturally  prone  to  learning,  Mr.  Ascham 
added  a  spirit  of  emulation,  which  induced  him  to  study  so 
bard,  that,  while  a  mere  boy,  he  made  a  great  progress  in  po- 
lite learning,  and  became  exceedingly  distinguished  amongst 
the  most  eminent  wits  in  the  university.     He  took  his  de- 
gree of  B.  A.  on  the  twenty-eighth  of  February,  1534, 
when  eighteen  years  of  age ;    and  on  the  twenty -third  of 
March  following,  was  elected  fellow  of  his  college  by  the 
interest  of  the  master,  though  Mr.  Ascham's  propensity  to 
the  reformed  religion  had  made  it  difficult  for  Dr.  Medcaif, 
who,  according  to  Ascham^s  account,  was  a  man  of  uncom- 
mon liberality,  to  carry  his  good  intention  into  act.    These 
honours  served  only  to  excite  him  to  still  greater  vigilance 
in  his  studies,  particularly  in  that  of  the  Greek  tongue, 
wherein  he  attained  an  excellency  peculiar  to  himself,  and 
read  therein,  both  publicly  for  the  university,  and  privately 
in  his  college,  with  universal  applause.    At  the  commence- 
ment held  after  the  feast  of  St.  Peter  and  St.  Paul,  in 
1536,  he  was  inaugurated  M.  A.  being  then  twenty-one 
years  old.     By  this  time  many  of  his  pupils  came  to  be 
taken  notice  of  for  their  extraordinary  proficiency,  and 
William  Grindall,  one  of  them,  at  the  recommendation  of 
Mr.  Ascham,  was  chosen  by  sir  John  Cheke,  to  be  tutor  to 
the  lady  Elizabeth.     As  he  did  not  accept  this  honour 
himself,  he  probably  was  delighted  with  an  academical  life, 
and  was  not  very  desirous  of  changing  it  for  one  at  court. 
His  affection  for  his  friends,  though  it  filled  him  with  a 
deep  concern  for  their  interests,  and  a  tender  regard  for 
their  persons,  yet  could  not  induce  him  to  give  up  his 
understanding,  especially  in  points  of  learning.     For  this 
reason  he  did  not  assent  to  the  new  pronunciation  of  the 
Greek,  which  his  intimate  friend,   sir  John  Cheke,  la« 
boured^  by  his  authority,  to  introduce  throughout   the 
univiersity;    yet  when  he  had  thoroughly  examined,   he 
eame  over  to  his  opinion,  and  defended  the  new  pronun* 
ciation  with  that  zeal*  and  vivacity  which  gave  a  peculiar 
liveliness  to  all  his  writings.    In  July  1 542,  he  supplicated 

so  A  S  C  H  A  M. 

the  university  of  Oxford  to  he  incorporated  M.  A.  but  it  i« 
doubtful  whether  this  was  granted.     To  divert  him  after 
the  fatigue  of  severer  studies,  he  addicted  himself  to  arcb^ 
ery,  which  innocent  amusement  drew  upon  him  the  censure 
of  some  persons,  against  whose  opinion  he  wrote  a  small 
treatise,  entitled  ^' Toxophilus,"  published  in  1544,  ahd 
dedicated  to  king  Henry  VIII.  then  about  to  undertake  his 
expedition  against  Boulogne.    This  work  was  yery  kindly 
received ;'  and  the  king,  at  the  recommendation  of  sir  Wil-* 
liam  Paget,  was  pleased  to  settle  a  pension  of  ten  pounds 
(now  probably  in  value  one  hundred)  upon  him,  which^ 
after  that  prince's  death,  was  for  some  time  discontinued^ 
but  at  length  restored  to  him,  during  pleasure,  by  Edward 
VI.  and   confirmed  by  queen  Mary,   with  an  additional 
ten  pounds  per  annum.    Among  other  accomplishments  he 
.was  remarkable  for  writing  a  very  fine  hand,  and  taught 
that  art  to  prince  Edward,  the  lady  Elizabeth,  the  two 
brothers  Henry  and  Charles,  diikes  of  Suffolk,  and  several 
other  persons  of  distinction,  and  for  many  years  wrote  all 
the  letters  of  the  university  to  the  king,  and  to  the  great 
men  ai  court.     The  same  year  that  he  published  his  book 
he  was  cho^n  university-orator,  in  the  room  of  Mr.  John 
Cbeke,  arl  office  which  gratified  his  passion  for  an  acade* 
mical  life,  and  afforded  him  frequent  opportunities  of  dis« 
playing  his  superior  eloquence  in  the  Latin  and  Greek 
tongues.     In  1^148,  on  the  death  of  his  pupil,  Mr.  Grindal, 
he  was  sent  for  to  court,  in  order  to  instruct  the  lady  Eli* 
zabeth  in  the  knowledge  of  the  learned  languages,  which 
duty  he  discharged  for  two  years,  with  great  reputation  to 
himself,  and  with  much  satisfaction  to  his  illustrious  pupil. 
For  some  time  he  enjoyed  as  great  comfort  at  court  as  he 
had  done  at  college ;  but  at  length,  on  account  of  some  ill- 
judged  and  ill-founded  whispers,  Mr.Ascham  took  such  a 
'  distaste  at  some  in  the  lady  Elizabeth's  family,  that  he  lefk 
her  a  little  abruptly,  which  he  afterwards  heartily  repented^ 
and  took  great  and  not  unsuccessful  pains,  to  be  restored 
to  her  good  graces.     On  his  returning  to  the  university,  he 
resumed   his  studies,  and  the  discharge  of  his  office  of 
public  orator,  his  circumstances  being  at  this  time  tolerably 
easy,  by  considerable  assistance  from  lovers  of  learnings 
and  a  small  pension  allowed  him  by  king  Edward,  and  an- 
other by  archbishop  Lee.     In  the  summer  of  1 550,  he  went 
into  Yorkshire  to  visit  his  family  and  relations,  but  was  re- 
called to  court  in  order  to  atteiid  sif  Richard  Morysine^ 

A  S  C  H  A  M.  31 

then  going  ambassador  to  the  emperor  Charles  V.  ^  I^his^ 
journey  to  London  he  visited  the  lady  Jane  Gray,  at  her 
father's  house  at  Broadgate  in  Leicestershire,  with  whoia 
he  had  been  well  acquainted  at  court,  and  for  whom  he 
had  already  a  very  liigh  esteem.     In  September  following^ 
he  embarked  with  sir  R.  Morysine  for  Germany,  where  he 
remained  three  years,  during  which  he  left  nothing  omitted 
which  might  serve  to  perfect  his  knowledge  of  men  as  weli 
as  books.     As  he  travelled  with  an  ambassador,  he  thought 
it  became  him  to  make  politics  some  part  of  his  study,  and 
how  well  he  succeeded  appears  from  a  short  but  very  curi^ 
ous  tract  which  he  wrote,  concerning  Germany,  and  of  the 
affairs  of  Charles  Y.     He  was  also  of  great  use  to  the  am«* 
bassador,  not  only  in  the  management  of  his  public  con* 
cerns,  but  as  the  companion  of  his  private  studies,  which 
were  for  the  most  part  in  the  Greek  language.     He  read. 
Herodotus,  Sophocles,  Euripides,  and  Demosthenes,  three 
days  in  a  week;  the  other  three  he  copied  the  letters  which 
the  ambassador  sent  to  England.     While  thus  employed, 
his  friends  in  England,  particularly  sir  WilliaQi  Cecil,  pro* 
cured  for  him  the  post  of  Latin  secretary  to  king  Edward. 
But 'this  he  did  not  enjoy  long,  being  recalled  on  account  of 
the  king's  death,  on  which  occasion  he  lost  all  bis  places,  to-* 
gether  with  his  pension,  and  all  expectation  of  obtaining 
any  farther  favours  at  court     In  .this  situation  he  was  at 
first  hopeless,  and  retired  to  the  university  to  indulge  his 
melancholy.     But  the  prospect  quickly  became  more  pro- 
mising.     His  friend  the  lord  Paget  mentioned  him  to 
Stephen  Gardiner  bishop  of  Winchester,  lord  highxhancel- 
lor,  who  very  frankly  received  him  into  his  favour,  notwith- 
standing Mr.  Ascham  remained  firm  to  his  religion,  which 
was  so  far  from  being  a  secret  to  the  bishop,  that  he  had 
many  malicious  informations  given  him  on  that  head,  which 
he  treated  with  contempt,  and  abated  nothing  in  his  friend* 
ship  to  our  author.     He  first  procured  him  the  re-estab- 
lishment of  his  pension,  which  consisted  of  but  ten  poundil 
a  year,  with  the  addition  of  ten  pounds  a  year  more ;  he 
then  fixed  him  in  the  post  of  Latin  secretary  to  the  king  and 
queen,  and,  by  her  majesty's  interest  and  his  own,  kept 
him  in  the  fellowship  of  St.  John's,  and  in  his  place  of 
orator   to   the    university,   to  Midsummer   1554*.      Soon 
after  bis  admission  to  his  new  employment,  he  gave  an 
extraordinary  specimen  of  his  abilities  and  diligence,   by 
cooo^sing  and  transcribing,  with  his  usual  eleganc^^  in^ 

S2  A  S  C  H  A  M. 

three  da3'S,  forty-seven  letters  to  princes  and  persdif'* 
agesy  of  whom  cardinals  were  the  lowest.  He  was  like- 
wise patronised  by  cardinal  Pole,  who,  though  he  wrote 
elegant  Latin,  yet  sometimes  made  use  of  Mr.  Ascham's 
pen^  particularly  in  translating  his  speech  to  the  parlia- 
ment, which  he  made  as  the  pope^s  legate,  and  of  which 
translation  he  sent  a  copy  to  the  pope.  On  the  first  of 
June  1554^  Ascham  married  Mrs.  Margaret  Howe,  a  lady  of 
at  good  family,  with  whom  he  had  a  very.considerabhe  for* 
time,  and  of  whom  he  gives  an  excellent  character,  in  one 
of  bis  letters  to  his  friend  Sturmius.  His  favour  with 
<|ueen  Mary^s  ministers  was  not  less  than  what  he  enjoyed 
from  the  queen  herself,  who  conversed  with  him  often,  and 
was  much  pleased  with  his  company.  On  her  deaths  hav^ 
ing  been  previously  reconciled  to  the  jady  Elizabeth,  he 
was  immediately  distinguished  by  her,  now  queen,  and 
from  this  time  until  his  death  he  was  constantly  at  court,  very 
fully  .employed  in  the  discharge  of  his  two  great  ofBces^ 
the  one  of  secretary  for  the  Latin  tongue,  and  the  other 
of  tutor  to  her  majesty  in  the  learned  languages,  reading 
some  hours  with  her  every  day.  This  interest  at  court 
would  have  procured  a  man  of  a  more  active  temper  many 
considerable  advantages;  but  such  was  either  Ascham's 
indolence,  oi;  disinterestedness,  that  he  never  asked  any 
things  eitJier  for  himself  or  his  family,  though  he  received 
feveral  favours  unsolicited,  particularly  the  prebend  of 
Westwang  in  the  church  of  York,  in  1559,  which  he  held 
to  his  death.  Yet  however  indifferent  to  his  own  affairs, 
'  he  was  very  far  from  being  negligent  in  those  of  his  friends, 
for  whom  he  wiLs  ready  to  do  any  good  office  in  his  power, 
and  in  nothing  readier  than  in  parting  with  his  money, 
though  he  never  had  much  to  spare.  He  always  associated 
with  the  greatest  men  of  the  court,  and  having  once  in  con- 
Tersation  heard  the  best  method  of  educating  youth  de* 
bated  with  some  heat,  he  from  thence  took  occasion,  at  the 
ifequest  of  sir  Richard  Sackville,  to  write  his  '<  ScbooU 
master,^'  which  he  lived  to  finish,  but  not  to  publish.  Hi» 
application  to  study  rendered  him  infirm  throughout  hi9 
whole  life,  and  at  last  he  became  so  weak,  that  he  was  un- 
able to  read  in  the  evenings  or  at  night;  to  ma^e  anaiends 
for  which,  he  rose  very  early  in  the  morning.  The  year 
before  his  death  he  was  seized  with  a  hectic,  which  brought 
him  very  low ;  and  then,  contrary  to  his  former  custom, 
relapsing  into  nigbt-studies,  in  order  to  complete  a  Latinr 

A  S  0  H  A  M.  83 

pryetik  with  which  he  designed  to  present  the  queeii  oh  the 
new  year,  he,  on  the  23d  of  December  1563,  was  attacked 
by  an  aguish  distemper,  which  threatened  him  with  imme-^ 
diate  death.     He  was  visited  in  bis  last  sickness  by  Dr. 
Alexander  Nowell,  dean  of  St.  Paul's,  and  Graves^  vicar 
of  St.   Sepulchre's,  who  found   him  perfectly  calm  and 
cbearful,  in  which  disposition  he  continued  to  the  30th  pf 
the  same  month,  when  he  expired.     On  the  4th  of  January 
following,  he  was  interred  according  to  his  own  directions, 
in  the  most  private  manner,  in  St.  Sepulchre's  church,  his 
funeral  sermon  being  preached  by  the  before-mentioned 
Dr.  Nowell.     He  was  universally  lamented,  and  even  the 
queen  herself  not  only  shewed  great  concern,  but  was  also 
pleased  to  say,  that  she  had  rather  have  lost  ten  thousand 
pounds  than  her  tutor  Ascham.     His  only  failing  was  too 
great  a  propensity  to  dice  -and  cock-fighting,  which  the 
learned  bishop  Nicolson  would  persuade  us  to  be  an  un- 
founded calumny;  but  as  it  is  mentioned  by  Camden,  ad 
well  as  some  other  contemporary  writers,  it  seems  impos- 
sible to  deny  it.     It  is  certain -that  he  died  in -very  iudifFer- 
ent  circumstances,  as  may  appear  from  the  address  jof  his 
widow  to  sir  William   Cecil,    in   her   dedication  of  his 
**  Schoolmaster,"   wherein   she  says  expressly,   that  Mr. 
.  Ascham  left  her  a  poor  widow  with  many  orphans ;  and  Dr. 
Grant,,  in 'his  dedication  of  Ascham's  letters  to  queen  £11^* 
zabeth^  pathetically  recommends  to  her  his  pupil,  Giles 
Ascham,  the  sou  of  our  author,  representing  that  be  had 
lost  his  father,  who  should  have  taken  care  of  his  educa^ 
tion,  and  that  he  was  left  poor  and  without  friends. ,  Besides 
.  this  son  he  had  two  others,  Dudley  and  Sturmur,  of  whom 
we  know  little.     Lord  Burleigh  took  Giles  Ascham  under 
his  protection,  by  whose  interest  he  was  recommended  to 
a  scholarship  of  St.  John's,  and  afterwards  by  the  queen's 
mandate,  to  a  fellowship  of  Trinity  college  in  Cambridge, 
and  was  celebrated,  as  well  as  his  father,  for  his  admirable 
Latin  style  in  epistolary  writings. 

"  Whether,"  says  Dr.  Johnson,^  "  Ascham  was  poor  by 
his  own  fault,  or  the  fault  of  others,  cannot  now  be  decided ; 
hut  it  is  certain  that  many  have  beeq  rich  with  less  merit. 
His  philological  learning  would  have  gained  him  honour  in 
anyvcountry;  and  among  us  it  may  justly  call  for  that  re- 
verence which  all  nations  owe  to  those  who  first  rooj»e 
them  from  ignorance,  and  kindle  among  them  the  light.  o£ 

Vol.  UL  D 

34  A  S  C  H  A  M. 

The  only  works  he  published  were,  1.  "Toxophilus; 
the  school  of  Shooting,  in  two  books,"  London,  4to,  1545, 
by  Whitchurch;  1571,  by  Thomas  Marsh^;  and  1589,  by 
JefFes.  It  has  already  been  noticed,  that  he  was  fond  of 
archery,  and  that  he  was  censured  for  a  practice  unsuitable 
to  a  man  professing  learning,  and  perhaps  of  bad  example 
in  a  place  of  education.  This  treatise  was  written  as  a  de- 
fence, but  his  design  was  not  only  to  recommend  the  art  of 
shooting,  but  to  give  an  example  of  diction  more  n&tural 
and  more  truly  English,  than  was  used  by  the  common 
writers  of  that  age,  whom  he  blames  for  mingling  exotic 
terms  with  their  iiative  language.  •  2.  "A  Report  and  Dis- 
course, written  by  Roger  Ascham,  of  the  affairs  and  state  of 
Germany,  and  the  emperor  Charles  his  court,  duryng  cer- 
tain yeares,  while  the  said  Roger  was  there.  At  London^ 
printed  by  John  Daye,  dwelling  over  Aldersgate.  Cum 
gratia  et^privilegio  regise  majestatis  per  decennium ;"  with- 
out a  date.  This  treatise  is  written  in  the  form  of  a  letter, 
addressed  to  John  Astley,  in  answer  to  one  of  his  which  is 
prefixed ;  he  was  a  domestic  of  the  lady  Elizabeth,  and  his 
letter  bears  date  the  19th  of  October  1552.  The  answer 
must  have  been  written  the  same  year,  since  there  is  no 
mention  therein  of  king  Edward^s  death,  which  happened 
the  year  following.  In  this  work  he  describes  the  disposi- 
tions and  interests  of  the  German  princes,  like  a  man  in- 
quisitive and  judicious,  and  recounts  many  particularities 
%vhich  are  lost  in  the  mass  of  general  history,  in  a  style 
which,  to  the  ears  of  that  age,  was  undoubtedly  mellifluous, 
and  which  is  now  a  very  valuable  specimen  of  genuine 
English.  After  his  death  were  printed,  3.  "  The  School- 
master; or,  a  plain  and  perfite  way  of  teaching  children  to 
understand,  write,  and  speak  the  Latin  tongue;  but  espe- 
cially purposed  for  the  private  bringing  up  of  youth  in 
gentlemen  and  noblemen's  houses;  and  commodious  also 
for  all  such  as  have  forgot  the  Latin  tongue,  and  would  by 
themselves,  without  a  schole-master,  in  short  time,  and  with 
small  paines,  recover  a  sufficient  habilitie  to  understand, 
write,  and  speake  Latin,  by  Roger  Ascham,  ann.  1570,  At 
London,  printed  by  John  Daye,  dwelling  over  Aldersgate;" 
inscribed  by  Margaret  his  widow  to  sir  William  Cecil, 
principal  secretary  of  state.  The  design  originated,  as  we 
are  informed  in  the  preface,  in  a  conversation  on  educa- 
tion, which  took  place  at  secretary  Cecil's  apartments  in 
Windsor  castle,   during  the  plague  in  15^3..    This  work^ 

A  S  C  H  A  M.  85 

which  contains  the  best  advice  ever  given  for  the  study  of 
languages,  was  reprinted  by  Day,  1571  ;  by  JefFes,  1589; 
and  by  Upton,  1711.  4.  **  Apologia  doct.  viri  R.  A.  pro 
coena  Dominica  contra  Missum  et  ejus  prestigias  ;  in  aca« 
demia  olim  Cantabrigiensi  exercitationis  gratia  inchoata. 
Cui  accesserunt  themata  quaedam  Theologica,  debita  dis- 
pntandi  ratiotie  in  Coliegio  DrJoao.  pronunciata.  Exposi* 
tionis  item  antiquse  in  epistola  Divi  Pauli  ad  Titam  et 
Philemonem,  ex  diversis  sanctorum  Patrum  Greece  scriptis 
commentariis  ab  CEcumeitio  collects,  et  a  R.  A.  Latine 
versae.'*     Lond.  by  Coldock,  1577,  8vo,  pp.  296. 

Ascham's  epistles  were  published  by  Mr.  Grant,  master 
of  Westminster  school,  in  1576,  1577,  1578,  and  1590, 
London;  and  there  were  two  editions  at  Hanau,  1602, 
1610;  and  one  at  Nuremberg,  1611.  The  last  and  best 
edition  is  that  published  by  Mr.  Elstob,  Oxford,  1703,  who 
has  added  many  letters  not  in  the  former,  but  has  omitted 
Ascham's  poems.  The  elegance  of  these  letters  has  been 
universally  acknowledged,  and  the  life  prefixed  by  Grant 
is  the  foundation  of  all  we  know  of  him.  Many  particu* 
lars,  however,'  might  yet  be  gleaned  from  his  epistles. 
Aschanf  s  English  works  were  published  by  the  Rev.  James 
Bennet,  1767,  4to,  to  which  Dr.  Johnson  prefixed  a  life, 
written  in  his  happiest  manner,  and  since  added  to  bis 
works.  * 

ASCHARI,  or  ACHARI,  a  Mussulman  doctor,  and 
chief  of  the  Ascharians,  who  weie  the  opponents  of  the 
Hanbalites ;  the  latter  held  the  doctririe  of  particular  pro- 
Tidence,  while  the  Ascharians  maintained  tliat  the  supreme 
being  acts  by  general  laws.  They  also  held  absolute 
predestination.  Aschari  died  at  Bagdat,  in  the  year  940, 
and  was  privately  interred  to  prevent  his  body  from  being 
insulted  by  the  Hanbalites.  * 

ASCLEPIADES,  an  ancient  physician,  was  a  native 
of  Prusa,  in  Bitfaynia,  and  contemporary  with  Mithridates 
(about  the  year  110  B.  C),  to  whose  court  he  refused  to 
go,  when  invited  by  magnificent  promises.  He  first  went 
to  Rome,  to  teach  rhetoric;  but  not  finding  much  encou- 
ragement, he  began  to  practise  physic,  of  which  he  had 
little  knowledge,  and  to  conceal  his  ignorance,  affected  to 

»  Oen.  Diet.— Biog.  Brttannica.— Johnson's  Works, — Ohurton's  Life  of 
Kowell^ — ^Strype*8  Granmer,  p.  162-r-.170.  appendix,  p.  8^. — Strype's  Annals, 
▼ol.  I.  p.  337,  U.  p.  23,  29. — Strype»8  Memorials,  to?.  I.  p.  1 69.-^ Walton's 
Hist,  of  PoMry.— Lloyd's  SUte  Worthies.— Wood's  Ath.  Ox.  vol.  I, 

!  X>'Herbetok,--Moreri. 

D  2 


condemn  the  medicinea  and  modes  of  practice  then  in  usre. 
He  confined  himself  to  such  remedies  as  were  simple  and 
palatable,  and  soon  was  considered  as  a  favourite  prac- 
titioner. He  appears  from  Pliny's  account  to  have  beeq 
much  of  the  quack,  and  occasionally  sufficiently  bold  and 
adventurous  in  his  prescriptions.  He  desired,  among  other 
boasts,  that  he  might  not  be  considered  as  a  physician,  if 
ever  he  were  sick ;  and  his  reputation  perhaps  was  not 
lessened  in  this  respect,  by  his  being  killed  by  a  fall.  He 
wrote  several  books  quoted  by  Pliny,  Celsus,  and  Galen, 
but  fragments  only  remain,  of  which  an  edition  was  pub- 
lished by  Jumpert,  under  the  title  "  Malagmata  hydropica, 
&c."  Weimar,  1794,  8vo.  * 

ASCONIUS  (Pedianus),  an  ancient  grammarian  of 
Padua  ;  who,  it  is  generally  supposed,  was  acquainted 
with  Virgil.  Yet  Jerome  says,  that  he  flourished  under 
the  Vespasians,  which  is  rather  at  too  great  a  distance  for 
one  and  the  same  man  3  but  Jerome's  account  is  rejected 
by  more  recent  writers,  who  think  that  he  lived  under  the 
empire  of  Augustus,  and  died  under  that  of  Nero,,  aged 
eighty-five.  His  "^Enarrationes  in  Ciceronis  Orationes,'* 
.were  first  published  at  Venice,  in  1477,  which  is  a  very 
scarce  edition.  They  were  afterwards  published  at  Flo- 
rence, 8vo,  1513,  and  have  since  been  incorporated  in 
the  editions  of  Cicero,  by  Gruter,  Gronovius,  andOliveU 
He  had  also  written  a  life  of  Virgil,  and  another  of  Sallust, 
the  loss  of  which  may  be  regretted. ' 

ASELLI  (Gaspar),  a  physician  of  Cremona,  of  the  six- 
teenth century,  was  the  first  who  discovered  the  lacteal 
veins  in  the  mesentery,  while  he  was  dissecting  for  another 
purpose.     He  published  a  dissertation  "  De  lacteis  vents,'* 
wherein  his  discovery  is  displayed,  with  plates  in  three 
colours.     The  first  edition  of  this  curious  work  is  of  Mi- 
.]an,  1627  ;  but  it  was  afterwards  reprinted  at  Basle  in 
.1628,  4to,  and  at  Leyden,  1640.     The  author  professed 
.anatomy  at  Pavia,  .  about  1620^   with  great  success,  and 
died  there  in  1626.* 

ASGILL  (John),  an  ingenious  English  writer  and  law- 
yer, who  lived  about  th6  end  of  the  seventeenth,  and  be- 
,  ginning  of  the  eighteenth  century.     He  was  entered  of 

'  1  Oen.  Dict-^Biog.  UniTerwlle.->-^Ha1Ier  Bibl.  Mecl.— MangretBibl.  Script: 
.  Med.<~See  also  a  strange  and  inflated  Life  of  him>  published  at  Loodoii  in  I762f 
.  Svo.  said  to  be  from  the  Italian  of  Cocchi. 

*  Fabric.  Bibl.  Lat. — Mpreri.— Bjog.  Universclle. 

3  Alanget  Bibl.  Script.  Med. — Moreri.— Vaader  Lindeo  de  Script*  Med. 

A  S  G  I  L  L.  3t 

tbe  society  of  Lincoln's  inn,  and  having  been  recom- 
mended to  Mr.  Eyre,  a  very  great  lawyer,  and  one  of  the 
judges  of  the  king's  bench,  in  the  reign  of  king  William, 
this  gentleman  gave  him  assistance  in  his  studies.  Under 
so  able  a  master,  he  quickly  ac(][uired  a  competent  know-* 
ledge  of  the  laws,  and  was  soon  noticed  as  a  rising-  man  in 
his  profession.  He  bad  an  uncommon  vein  of  wit  and 
humour,  of  which  he  afforded  the  world  sufficient  evidence 
in  two  pamphlets  ;  one  intituled,  **  Several  assertions 
proved,  in  order  to  create  another  species  of  money  than 
gold  and  silver ;"  the  second,  *'  An  essay  on  a  registry 
for  titles  of  lands."  Tbis  last  is  written  in  a  very  hu- 
morous style. 

In  the  year  1698,  Mr.  Asgill  published  a  treatise  on  the 
possibility  of  avoiding  death,  intitled  "  An  argument^ 
proving  that,  according  to  the  covenant  of  eternal  life, 
revealed  in  the  scriptures,  man  may  be  translated  from 
hence  into  that  eternal  life  without  passing  through  death, 
although  the  human  nature  of  Christ  himself  could  not 
thus  be  translated  till  he  had  passed  through  death,"  printed 
originally  in  1700,  and  reprinted  several  years  since. 
This  raised  a  considerable  clamour,  and  Dr.  Sacheverell 
mentioned  it  among  other  blasphemous  writings,  which 
induced  him  to  think  the  church  in  danger.  In  1699,  an 
act  being  passed  for  resuming  forfeited  estates  in  Ireland, 
commissioners  were  appointed  to  settle  claims ;  and  Mr* 
Asgill  being  at  this  time  somewhat  embarrassed  in  his  cir* 
cumstances,  resolved  to  go  over  to  Ireland*  On  his  ar- 
rival there,  the  favouir  of  the  commissioners,  and  his  own 
merit,  procured  him  great  practice,  the  whole  nation  almost 
being  then  engaged  in  iaw-suits,  ^.nd  among  these  there 
were  fejv  considerable,  in  which  Mr.  Asgill  was  not  re- 
tained gn  one  side  or  other,  so  that  in  a  very  short  space 
of  time  he  acquired  a  considerable  fortune.  He  puri> 
chased  a  large  estate  in  Ireland ;  and  the  influence  this 
purchase  gave  him,  occasioned  his  being  elected  a  member 
of  the  House  of  Commons  in  that  kingdom.  He  was  in 
Munster  when  the  session  began ;  and,  before  he  could 
reach  Dublin,  he  was  informed,  that,  upon  a  complaint, 
the  House  had  voted  the  last-mentioned  book  of  bis  to  be 
a  blasphemous  libel,  and  had  ordered  it  to  be  burnt ;  howr 
ever,  betook  his  seat  in  the, house,  where  he  sat  oqly 
four  days,  l?efore  he  was  e^pejled  for  this  performance, 

38  ^  A  S  G  I  L  L. 

and  being  about  the  same  time  involved  in  a  number  of 
law-suits,  his  affairs  soon  grew  much  embarrassed  in  Ire- 
land, so  that  he  resolved  to  return  to  England,  where,  in 
1705,  he  was  chosen  member  for  the  borough  of  Braniber, 
in  the  county  of  Sussex,  and  sat  for  several  years  ;  but  in 
the  interval  of  privilege  in  1707,  being  taken  in  execution 
at  the  suit  of  Mr.  Holland,  he  was  committed  to  the  Fleet. 
The  houses  meeting  in  November,  Mr.  Asgill  applied  ; 
and  on  the  16  th  of  December  was  demanded  out  of  cus- 
tody by  a  seijeant  at  arms  with  the  mace,  and  the  next 
day  took  his  seat  in  the  house.  Between  his  application 
and  his  discharge,  complaint  was  made  to  the  house  of 
the  treatise  for  which  he  had  been  expelled  in  Ireland, 
and  a  committee  was  appointed  to  examine  it :  of  this 
committee,  Edward  Harley,  esq.  was  chairman,  who  made 
a  report,  that  the  book  contained  several  blasphemous  ex- 
pressions, and  seemed  to  be  intended  to  ridicule  the  scrip- 
tures. Thursday,  the  18th  of  September  1707,  was  ap- 
pointed for  him  to  make  his  defence,  which  he  did  with 
considerable  spirit,  but  as  he  still  continued  to  main- 
tain the  assertions  he  had  laid  down  in  that  treatise, 
he  was  expelled.  From  this  time,  Mr.  Asgiirs  affairs 
grew  more  desperate,  and  he  was  obliged  to  retire,  first 
to  the  Mint,  and  then  became  a  prisoner  in  the  King's 
Bench,  but  removed  himself  thence  to  the  Fleet,  and  in 
the  rules  of  one  or  other  of  these  prisons  continued 
thirty  years,  during  which  time  he  published  a  multitude  of 
small  political  tracts,  most  of  which  were  well  received* 
He  also  drew  bills  and  answers,  and  did  other  business  iq 
his  profession  till  his  death,  which  happened  some  time  in 
November  1738,  when  he  was  upwards  of  fourscore,  or, 
as  some  thought,  upwards  of  an  hundred  years  of  age. 
The  mo^t  considerable  of  his  works  are.  K  ^^^e  jure 
divino;  or,  an  assertion,  that  the  title  of  the  house  of 
HanoVer  to  the  succession  of  the  British  monarchy  (oq 
failure  of  issue  of  her  present  majesty),  is  a  title  here- 
ditary, and  of  divine  institution,'*  17 10^  8vo.  2.  His 
*^  Defence  on  his  Expulsion  ;  to  which  is  added,  an  Intro* 
duction  and  Postscript,''  1712,  8vo.  Of  the  first  pamphlet 
there  were  several  editions ;  and,  not  long  after  it  was 
published,  he  sent  abroad  another  treatise,  under  the  title 
pf  ^^  Mr.  Asgill's  Apology  for  an  omission  in  his  late  pub- 
Uc^tioD^  ill  which  s^e  contained  suipmaries  of  all  the  acts 

A  S  G  I  L  L.  39 

made  for  strengthening  the  protestant  succession.''  3.  "  The 
Pretender's  declaration  abstracted  from  two  anonymous 
pamphlets,  the  one  entitled  Jus  sacrum  ;  the  other.  Me- 
moirs of  the  chevalier  de  St.  George ;  with  memoirs  of  two 
other  chevaliers  in  the  reign  of  Henry  VII."  1713,  8vO. 
4.  "  The  succession  of  the  house  of  Hanover  vindicated, 
against  the  Pretender's  second  declaration,  in  folio,  en- 
titled. The  hereditary  right  of  the  crown  of  England  asr 
serted,  &c."  1714,  8vo.  This  was  in  answer  to  Mr.  Bedford's 
£^mous  book.  5.  "  The  Pretender's  declaration  from 
Plombiers,  1714,  Englished;  with  a  postscript  before  it; 
in  relation  to  Dr.  Lesley's  letter  sent  after  it,"  1715,  8vo, 
Besides  these,  he  wrote  an  "  Essay  for  the  Press,"  the  "  Me- 
tamorphoses of  Man,"  "A  question  upon  Divorce,"  1717, 
"  A  treatise  against  Woolston,*^  and  several  other  pieces. ' 

ASH  (John),  LL.  D.  a  dissenting  minister  at  Pershore, 
in  Worcestershire,  of  whom  we  hav^  not  been  able  to  re- 
cover any  particulars,  was  the  author  of  some  useful  works. 
The  first  was  *^  The  easiest  introduction  to  Dr.  Lowth's 
English  Grammar,"  12mo,  1766.  His  next,  **  A  new 
and  complete  Dictionary  of  .the  English  Language,"  2  vols. 
8vo,  1773;  the  plan  of  which  was  extensive  beyond  any 
thing  of  the  kind  ever  attempted,  and  perha^  embraced 
much  more  than  was  necessary  or  useful.  It  is  valuable, 
however,  as  containing  a  very  large  proportion  of  obsolete 
words,  and  such  provincial  or  cant  words  as  have  crept 
into  general  use.  In  1777,  he  published  ^*  .Sentiments 
on  Education,  collected  from  die  best  writers,  properly 
methodized,  and  interspersed  with  occasional  observa-' 
tions,"  2  vols.  12mo.  In  this  there  are  few  original  re- 
marks, but  those  few  shew  an  acquaintance  with  the  best 
principles  of  tirtuous  and  useful  education,  in  which,  we 
have  been  informed,  the  author  employed  some  part  of 
his  time.  Dr.  Ash  died  in  the  55th  year  of  his  age,  at 
Pershore,  March  1779.* 

ASHBY  (George),  an  English  divine  and  antiquary, 
was  born  Dec.  5,  1724,  in  Red  Lion  street,  Olerkenwell, 
and  educated  at  Croydon,  Westminster,  and  Eton  schools. 
In  October  1740,  he  was  admitted  of  St.  John's  college, 
Cambridge,  and  took  his  degrees,  B.  A.  1744,  M.  A.  1748, 
B.D.  1756.  He  was  presented  by  a  relation  to  the  rectory 
of  Hungerton,  and  in   1759  to  that  of  Twyford,  both  in 

1  Biog.  Brit.  *  Gent,  and  London  Mag.  1*779. 


iQ  A  S  H  B  Y. 

ILeicestershire,  but  resigned  tlie  former  in  1767,  and  the 
latter  in  1769.  In  1774  he  was  elected  F.  S.  A.  and  the 
same  year  Accepted  the  college  rectory  of  Barrow,  in  Suft 
folk,  where  he  constantly  resided  for  thirty-four  years. 
In  Oct.  1780^  he  was  inducted  into  the  living  of  Stansfi^ld, 
in  Suffolk,  owing  to  the  favour  of  Dr.  Ross,  bishop  of 
Exeter,  who,  entirely  unsolicited,  gave  him  ^  valuablei 
portion  of  the  vicarage  of  Bampton,  in  Oxfordshire  ;  but 
this  being  out  of  distance  from  his  cpliege  living,  he  pro^ 
cured  an  exchange  of  it  for  Stansfield.  Dr.  Ross's  faendr 
ship  for  him  began  early  in  college,  and  continued  uni-r 
formly  steady  through  all  changes  of  place  and  situation^ 
In  1793,  he  gradually  lost  his  sight,  but  retained,  amidst 
so  severe  a  privation  to  a  man  of  literary  research,  his  ac-j 
customed  chearfulness.  In  his  latter  days  he  had  repeated 
paralytic  attacks,  of  one  of  which  he  died,  June  12,  1808^ 
in  the  eighty-fourth  year  of  his  age.  Mr.  Ashby  published 
nothing  himself,  but  was  an  able  and  obliging  contributor 
to  many  literary  undertakings.  In  the  Archaeologia,  vol. 
III.  is  a  dissertation,  from  his  pen,  on  a  singular  coin  of 
Nerva,  found  at  Colchester.  The  Historian  of  Leicester- 
shire has  repeatedly  acknowledged  his  obligations  to  Mr, 
Ashby,  particularly  for  his  dissertation  on  the  Leicester 
milliary.  His  services  have  been  also  amply  acknowledged 
by  Mr.  Nichols  for  assistance  in  the  life  of  Bowyer ;  by 
Mr.  Harmer,  in  the  preface  to  bis  **  Observations  on  Scrip- 
ture"; and  by  Daines  Barringtpn,  in  his  work  on  the 
Statutes,  p.  212  ;  but  both  the  last  without  mentioning  hisf 
name.  The  late  bishop  Percy,  Mr.  Granger,  and  Mr, 
Gough,  have  acknowledged  his  contributions  more 
pointedly.  His  valuable  library  and  manuscripts  were 
sold  by  Mr.  Peck,  bookseller  at  Bury,  by  a  priced  ca- 
talogue. * 

ASHE  (Simkon),  a  Puritan  ipinister,  first  settled  ii^ 
Staffordshire,  where  he  became  known  to  Hildersham, 
pod,  Ball,  Langley,  and  other  non-conformists  of  that 
time,  was  educated  at  Emanuel  college,  Cambridge, 
under  Dn  Stooker.  He  exercised  his  ministry  in  London 
twenty-three  years.  In  the  time  of  the  civil  wars,  he  was 
chaplain  to  the  earl  of  Warwick.  As  he  was  a  man  of 
fortune  and  character,  his  influence  was  great  among  the 

1  Nichols's  Life  of  Bowyef,  vol.  I.— Gent,  Mag.  vol.  LXIIl.  p.  9.77;  and  yol, 
LXXVIII.  566,  653.-rGraDgcr's  Letters. 

ASHE.  41 

presbytcrians.  He  was  some  time  chaplain  to  the  earj  of 
Manchester^  and  fell  under  the  displeasure  of  Cromwell's 
party,  whom  he  had  disobliged  by  his  violent  opposition 
to  the  engagement.  He  had  a  very  considerable  hand  in 
restoring  Charles  H.  and  went  to  congratulate  his  majesty 
at  Breda.  Dr.  Calamy  speaks  of  him  as  a  man  of  real 
sanctity,  and  a  non- conformist  of  the  old  stamp.  He 
died  in  1662,  and  was  buried  the  eve  of  Bartholomew  day. 
Dr.  Walker  censures  him  for  his  zeal  against  the  characters 
of  th^  clergy  in  general,  in  which  he  shares  with  many  of 
his  brethren.  He  published  several  sermons  preached 
before  the  parliament,  or  the  miagistrates,  on  public  occa- 
sions, ^nd  funeral  sermons  for  Jeremy  Whitaker,  Ralph 
Robinson,  Robert  Strange,  Thomas  Gataker,  Richard 
Vines,  and  the  countess  of  Manchester,  a  treatise  on  **  the 
power  of  Godliness,"  and  prefaces  to  the  works  of  John 
Ball,  and  others.  ^ 

ASHLEY  (Robert),  a  Wiltshire  gentleman,  descended 
irom  the  family  of  that  name  residing  at  Nashhill  in  that 
county,  was  born  in  1565,  and  admitted  a  gentleman  com- 
moner of  Hart  hall  in  Oxford,  in  i580.  From  the  uni- 
versity he  removed  to  the  Middle  Temple,*  where  he  was 
called  to  the  dignity  of  barrister  at  law.  After  some  time 
he  travelled  into  Holland,  France,  &c.  conversing  with  the 
learned,  and  frequenting  the  public  libraries.  '  Being  re- 
turned iiito  England,  he  lived  many  years  in  the  Middle 
Temple,  and  honoured  the  commonwealth  of  learning  with 
several  of  his  lucubrations.  He  died  in  a  good  old  age,  the 
beginning  of  October  1641,  and  was  buried  in  the  Temple 
church  the  4th  of  the  same  month.  He  gave  several  books 
to  that  society.  His  principal  works  were,  1.  "  A  Rela- 
tion of  the  kingdom  of  Cochin  China,"  Lond.  1633,  4to, 
which  is  chiefly  taken  from  an  Italian  work  of  Christopher 
Barri.  2.  A  Translation  from  French  into  Latin  verse  of 
Du  Bartas's  "  Urania,  or  heavenly  muse,"  London,  1589, 
4to.  3.  A  Translation  from  Spanish  into  English  of  **  A1-. 
manzor,  the  learned  and  victorious  king  that  conquered 
Spain,  his  life  and  death,"  London,  1627,  4to.  4.  A 
Translation  from  Italian  into  English  of  "  II  Davide  per- 
seguitate,"  i.  e.  David  persecuted,  London,  1637,  written 
originally  by  the  marquis  Virgilio  Malvezzi.  Wood  tells 
yis,  that  part  of  the  impression  of  this  book  had  a  new  title 

}  CftUmy.— Walker'!  Suff<?riB^3  of  the  Clergy,  Part  I,  p.  48, 113,  114,  117. 

42  ASHLEY. 

put  to  it,  bearing  date  1650,  with  the  picture  before  it  of 
Charles  L  playing  on  a  harp,  like  king  David,  purposely  to 
carry  off  the  remaining  copies.  * 

ASHMOlyE  (EuAS),  an  eminent  philosopher,  chemist^ 
and  antiquary,  of  the  seventeenth  century,  and  founder 
of  the  noble  museum  at  Oxford,  which  still  bears  his  name, 
was  the  only  son  of  Mr.  Simon  Ashmole,  of  the  city  of 
Litchfield,  in  Staffordshire,  sadler,  by  Anne,  the  daughter  of 
Mr.  Antl;^ony  Boyer,  of  Coventry,  in  Warwickshire,  wool- 
len-draper. He  was  born  May  23,  1617,  and  during  his 
early  education  in  grammar,  was  taught  music,  in  which 
he  made  such  proficiency  as  to  become  a  chorister  iu  the 
cathedral  at  Litchfield.  When  he  had  attained  the  age  of 
sixteen  he  was  taken  into  the  family  of  James  Paget,  esq. 
a  baron  of  the  exchequer,  who  had  married  his  mother's 
sister,  and  as  his  father  died  in  1634,  leaving  little  pro- 
vision for  him,  he  continued  for  some  years  in  the  Paget 
family,  during  which  time  he  made  considerable  progress 
in  the  law,  and  spent  hb  leisure  hours  in  perfecting  him- 
self in  music  and  other  polite  accomplishments.  In  March 
1633,  he  married  Eleanor,  daughter  of  Mr.  Peter  Man- 
waring,  of  Smallwood,  in  the  county  Palatine  of  Chester, 
and  in  Michaelmas  term  the  same  year,  became  a  solicitor 
in  Chancery.  On  February  11,  1641,  he  v^as  sworn  an 
attorney  of  the  court  of  common  pleas,  and  on  December 
5th,  in  the  same  year,  his  wife  died  suddenly,  of  whom 
he  has  left  us  a  very  natural  and  affectionate  memoriaL 
The  rebellion  coming  on,  he  retired  from  London,  being 
always  a  zealous  and  steady  loyalist,  and  on  May  9,  164i5, 
became  one  of  the  gentlemen  of  the  ordnance  in  the  gar- 
rison at  Oxford,  whence  he  removed  to  Worcester,  where 
he  was  commissioner,  receiver,  and  register  of  the  excise, 
and  soon  after  captain  in  the  lord  Ashley's  regiment,  and 
comptroller  of  tlie  ordnance.  In  the  midst  of  all  this  bu- 
siness he  entered  himself  of  Brazen-Nose  college,  in  Ox- 
ford, and  applied  himself  vigorously  to  the  sciences,  but 
especially  natural  philosophy,  mathematics,  and  astronomy; 
and  his  intimate  acquaintance  with  Mr.  (afterwards  sir 
George)  Wharton,  seduced  him  into  the  absurd  mysteries 
of  astrology,  which  was  in  those  days  in  great  credit.  In 
the  month  ^f  July,  1646,  he  lost  his  mother,  who  had 
always  been  a  kind  parent  to  him,  and  for  whom  he  had  a 

]  Bioj.  Brit,— Wood's  Athcn»,  vol.  Ih 

A  S  H  M  O  L  E.  43 

Tcry  pious  regard.  On  October  16th,  the  same  year,  he 
was  elected  a  brother  of  the  ancient  and  honourable  society 
of  Free  and  Accepted  Masons,  which  he  looked  upon  as  a 
high  honour,  and  has  therefore  given  us  a.particula^r  ac^ 
count  of  the  lodge  established  at  Warrington  in  Lan- 
cashire; and  in  some  of  his  manuscripts,  there  are  very 
valuable  collections  relating  to  the  history  of  the  free 
masons.  The  king's  affairs  being  now  grown  desperate, 
Mr.  Ashmole  withdrew  himself,  after  the  surrender  of  the 
garrison  of  Worcester,  into  Cheshire,  where  he  continued 
till  the  end  of  October,  and  then  came  up  to  London, 
where  he  became  acquainted  with  Mr.  (afterwards  sir  Jonas) 
Moore,  William  Lilly,  and  John  Booker,  esteemed  the 
greatest  astrologers  in  the  world,  by  whom  he  was  ca- 
ressed, instructed,  and  deceived  into  their  frateniity,  which 
then  made  a  very  considerable  figure,  as  appeared  by  the 
great  resort  of  persons  of  distinction  to  their  annual  feast, 
of  which  Mr.  Ashmole  was  aftervvarUs  elected  steward.  In 
1647  he  retired  to  Englefield,  in  Berkshire,  where  he  pur-^ 
sued  his  studies  very  closely,  and  having  so  fair  an  op^ 
portunity,  and  the  advantage,  of  some  very  able  masters, 
he  cultivated  the  science  of  botany.  Here,  as  appears 
from  his  own  remarks,  he  enjoyed  in  privacy  the  sweetest 
moments  of  his  life,  the  sensation  of  which  perhaps  was 
quickened,  by  his  just  idea  of  the  melancholy  state  of  the 
times.  It  was  in  this  retreat  that  he  became  acquainted 
with  Mary,  sole  daughter  of  sir  William  Forster,  of  Alder- 
marston,  in  the  county  of  Berks,  bart.  who  was  first  niar- 
ried  to  sir  Edward  Stafford,  then  to  one  Mr.  IJamlyn,  and 
lastly  to  sir  Thomas  Mainwaring,  knt.  recorder  of  Reading, 
and  one  of  the  masters  in  chancery ;  and  an  attachment 
took  place ;  but  Mr.  Humphrey  Stafford,  her  second  Son, 
had  such  a  dislike  to  the  measure,  that  when  Mr.  Ashmole 
happened  to  be  very  ill,  he  broke  into  his  chamber,  and  if 
not  prevented,  would  have  murdered  him.  In  the  latter 
end  of  1648,  lady  Main  waring  conveyed  to  him  her  estate 
at  Bradfield,  which  was  soon  after  sequestered  on  account 
of  Mr.  Ashmole's  loyalty;  but  the  interest  he  had  with 
William  Lilly,  and  some  others  of  that  party,  enabled  him 
to  get  that  sequestration  taken  ofl'.  On  the  sixteenth  of 
November,  1649,  he  married  lady  Main  waring,  and  settled 
in  London,  where  his  house  became  the  receptacle  of  the 
most  learned  and  ingenious  persons  that  flourished  at  that 
time.     It  was  by  their  conversation,  that  Mr.  Ashmole, 

44  A  S  H  M  O  L  £. 

who  had  been  more  fortunate  in  worldly  af&irs  than  most- 
scholars  are^  and  who  had  been  always  a  curious  collector 
of  manuscripts,  was  induced  to  publish  a  treatise  written 
by  Dn  Arthur  Dee,  relating  to  the-  Philosopher's  stone^ 
together  with  another  tract  on  the  same  subject,  by  an  un- 
known author.  These  accordingly  appeared  in  the  year 
following;  but  Mr.  Ashmole  was  so  cautious,  or  rather 
modesty  as  to  publish  them  by  a  fictitious  name.  He  at 
tlie  same  time  addressed  himself  to  a  work  of  greater  con- 
sequence, a  complete  collection  of  the  works  of  such  Eng- 
lish chemists,  as  had  till  then  remained  in  MS.  which  cost 
him  a  great  deal  of  labour,  and  for  the  embellishment  of 
which  be  spared  no  expence,  causing  the  cuts  tliat  were 
necessary,  to  be  engraved  at  his  own  house  in,  Black-Friars, 
by  Mr.  Vaughan,  who  was  then  the  most  eminent  artist  in 
that  department  in  England.  He  imbibed  this  affection  for 
chemistry  from  his  intimate  acquaintance  with  Mr.  William 
Backhouse,  of  Swallowfield  in  the  county  of  Berks,  who 
was  reputed  an  adept,  and  whom,  from  his  free  commu- 
incation  of  chemical  secrets,  Mr.  Ashmole  was  wont  to  call 
father,  agreeably  to  the  custom  which  had  long  prevailed 
among  the  lovers  of  that  art,  improperly,  however,  called 
chemistry  for  it  really  was  the  old  superstition  of  al- 
chemy. He  likewise  employed  a  part  of  his  time  in  ac- 
quiring the  art  of  engraving  seals,  casting  in  sand,  and 
the  mystery  of  a  working  goldsmith.  But  all  this  time, 
bis  great  work  of  publishing  the  ancient  English  writers  in 
chemistry  went  on;  and  finding  that  a  competent  know*? 
lege  of  the  Hebrew  was  absolutely  necessary  for  underr 
standing  and  explaining  such  authors  as  had  written  on  the 
Hermetic  science,  he  had  recourse  to  rabbi  Solomon  Frank, 
by  whom  he  was  taught  the  rudiments  of  Hebrew,  which 
he  found  very  useful  to  him  in  his  studies.  At  length, 
towards  the  close  of  the  year  1652,  his  "  Theatrum  Chymi- 
cum  Britannicum"  appeared,  which  gained  him  great  re- 
putation in  the  learned  world,  as  it  shewed  him  to  be  a. 
man  of  a  most  studious  disposition,  indefatigable  applica- 
tion, and  of  wonderful  accuracy  in  his  compositions.  It 
served  also  to  extend  his  acquaintance  considerably,  and 
among  others  the  celebrated  Mr.  Selden  took  notice  of  him 
in  the  year  1653,  encouraged  his  studies,  and  lived  in 
great  friendship  with  him  to  the  day  of  his  death.  He  was 
likewise  very  intimate  with  Mr.  Oughtred,  the  mathema- 
^tician,  and  with  Dr.  Wharton,  a  physician  of  great  cb^T 

A  S  H  M  O  L  E.  45 


raster  and  experience;  His  marriage  with  lady  Mainwa- 
rihg,  however,  involved  him  in  abundance  of  law-suits 
with  other  people^  and  at  last  produced  a  dispute  between 
themselves,  which  came  to  a  hearing  on  October  8,  1657, 
in  the  court  of  chancery,  where  serJeant  Maynard  having 
observed,  that  in  eight  hundred  sheets  of  depositions  taken 
on  the  part  of  the  lady,  there  was  not  so  much  as  a  bad 
word  proved  against  Mr.  Ash  mole,  her  bill  was  dismissed, 
and  she  delivered  back  to  her  husband.  He  had  now  for 
some  time  addicted  himself  to  the  study  of  antiquity  and 
records,  which  recommended  him  to  the  intimate  acquaint- 
ance of  Mr.  (afterwards  sir  William)  Dugdale,  whom  about 
this  time  he  attended  in  his  survey  of  the  Fens,  and  was 
very  useful  to  him  in  that  excellent  undertaking.  Mr. 
Ashmole  himself  soon  after  took  the  pains  to  trace  the 
Roman  road,  which  in  Antoninus's  Itinerary  is  called  Ben«- 
nevanna,  from  Weeden  to  Litchfield,  of  which  he  gave 
Mr.  Dugdale  an  account,  in  a  letter  addressed  to  him  upon 
that  subject.  It  is  very  probable,  that  after  his  studies 
had  thus  taken  a  new  turn,  he  lost  somewhat  of  his  relish 
for  chemistry,  since  he  discontinued  the  Theatrum  Chemi- 
cum,  which,  according  to  bis  first  design,  was  to  have  con- 
sisted of  several  volumes :  yet  he  still  retained  such  a  re- 
membrance of  it,  as  induced  him  to  part  civilly  with  the 
sons  of  art,  by  publishing  a  treatise  in  prose  on  the  phi- 
losopher's stone,  to  which  he  prefixed  an  admirable  pre- 
face, in  which  he  wishes  to  apologize  for  taking  leave  of 
these  fooleries.  In  the  spring  of  the  year  1658,  our  au- 
thor began  to  collect  materials  for  his  history  of  the  order 
of  the  garter,  which  he  afterwards  lived  to  finish,  and 
thereby  rendered  both  the  order  and  himself  immortal, 
the  just  reward  of  the  prodigious  pains  he  tpok  in  searching 
records  in  the  Tower,  and  elsewhere,  comparing  them  with 
each  other,  and  obtaining  such  lights  as  were  requisite  to 
render  so  perplexed  a  subject  clear,  and  to  reduce  all  the 
circumstances  of  such  a  vast  body  of  history  into  their  pro- 
per order.  In  September  following  he  made  a  journey  to 
Oxford,  where  he  was  extreniely  well  received,  and  where 
he  undertook  to  make  a  full  and  distinct  description  of  the 
coins  given  to  the  public  library  by  archbishop  Laud,  which 
.was  of  great  use  to  him  in  the  works  which  he  afterwards 
.  composed.  He  had  lodged  and  boarded  sometimes  at  a  house 
in  South  Lambeth,  kept  by  Mr.  John  Tradescant,  whose 
father  and  himself  had  been  physic-gardeners  there  for 

46  A  S.  H  M  O  L  iE, 

many  years,  and  had  collected  a  vast  number  of  curiositied, 
which,  after  mature  deliberation,  Mr.  Tradescant  and  his 
wife  determined  to  bestow  on  Mr.  Ashmole,  and  accord- 
ingly sealed  and  delivered  a  deed  of  gift  for  that  purpose, 
on  December  16,  1659.  On  the  restoration  of  king  Charles 
II.  Mr.  Ashmole  was  early  introduced  into  the  presence 
and  favour  of  his  majesty,  and  on  June  18,  1660,  which  was 
the  second  time  he  had  the  honour  of  discoursing  with  the 
king,  he  graciously  bestowed  upon  him  the  place  of  Wind- 
sor herald.  A  few  days  after,  he  was  appointed  by  the  king 
to  make  a  description  of  his  medals,  and  had  them  deliver- 
ed into  his  hands,  and  king  Henry  Vlllth's  closet  assigned 
for  his  use,  being  also  allowed  his  diet  at  court.  On  Au- 
^gust  21st,  in  the  same  year,  she  presented  the  three  books 
which  he  had  published,  to  his  majesty,  who,  as  he  both 
loved  and  understood  chemistry,  received  them  very  gra- 
ciously. On  September  3,  he  had  a  warrartt  signed  for  the 
office  of  commissioner  of  the  excise,  in  consequence  of  a 
letter  written  by  his  majesty's  express  command,  to  the 
earl  of  Southampton,  then  lord  high-treasurer,  by  Mr.  Se- 
cretary Morris.  About  this  time,  a  commission  was  granted 
to  him  as  incidental  to  the  care  of  the  king's  medals,  to 
examine  the  famous,  or  rather  infamous,  Hugh  Pejers, 
about  the  contents  of  the  royal  library  which  had  fallen 
into  his  hands,  and  which  was  very  carefully  and  punctually 
executed,  but  to  very  little  purpose.  On  November  2a, 
he  was  called  to  the  bar  in  Middle-Temple  hall,  and  Ja- 
nuary 15,  1661,  he  was  ^admitted  a  felloiv  of  the  Royal  So- 
ciety. On  February  9th  following,  the  king  signed  a  war- 
rant for  constituting  him  secretary  of  Surinam  in  the  West 
Indies.  In  the  beginning  of .  the  year  1662,  he  was  ap- 
pointed ^one  of  the  commissioners  for  recovering  the  king*s 
go6ds,  and  about  the  same  time  he  sent  a  set  of  services 
and  anthems  to  the  cathedral  church  of  Litchfield,  in  me- 
mory of  his  having  been  once  a  chorister  there,  and  he 
gave  afterwards  twenty  pounds  towards  repairing  the  car 
thedral.  On  June  27,  1664,  the  White  Office  was  opened, 
of  which  he  was  appointed  a  commissioner.  On  Feb.  17, 
1665,  sir  Edward  Byshe  sealed  his  deputation  for  visit- 
ing Berkshire,  which  visitation  he  begs^n  on  the  llth 
of  March  ^following,  and  on  June  9,  1668,  he  was  ap- 
pointed by  the  lords  commissioners  of  the  treasury,  ac- 
comptant-general,  and  country  accomptant  in  the  jexcise. 
His  secona  wife,  lady  Mainwaring,  dying,  April  1^  in  the 

A  S  H  M  O  L  E.  47 

same  year,  he  soon  after  married  Mrs.  Elizabeth  Dugdaie^ 
daughter  to  his  good  friend  sir  William  Dugdale,  knt.  gar- 
ter king  at  arms,  in  Lincoln*s-inn  chapel,  on  November  3. 
The  university  of  Oxford,  in  consideration  of  the  many 
favours  they  had  received  from  Mr.  Ashmole,  created  him 
doctor  of  physic  by  diploma,  July  19,  1669,  which   was 
presented  to  him  on  the  3d  of  November  following,  by 
Dr.  Yates,  principal  of  Brazen-Nose  college,  in  the  name 
of  the  university.     He  was  now  courted  and  esteeQied  by 
the  greatest  people  in  the  kingdom,  both  in  point  of  title 
and  merit,  who  frequently  did  him  the  honour  to  visit  him 
at  his  chambers  in  the  Temple,  an^l  whenever  he  went  his 
summer  progress,  he  had  the  same  respect  paid  him  in  the 
country,  especially  at  his  native  town  of  Litchfield,  to  which 
when  he  came,  he  was  splendidly  entertained  by  the  cor- 
poration.    On  May  8,  1672,  he  presented  his   laborious 
work  on  the  most  noble  order  of  the  garter,  to  his  most 
gracious  master  king  Charles  II.  who  not  only  received  it 
with  great  civility  and  kindness,  but  soon  after  granted  to 
our  author,  as  a  mark  of  his  approbation  of  the  work,  and 
of  his  personal  esteem  for  him,  a  privy  seal  for  400  pounds 
out  of  the  custom  of  paper.     This  was  his  greatest  under- 
taking,  and  had  he  published  nothing  else,  would  have 
preserved  his  memory,  as  it  certainly  is  in  its  kind  one  of 
the  most  valuable  books  in  our  language.     On  Januaiy 
29,   1675,  he  resigned  his  office  of  Windsor  herald,  which 
by  his  procurement,  was  bestowed  on  his  brother  Dugdale. 
It  was  with  great  reluctancy  that  the  earl  marshal  parted 
with  him,  and  it  was  not  long  after,  that  he  bestowed  on 
him  the  character  of  being  the  best  officer  in  his  office.     On 
the  death  of  sir  Edward  Walker,  garter  king  at  arms,  Feb. 
20,  1677,  the  king  aiid  the  duke  of  Norfolk,  as  earl  mar* 
shal,  contested  the  right  of  disposing  of  his  place,  on  which 
Mr.  Ashmole  was  consulted,  who  declared  in  favour  of  the 
king,  but  with  so  much  prudence  and  discretion  as  not  to 
give  any  umbrage  to  the  earl  marshal.     He  afterwards  him- 
self refused  this  high  dffice,  which  was  conferred  on  his 
father-in-law  sir  William  Dugdale,  for  whom  he  employed 
his  utmost  interest.     About  the  close  of  1677,  a  proposal 
was  made  to  Mr.  Ashmole  to  become  a  candidate  for  the 
city  of  Litchfield,  but  finding  himself  poorly  supported  by 
the  very  persons  who  would  have  encouraged  him  to  stand, 
he  withdrew  his  pretensions.      On  the  26th  of  January, 
1679,  about  ten  in  the  morning,  a  fire  began  in  the  Middle 


iZ  A  s  ti  M  d  L  £. 


TJfuiple,  in  the  next  chambers  to  Mr.  Ashmole's^  by  whicli 
he  lost  a  library  he  had  been  collecting  thirty-three  years ; 
but  his  MSS.  escaped,  by  their  being  at  his  house  in  South 
Lambeth.  He^  likewise  lost  a  collection  of  9000  coins^ 
ancient  a'nd  modern ;  but  his  more  valuable  collection  of 
gold  medals  were  likewise  preserved  by  being  at  Lambeth; 
his  vast  repository  of  seals,  charters,  and  other  antiquities 
and  curiosities,  perished  also  in  the  flames.  In  1683,  the 
university  of  Oxford  having  finished  a  noble  repository 
near  the  theatre,  Mr.  Ashmole  sent  thither  that  great  col- 
lection of  rarities  which  he  had  received  from  the  Tradesj^ 
cants  before-mentioned,  together  with  such  additions  as  he 
had  made  to  them;  and  to  this  valuable  benefaction  he 
afterwards  added  that  of  his  MSS.  and  library,  which  still 
remain  a  monument  of  his  generous  love  to  learning  in 
general,  and  to  the  university  of  Oxford  in  particular.  lu 
the  beginning  of  the  year  1685,  he  was  invited  by  the  ma- 
gistrates, and  by  the  dean  of  Litchfield,  to  represent  that 
corporation  in  parliament ;  but^upon  king  James's  intimat- 
ing to  him,  by  the  lord  Dartmoiith,  that  he  woiild  take  it 
kindly  if  he  would  resign  his  interest  to  Mr.  Lewson,  he  in- 
stantly complied. 

On  the  death  of  his  father-in-law,  sir  William  Dugdale, 
Jan.  10,  1686,  Mr.  Ashmole  declined  a  second  time  the 
office  of  garter  king  at  arms,  and  recommended  his  brother 
Dugdale,  in  which,  though  he  did  not  fully  succeed,  yet 
he  procured  him  the  place  of  Norroy.  This  was  one  of 
the  last  public  acts  of  his  life,  the  remainder  of  which  was 
spent  in  an  honourable  retirement  to  the  day  of  his  demise, 
which  happened  on  May  18,  1692,  in  the  seventy-sixth 
year  of  his  age.  He  was  undoubtedly  a  great  benefactor 
to,  and  patron  of,  learning.  His  love  of  chemistry  led  him 
to  preserve  many  valuable  MSS.  relating  to  that  science, 
besides  those  that  he  caused  to  be  printed  and  published. 
He  was  deeply  skilled  in  history  and  antiquities,  as  suffi- 
ciently appears  by  his  learned  and  laborious  works,  both 
printjed  and  manuscripts.  He  was  likewise  a  generous  en- 
courager  and  protector  of  such  ingenious  and  learned  men 
as  were  less  fortunate  in  the  world  than  himself,  as  appears 
by  his  kindness  to  sir  George  Wharton  in  the  worst  of  times, 
his  respect  to  the  memory  of  his  friend  Mr.  John  Booker, 
and  the  care  he  took  in  the  education  of  the  late  eminent 
Dr.  George  Smalridge.  His  corpse  was  interred  in  the 
church  of  Lambeth  in  Surrey,  May  26,  1692;  and  a  black 

A  S  H  M  d  L  C.  49 

tazrhlk  ston0  laid  over  hts  grave,  with  a  Latin  inscription^ 
in  which,  though  there  is  much  to  his  honour,  there  is  no->' 
thing  which  exceeds  the  truth.     He  may  be  considered  as 
one  of  the  first  and  most  useful  collectors  of  documents 
respecting  English  antiquities,  but  the  frequent  applica-' 
tion  of  the  epithet  genius  to  him,  in  the  Biographia  Bri- 
tannia^, is  surely  gratuitous.     His  attachment  to.theab- 
/  surdities  of  astrology  and  alchemy,    and   his  associati9ii 
with  Lilly,  Booker,  and  other  quacks  and  impostors  of  his 
age,  must  ever  prevent  his  being  ranked  among  the  learned 
wise,  although  he  never  appears  to  have  been  a  confede-' 
rate  in  the  tricks  of  Lilly  and  his  friends,  and  certainly 
accumulated  a  considerable  portion  of  learning  and  infor* 
mation  on  various  useful  topics.     His  benefaction  to  the 
university  of  Oxford  will  ever  secure  respect  for  his  me- 
mory.    It  was  towards  the  latter  end  of  October  1677, 
that  he  made  an  offer  to  that  university,  of  bestowing  on 
it  all  that  valuable  collection  of  theTradescants,  which  was 
so  well  known  to  the  learned  world,  and  which  had  been 
exceedingly  improved  since  it  came  into  his  possession, 
together  with  all  the  coins,  medals,  and  manuscripts  of  his 
own  collecting,  provided  they  would  erect  a  building  fit  to 
receive  them ;  to  which  proposition  the  university  willingly 
assented,  i  Accordingly,  on  Thursday  the  1 5th  of  May  1679, 
the  first  stone  of  that  stately  fabric,  afterwards  called  Ash- 
IHole's  Museum,  was  laid  on  the  west  side  of  the  theatre,  and 
being  finished  by  the  beginning  of  March  1682,  the  collec- 
tion was  depoisited  and  the  articles  arranged  by  Robert  Plott, 
LL.D.  who  before  had  been  intrusted  with  their  custody. 
This  museum  was  first  publicly  viewed,  on  the  2 1st  of  May 
following,  by  his  royal  highness  James  duke  of  York,  his 
royal  consort  Josepha  Maria,  princess  Anne,  and  their  at- 
tendants, and  on  ^e  24th  of  the  same  month,  by  the  doc- 
tors and  masters  of  the  university.     In  a  convocation  held 
on  the  4th  of' June  following  (1683)  a  Latin  letter  of  thanks, 
penned  by  him  who  was  then  deputy  orator,  being  pub- 
licly read,  was  sent  to  Mr.  Ashmole  at  South  Lambeth. 
In  July  1690,  he  visited  the  university  with  his  wife,  and 
was  received  with  all  imaginable  honour,  and  entertained 
at  a  noble  dinner  in  his  museum ;  on  which  occasion  Mr* 
Edward  Hannes,  A.  M.  the  chemical  professor,  afterwards 
an  eminent  physician,  made  an  elegant  oration  to  him.   His 
benefaction  to  the  university  was  very  considerably  enlarged 
at  his  death,  by  the  addition  of  his  library,  which  consisted 
Vol.  HL  E 

50  A  S  H  »f  Q  I.  E- 

qf  one  'thousand  seven  hundred  iind  fifty^eight  books^  of 
vhif^b  six  hundred  and  tvirenty  were  maBuscript^)  and  of 
th^m  three  hundred  and  eleven  fQlios,  relating  chieSy  to 
£ngUsh  }ii9tory>  Heraldry^  Astronomy,  and  Chemistry^ 
with  a  great  variety  of  pamphlets,  part  of  which  had  been 
sorted  by  himself,  and  the  rest  are  methodized  since,  and 
a  double  cfitalogue  made ;  one  classical,  according  to  their 
various  subjects,  and  apother  alpbabeticaL  He  bequeathed 
s^lso  to  the  same  place,  two  gold  chains  and  a  medal,  tho 
que  a  filigreen  chain  of  ninety  links,  weighing  twenty«tw<i 
ounces,  with  a  medal  of  die  elector  of  Brandenburg,  upon 
which  is  the  effigies  of  that  elector,  and  on  the  reverse,  a 
view  of  Straelsund,  stnicli:  upon  the  surrender  of  that  im- 
portant city;  a  collar  of  S,  S.  with  a  medal  of  the  king  of 
Denmark ;  and  a  gold  medal  of  the  elector  Palatine ;  and 
Bf  Qearge  of  the  duke  of  Norfolk,,  worn  by  his  grandfather 
'y4en  he  was  ambilssador  in  Germany.  All  these  he  had 
received  as  acknowledgments  of  the  honour  which  he  had 
done  the  garter,  by  his  labours  on  that  subject.  This  mu- 
seum has  been  since  enriched  by  the  MSS.  of  Anthony 
Wood,  Aubrey,  and  others.  It  has  been  remarked  as 
something  extraordinary,  that  Mr.  Ashmole  was  never 
knighted  for  his  services  as  a  herald.  It  is  perhaps  as  ex- 
traordinary that  the  university  of  Oxford  bestowed  on  him 
the  degree  of  doctor  of  physic,  who  never  regularly  studied* 
qr  practised,  in  that  faculty,  unless  we  conceive  it  as  a  com-» 
pliment  to  his  chemical  studies. 

Mr,  Ashmole^s  published  and  unpublished  works  are, 

1 .  The  work  above  mentioned,  published  under  a  fictitious 
name,  ^^  Fasciculus  Chemicus ;  or,  chymioal  collection^ 
expressing  the  ingress,  progress,  and  egress,  of  the  secret 
Heripetick  seience,  out  of  the  choicest  and  most  fanu>us 
authors.  Whereunto  is  added,  the  arcanum,  or  grand  se* 
cret  of  Hermetick  philosophy.  Both  made  English  by 
James  Hasolle,  esq.  qui  est  Mercuriophilus  Anglicus,^^ 
London,  1650,  12mo,  with  a  hieroglyphical  frontispiece^ 
representing  the  mystic    absurdities  of  the   alchymists. 

2.  ^<  Xheatrum  Chen^icum  firitannicum,  containing  several 
poetical  pieces  of  our  famous  English  philosophers,  who 
h^ve  written  the  Hermetique  mysteries,  in  their  own  an- 
cient language.  Faithfully  collected  into  one  volume,  with 
annotations  thereon,  by  Elias  Ashmole,  esq.  qui  est  Mer- 
curiophilus Anglicus,''  London,  1652,  4to.  The  authors 
published  in  this  collection  are,  Thomas  Norton^s  ordinal 

A  S  H  M  O  L  K*  St 

«f  Alcbearie ;  George  Ripley's  compound  of  Alcheiaie ; 
Pater  Sapientie,  i.  e,  the  &ther  of  wisdom^  by  an  anonym 
tnoos  writer ;    Hennes's  Bird,  written  originally  in  Latin^ 
by  Ra^mnnd  Lidly,  and  done  into  English  verse  by  Abbot 
Creoier,  of  Westminster;  Sir  Geoffrey  Chaucer's  ChaiUms 
Teoman's  tale ;  Dastin's  Dream,  which  seems  to  be  a  Ter« 
sion  of  the  Latin  poem  of  John  Dastin,  entitled  his  Vision  j 
Pearce,  the  black  monk,  on  the  Ehxir ;  Richard  Carpenter's 
work,  which  some  think,  and  not  witiiout  reason,  ought  ra^ 
ther  to  be  ascribed  to  John  Carpenter,  bishop  of  Worcester^ 
who  was  one  of  the  best  chemists  of  his  time ;  Hunting  of 
die  Green  Lion,  by  Abraham  Andrews ;  but  there  is  also  a 
spurious  piece  with  the  same  title ;  Breviary  of  Natural 
Philosophy,  by  Thomas  Chamock ;  Enigmas,  by  the  same 
person ;  Bloomfield's  Blossoms,  which  is  likewise  entitled 
the  Camp  of  Philosophy,  by  William  Bloomfield ;  Sir  Ed* 
ward  Kelle's  work ;  his  letter  to  G.  S.  Gent.     (It  is  some* 
what  strange  that  this  gentleman's  name,  even  by  Mr* 
Ashmoie,   is  written   Kelley,  though  sir  Edward  himself 
wrote  it  Kelle.) ;  Dr.  John  Dee'sjTestament,  which  appears 
tD  be  an  epistle  to  one  John  Gwin,  written  A.  D.  1568,  and 
a  third  letter,  the  first  two  being  wanting;  Thomas  Robin* 
son,  of  the  Philosopher's  Stone ;    Experience  and  Philo- 
sophy, by  an  anonymous  author;  the  Magistery,  by  W.  B* 
i  e,  William  Bloomfield ;  John  Gower,  on  the  Philosopher's 
Stone  ;*  George  Ripley's  Vision ;  verses  belonging  to  Rip* 
ley's  Scrowie ;  Mystery  of  Alchymists ;  preface  to  the  Me* 
duUa  of  George  Ripley ;    Secreta  Secretorum,  by  Joha 
Lydg^te ;  Hermit's  Tale,  anonymous ;  description  of  th#* 
Stone ;  the  Standing  of  the  Glass,  for  the  time  of  the  pu« 
trefaction  and  congelation  of  the  medicine ;  i£nigma  Phi* 
losophicum,  by  William  Bedman ;    Fragments  by  various 
authors.     3.  <*  The  Way  to  Bibs,  in  three  books,  made 
pmblic   by  Elias  Ashmoie,  esq;    qui  est  Mercuriophilus 
Angtkus,"   London,  1658,  4to.     This  was  the  work  in 
which  he  took  his  leave  of  the  astrologers  and  alchymists^ 
and  bestowed  his  attention  on  the  studies  which  produced, 
4.  **  The  Institution,  Laws,  and  Ceremonies  of  the  most 
noble  Order  of  the  Garter.    Collected  and  digested  into 
one  body  by  Elias  Ashmoie,  of  the  Middle  Temple,  esq. ; 
Windesore  herald  at  arms.    A  work  furnished  with  variety 
c^  matter  relating  to  honour  flind  noblesse ;"  London,  1^72^ 

•    •         •  B  2- 

ss  A  S  H  M  O  L  E. 

He  was  not  only  so  happy  as  to  receive  those  ekfs/kd/t^ 
dinary  marks  of  the  sovereign's  favour,  mentioned  above, 
but  was  complimented  in  an  obliging  manner  by  his  royal 
highness  the  duke  of  York;  who,*  though  then  at  sea 
against  the  Dutch,  sent  for  his  book  by  the  earl  of  Peter-* 
borough,  and  afterwards  told  our  author  he  was  extremely 
pleased  with  it.  The  rest  of  the  knights-companions  of  the 
most  noble  order  received  him  and  bis  book  with  much  re* 
spect  and  civility,  and  the  regard  shown  him  abroad  was 
more  singular.  It  was  reposited,  b^y  the  then  pope,  in  the 
library  of  the  Vatican.  King  Christiern  of  Denmark,  sent 
him,  in  1674,  a  gold  chain  and  medal,  which,  with  the 
king's  leave,  he  wore  on  certain  high  festivals.  Frederic- 
William,  elector  of  Brandenburgh,  sent  him  the  like  pre- 
sent, and  ordered  his  book  to  be  translated  into  High 
Dutch*  He  was  afterwards  visited  by  the  elector  Palatine's, 
the  grand  duke  of  Tuscany's,  and  other  foreign  princes' 
ministers,  to  return  him  thanks  for  this  book,  which  he 
took  care  should  be  presented  them,  and  thereby  spread 
the  fame  of  the  garter,  the  nation,  and  himself,  all  over 
Europe.  Yet  it  does  not  appear  that  this  laborious  and 
exquisite  performance  advanced  at  all  the  design  he  had 
formed  some  years  before,  of  being  appointed  historio- 
grapher to  the  order,  to  which  proposal  some  objections 
were  made,  and  by  our  author  fully  answered,  although 
we  find  no  mention  of  this  circumstance  in  any  memoirs  of 
Mr.  Ashmole  hitherto  extant  5.  "  The  Arras,  Epitaphs^ 
Fenestral  Inscriptions,  with  the  draughts  of  the  Tombs,  &c» 
in  all  the  churches  in  Berkshire."  It  was  penned  in  1666, 
and  the  original  visitation  taken  in  the  two  preceding 
years,  in  virtue  of  his  deputation  from  sir  Edward  Byshe,  - 
clariencieux  king  at  arms,  and  published  under  thetitle  of 
<*  The  Antiquities  of  Berkshire,"  3  vols.  8vo,  1717,  1723, 
and  at  Reading  in  1736,  fol.  6.  ^^  Familiarum  illustrium 
Imperatorumque  Romaporum  Numismata  Oxoniae  in  Bod- 
leianae  Bibliothecae  Archivis  descripta  et  explanata.'* 
This  work  was  finished  by  the  author  in  1659,  and  given 
by  him  to  the  public  library  in  Oxford,  in  1666,  in  3  vols* 
folio,  as  it  was  fitted  for  the  press.  7.  ^^  A  description  and 
explanation  of  the  Coins  and  Medals  belonging  to  king 
Charles  II.'*  a  folio  MS.  in  the  king's  cabinet.  8,  "A 
brief  ceremonial  of  the  Feast  of  St.  George,  held  at  White- 
hall  1661,  with  other  papers  relating  to  the  Order.**, 
9.  ^  Remarkable  Passages  in  the  year  166Q,  set  down  by 



Mr.  Eiias  AshmoW*  10.  "  An  account  of  the  Coronation 
of  our  Kings,  transcribed  from  a  MS.  in  the  king's  private 
closet.*'  11.**  The  proceedings  on  the  day  of  the  Coro- 
nation of  king. Charles  11."  mentioned  by  Anthony  Wood, 
as  printed  in  1672,  but  he  owns  he  never  saw  it  12.  **  The 
Arms,  Epitaphs,  &c.  in  some  churches  and  houses  in 
Staffordshire,^'  taken  when  he  accompanied  sir  William 
Dugdale  in  his  visitation.  13.  "  The  Arms,  Epitaphs, 
Inscriptions,  &c«  in  Cheshire,  Shropshire,  Derbyshire, 
Nottinghamshire,  &c."  taken  at  the  same  time.  Bishop 
Nicolson  mentions  his  intentioil  to  write  the  history  and 
antiquities  of  his  native  town  of  Litchfield.  14.  **  Answers 
to  the  objections  urged  against  Mr.  Asbmole's  being  made 
historiographer  to  the  order  of  the  Garter,'*  A.  D.  1662. 
15.  <^  A  Translation  of  John  Francis  Spina's  book  of  the 
Catastrophe  of  the  World;  to  which  was  subjoined,  Am- 
brose Merlin's  Prophecy."  It  is  doubtful  whether  this  was 
ever  published.  What,  indeed,  he  printed,  was  but  a  very 
small  part  of  what  he  wrote,  there  being  scarcely  any 
branch  of  our  English  history  and  antiquities,  on  which  he 
has  not  left  us  something  valuable,  of  his  own  confiposing^ 
in  that  vast  repository  of  papers,  which  make  several  fo- 
lios in  his  collection  of  MSS.  under  the  title  of,  16.  Col- 
lections^ Remarks,  Notes  on  Books,  and  MSS.  a  wonderful 
proof  of  industry  and  application.  17.  ^^The  Diary  of 
bis  Life,"  written  by  himself,  which  was  published  at  Lon- 
don, 1717,  in  12mo,  with  the  following  title :  ^^  Memoirs 
of  the  life  of  that  learned  antiquary,  Elias  Ashmole,  esq. 
drawn  up  by  himself  by  way  of  diary,  with  an  appendix  of 
original  letters.  Published  by  Charles  Burman,  esquire.'* 
The  copy  from  whence  these  papers  were  published,  was  in 
the  hand-writing  of  Dr.  Robert  Plott,  chief  keeper  of  the 
Ashmoleap  museum  at  Oxford,  and  secretary  of  the  Royal 
Society,  and  was  transcribed  by  him  for  the  use  of  a  nea» 
relation  of  lV(r«  Ashmole's,  a  private  gentleman  in  Stafford- 
shire. They  had  been  collated  a  few  years  before,  by 
David  P^rry,  M.  A.  of  Jesus'  college  in  Oxford.  The  ap- 
pendix contains  a  letter  of  thanks,  dated  January  26,  1666^ 
from  the  corporation  at  Litchfield,  upon  the  receipt  of  a 
silver  bowl  presented  to  them  by  Mr.  Ashmole ;  a  preface 
to  the  catalogue  of  archbishop  Laud's  medals,  drawn  up  by 
Mr.  Ashmole,  and  preserved  in  the  public  library  at  Ox- 
ford; a  letter  from  Dr.  Thomas  Barlow,  afterwards  bishop 
of  Lincoln,  to  Mr.  Ashmole^  dated  December  2a,  1668,  on 



the  present  of  bis  books,  describing  archbishop  Laud*s 
cabinet  of  medals ;  a  letter  from  John  Evelyn,  esq.  to  re^^ 
commend  Dr.  Plott  to  him  for  reader  in  natural  philosophy, 
and  another  from  Mr.  Joshua  Barnes,  dated  from  Emanuel 
college^  Cambridge,  October  15,  1688,  wherein  he  desires 
Mr.  Ashmole's  pardon,  for  having  reflected  upon  his  Order 
of  the  Garter,  in  his  own  history  of  king  Edward  III.  with 
Mr.  Ashmole's  answer  to  that  letter,  dated  October  23 
following.  It  is  from  this  diary,  which  abounds  in  whimsi- 
cal and  absurd  memoranda,^  that  the  dates  and  facts  in  his 
Jife  have  been  principally  taken.  * 

;  ASHTON  (Charles),  one  of  the  most  learned  critics 
of  his  age,  was  a  native,  of  Derbyshire,  where  he  was  born 
about  1665.  He  was  admitted  of  Queen's  college.  Cam* 
bridge.  May  18,  1682,  and  having  taken  his  degree  of  B.  A. 
was  elected  fellow  of  that  college,  April  30,  1687,  to  be 
admitted  to  profits  upon  a  future  vacancy,  which  did  not 
happen  till  April  9,  1690.  He  became  chaplain  to  bishop 
iPatriek,  by  whom  he  was  presented  to  the  rectory  of  Rat- 
tenden  in  Essex,  March  10,  1698-9,  which  living  he  ex- 
changed, in  June  folbwing,  for  a  chaplainship  of  Chelsea* 
college  or  hospital ;  and  that  preferment  also  he  soon  after 
quitted,  on  being  collated  by  his  patron  to  a  prebendal 
qftall  in  the  cathedral  of  Ely,  July  3,  1701,  and  the  next 
day  to  the  mastership  of  Jesus'  college,  Cambridge,  both 
vacant  by  the  death,  of  Dr.  Say  well ;  the  same  year  he  pre- 
ceded to  hi^  degree  of  D«  D.  and  was  elected  vice-^chan- 
cellor  of  the  university  in  1702.  His  mastership  and 
prebend  (both  of  which  he  was  in  possession  of  above  fifty 
years)  were  the  only  preferments  he  held  afterwurds,  not 
i^hoosing  to  accept  of  any  parochial  benefice,  but  leading  a 
very  retired  and  studious  lifie  in  his  college,  except  when 
statutable  residence,  and  attendance  at  chapters,  required 
his  presence  at  Ely,  on  which  occasions  he  seldom  er  never 
failed  to  be  present^  till  the  latter  part  of  his  life.  He  died! 
in  March  1752,  in  the  eighty-seventh  year  of  bis  age,  and 
was  buried  in  Jesus'  college  chapel.  He  had  great  know-^ 
ledge  in  most  branches  of  literature,  but  particularly  in^ 
ecclesiastical  antiquities  and  in  chronology.  In  the  clas-* 
sics  he  wa^  critically  skilled.  Dr.  Taylor  always  spoke 
with  rapture  of  his  correction  of  the  inscription  to  Jupiter 
UrioS|  which  he  considered  as  uncommonly  felicitous ;  and 

<  Biograpliia  BritaQiiica.<-Atb.  Ox.  vol.  11.— Koble's  CoU^e  of  Arms. 

A  S  H  T  O  N.  Si 

Mr.  OhishuU  on  the  same  occlisioti  calls  him  *^  Aristarcfaus 
Cantabrigiensis  summS  eraditus."  There  were  many  va- 
luable pieces  of  his  published  in  his  life-time^  but  without 
his  name^  among  which  are  '*  Locus  Jui^tjiri  Martyris  ernen* 
datus  in  Apol.  I.  p.  11.  ed.  Thirlby/'  in  the  BibliothecK 
Literaria,  published  by  the  learned  Mr.  Wasse  of  Aynho, 
Northamptonshire,  1744^  No.  VIII.  «  Tully  and  Hirtiui 
reconciled  as  to  the  time  of  Gsesar^s  goiAg  to  the  African 
War,  with  an  account  of  the  old.  Boman  yeiac'  made  by 
Caesai^,'*  ib.  No.  III.  p.  29.  "  Origen  de  Oratione^"  4to, 
published  by  the  Rev.  Mr.  Reading,  keeper  of  Sion  col- 
lege library;  and  he  is  also  supposed  to  have  cohtributec( 
fiotes  to  Reading^  edition  of  the  Ecclesiastical  Historians, 
$  vols.  fol.  ^*  Hieroclis  in  Aurea  Carolina  Pytha^orei 
Comment*'  Lond.  1742,  S^vO,  published  with  k  preface  by 
Dr.  Richard  Warren,  archdeacon  of  SnfFolk.  Dr.  Harwood 
pronounces  this  to  be  the  best  edition  of  a  most  excellent 
work  that  abounds  with  moral  and  devotional  senthnents. 
After  his  death  a  correct  edition  of  Justin  Martyris  Apo-i 
logi^  was  published  from  his  MSS.  by  the  Rev.  Mr.  Keller, 
fellow  of  Jesns' college,  Cambridge,  and  rector  of  Kelshall 
in  Herefordshire.  It  ii»  too  honourable  for  the  parties  noi 
to  be  mentioned,  that  it  used  to  be  observed,  thit  dll  thd 
itber  colleges,  where  the  fellows  ohuse  their  master,  could 
not  show  thr^  such  heads,  as  the  only  three  collegeij 
where  the  masters  are  put  in  upon  them:  viz.  Bentldy 
of  Trinity,  by  the  crown ;  Ashti^  of  Jesus,  by  the  bishop 
of  Ely  J  and  Waiterland  of  Magdalen,  by  the  eari  of  Suf* 

ASHTON  (Thomas)^  a  clergyman  in  the  time^  of  thd 
usurpation,  was  the  son  of  Tbonlias  Ashton,  and  Ijdrn  zt 
Teuerdly  in  Lancluihire,  in  1631.  At  sixteen  years  of  age, 
he  was  admitted  a  servitor  of  Bra2en*-iK)se  college  in  Ox-^ 
ford,  and  took  the  degree  of  B.  A.  February  7^  1650.  He 
was  chosen  fellow  of  his  college,  and  took  holy  orders. 
Mr.  Wood  tells  us,  he  was  a  **  forward  and  conceited  scho-*^ 
lar,"  and  **  became  a  malapert  preacher  in  and  near  Ox-^ 

>  Bentham'9  Hist,  of  Ely.—- Whiston's  Life;  wtio  says,  <' This  ]>r.  Ashtoir 
published  himself,  many  years  ago,  an  excelltnt  edition  c^  Origen  IL^i  cv^^^f* 
After  which  I  asked  Br.  Benfcley,  then  master  of  TriuHy  colfege,  and  regius  pro-, 
fessor  of  divinity,  wl^y  they  did  not  banish  I2r.  Ashtfin,  af  Cb6y  had  done  me,  for 
Arianism  ?  since  he.  had  published  the  grossest  Arian  hook  exUnt  in  al)  an|»« 
qnity,  « thid  treMiffd  of  Crigen's  is  known  to'  be.  tie  replied,  But  the  notes  are 
orthodox.  To  which  I  answeredi  will  orthodox  notes  make  an  ^rian  book  other 
than  Arian?" 


p§  A  S  H  T  O  N. 

ford.'*  Being  appointed  to  preach  at  St.  Mary%  oi^ 
Tuesday  (a  lecture-day)  July  25,  1654,  he  gave  so  great 
offence  by  a. very  indecent  sermon,  that  he  was  in  a  fair 
way  of  expulsion ;  but,  by  the  intercession  of  friends,  the 
matter  was  compromised ;  yet  he  was  obliged,  about  two 
years  after,  to  quit  his  fellowship  upon  some  quarrel  which 
he  had  with  Dr.  Greenwood,  principal  pf  *  his  house,*  In 
1656,  he  was  intrusted  with  a  commission  from  the  protec-' 
tor  to  be  chaplain  to  the  English  forces  in  the  island  of 
Jersey,  but  was  soon  after  displaced  upon  the  arrival  of  a 
new  governor.  After  the. king's  restoration,  be  was  bene- 
ficed somewhere  near  Hertford  in  Hertfordshire;  where, 
Mr.  Wood  says,  "he  soon  after  finished  his  restless  c.ourse.'* 
He  published,  1.  "  Blood-thirsty  Cyrus  unsatisfied  with 
bloody  or,  the  boundless  cruelty  of. an  Anabaptist's  ty-» 
ranny,  manifested  in  a  letter  of  colonel  John  Mason,  go-* 
vvernor  of  Jersey,  3d  Nov.  1659;  wherein  he  e,xhibits  seven 
false,  ridiculous,  and  scandalous  articles  against  quarter** 
master  William  Swan,"  &c.  London,  1659,  in  one  sheet 
4to.  2.  "  Satan  in  Samuel's  M^tle,  or,  the  cruelty  of 
Germany,  acted  in  Jersey ;  containing  the  arbitrary,  bloody, 
and  tyrannical  proceedings  of  John  Mason,  of  a  baptised 
church}  commissionated  to  be  a  colonel,  and  sent  over  inittk 
the  island  of  Jersey,  gpvernpr,  in.  July  1656,  ^gain^t  several 
officers  aud  soldiers  in  that  small  place,"  &c.  London,  V659^ 
in  four  sheets  in  4to.  *  .  ,    » 

ASHTON  (Thomas)^  ,.an  English  divine,  the  son  of  Dr. 
Ashton,  usher  of  the ^ran^mar  school  at  Lancaster  (a  place 
of  only  thirty- two  pounds  per  annum,  which  he  held  for 
near  fifty  years),  was  born  in  1716,  educated  at  Eton,  and 
elected  thence  to  King'^  college,  Cambridge^  1733.  He 
was  the. person  to  wboo)  Mr.  Horace  Walpole  addressed  his 
epistle  from  Florence,  in  I740,*uuder  thetitle  of  '^  Thomas 
Ashton,  esq.  tutor  to  th^  earl  pf  Plymouth,"  About  that 
time,  or  sQon  after*  he  was  presented  to  the  rectory  of 
Aldingham  in  Lancashire,  which  be  resigned  in  March 
1749  f  and  on  the  34  of  May  following  wa^  presented  by 
the  provost  and  fellows  of  Eton  to  the  rectory  of  Sturmin- 
ster  Marshall  in  Dorsetshire.  He  was  then  M,  A.  and  had 
been  chosen  a  fellow  of  Eton  in  December  1745.  In  1752 
he  was  collated  to  the  rectory  of  St.  Botolph^  Bishopsgatei 
in  1759  took  the  degree  of  D.  D. ;  and  in  Itfay  1762^^  w^^ 

1  iiop,  Brit.— WoQd'ji  Ath»  .... 

A  S  H  T  O  N,  91 



i^ted  preacher  at  Lincoln's  Inn,  which  he  resigned  ia 
1764.     In  1770  he  published,  in  8yOy  a  volume  of  sermons 
on  several  occasions ;  to  which  was  prefisced  an  excellent 
metzotinto  by  Sptlsbury,   from  an  original  by  sir  Jo^ui^ 
Beynolds,  and  this  mottOi  ^*  Insto  praepositis,  obUtus  prss<> 
t^ritorum/'     Pr.  Ashton  died  March  1,  I77^>  at  the  age 
of  fifiy-niney  after  having  fbr  some  years  survived  a  seirre 
attack  of  the  palsy.     His  discourses,  in  a  style  of  greater 
elegance  than  purity,  were  rendered  still  more  striking  by 
the  excellence  of  his  delivery.     Hence  he  was  frequently 
prevailed  on  to  preach  on  public  and  popular  occasions. 
He  printed  a  sermop  on  the  rebellion  in  1745,  4 to,  and  a 
thanksgiving  sermon  on  the  close  of  it  in  1746^  4to.     In 
1756,  he  preached  before  the  governors  of  the  Middlesex 
hospital,  at  St.  Anne's,  Westminster;  a  commencement 
sermon  at  Cambridge  in  1759;   a  sermon  at  the  annual 
meeting  of  the  charity  schools  in  1760;  one  before  the 
House  of  Commons  on  the  30th  of  January  1762;   and  a 
spital  sermon  at  St.  Bride's  on  the  Easter  Wednesday  in 
that  year.     All  these,  with  several  others  preached  at  Eton, 
Lincoln's  inn,  Bishopsgate,  &c.  were  collected  by  himself 
in  the  volume  above  mentioned,  which  is   closed  by  a 
^'  Concio  ad  Clerum  habita  Cantabrigise  in  templo  beatae 
Marise,   1759,  pro  gradu  DoctoratCU  in  sacr&  theologii." 
His  other  publications  were,   1.  ^'  A  dissertation  on  2  Pe-^ 
teri  19,^*   1750*  8vo.     2.  In  1754,  the  Rev.  Mr.  Jones 
of  St.  Saviour's,  delivered  a  sermon  at  Bishopsgate-church, 
which  being  offensive  to  Dr.  Ashton,  he  preached  against 
it ;  and  an  altercation  happening  between  the  two  divines, 
some  pamphlets  were  published  on  the  occasion,  one  of 
which,  entitled  ^^  A  letter  to  the  Rev.  Mr.  Thomas  Jones, 
intended  asi  a  rational  and  candid  answer  to  his  sermon 
preached  at  St.  Botolpb,  Bishopsgate,"  4to,  was  probably 
by  Dr.  jLshton.     3.  ^^  An  extract  from  the  case  of  the 
obligation  of  th^  electors  of  Eton  college  to  supply  all  va- 
cancies in  that  {society  with  those  who  are  or  have  been 
fellows  of  King's  college,  Cambridge,  so  long  as  persona 
properly  qyalified  are  to  be  had  within  that  description," 
ILondon,  1771,  4to,  prpving  that  aliens  have  no  right  at  all 
to  Eton  fellowships,  either  by  the  foundation,  statutes,  or 
archbishop  i^aud's  deteripination  in  1636.     This  is  further 
proved  in,   4.  "  A  letter  to  the  Rev.  Dr.  M.  (Morell)  on 
the  questiqii  of  electing  aliens  into  the  vacant  places  in 
^{on  college*    B^  the  author  of  the  Extract,"  177 1^  4 to. 


§.  **  A  second  letter  to  Dt.  MJ*  The  three  list  tfefe  s66n 
after  re-publi&hed  under  the  titfe  of  **  The  efl^ction  of 
alieiis  into  the  vacancies  in  Etotii  college  ati  iinwaffafttabi^ 
praictiee.  To  which  are  now  added,  two  letters  to  the  Rer. 
Dr.  Morell,  in  which  the  cavils  of  a  writer  in  the  General 
Evening  Post,  and  others,  are  considered  and  i'efuted* 
Part  I.  By  a  late  fellow  of  King's  college,-  Oimbridge**^ 
London,  1771,  4to#  Part  11.  wafi  never  publislKid.  H6 
lived  long  in  babks  of  intimacy  with  Horace  Walpole> 
afterwards  earl  erf  Orford^  who,  Mr.  Cote  informs  i*s*,  pro-* 
cmred  him  the  Eton  fellowship ;  hat  a  tiipttire  separd^ed 
diem.  Mr.  Cole  adds,  what  we  have  sondes  difflctilty  in 
believing,  that  the  "  Sermon  on  Painting/*  in  kwrd  Or-* 
ford's  works,  was  preached  by  jyr.  Ashtofi  at  HMgfeton, 
before  the  earl  of  Orford  (sir  Robert  Walpole)  in  1?#2!.  * 
.  ASH  WELL  (George),  rector  of  Hanwell^'neaf  Ban-' 
bnry  in  Oxfordshire,  w'as  the  son  of  Robert  Askweil  ,of 
Harrow  on  the  Hill,  in  Middleteic,  aiid  wafs  born  in  the 
parifsh  of  St.  Martin,  Ludgate,  London,  Nov,  18,  16'1'2. 
He  was  admitted  a-  scholar  pf  Wadham  college,  Oicfoiti,  int 
1627,  took  the  degrees  in  arts,  was  elected  fellow,  ttttd  be- 
came a  celebrafted  tutor  in  that  hofftse.  In  the  timfe  of  the 
great  rebetlidft  he  continued  in  Oxford^  and  preached  se« 
^eral  tiroes  before  the  king,  cdurt,-  Sittd  parliament.  A 
little  before  the  surrender  of  the  garrison  of  Oxford,  he 
had  the  degree  of  B.  D.  ctlnferred  upon  him ;  and  aboiit 
the  latter  end  of  1658  he  was  presented  to  the  living  of 
Hanwell,  having  been  before,-  as  Mr.  Wood  thkik's,  chaplain 
in  the  family  of  sir  Anthony  Cope,  lord  of  the  manor  of 
Hanwell.  He  bad  the  character  of  a  very  peaceable  and 
religioifs  man,  and  was  well  versed  in  logic,  the  schooimenj, 
and  fathers.  He  wrote,  1 .  "  Fides  Apostolica,  or,  a  dis-* 
course  asserting  the  received  authors  and  authority  of  the 
Apostles*  Creed/'  Oxon,  1653,  8vo;  to  which  wa»  added  st 
double  appendix,  the  first  touching  the  Athanasiany  the 
second  the  Niceiie  creed.  Baxter^  whc/,  in  his  '*  Reformed 
Pastor,"  had  advanced  some  things  against  thia  work,  ex-* 
|)res9ed  his  regret  afterwards,  in  his  "  Catholic  Theology,'^ 
for  having  said  any  thing  against  it.  S.  **  Gestns^  Eucha- 
risticus,  concerning  the  Gesture  to  be  used  at  the  receiving 
die  Sacrament,"   Oxon.    1663,  8vo.     3.  <<  De  Socino  ct 

1  Nichols's  A'ife  of  Bowyer.— Cole's  MS  Ath^si  in  Brie.  l£o8.-^£^d  *Or< 
ford's  Works,  toI.  I.  p*  4  ^  vol.  IV.  p.  414,  415,  463, 

A  S  H  W  I  L  L.  M9 

So^mianismo ;  a  treatise  on  the  Socinian  heresy/*  said  to 
he  {M»t  of  a  greater  trork  in  manuscripts  4.  **  De  Eccle* 
na,  &c<r  a  dissertation  concerning  the  church  of  Ronie  ;^ 
ako  a  part  of  his  great  work  on  Controversies^  published  at 
Oxford,  1688^  4to.  5.  ^'An  Answer  to  Plato  Redivivus,^ 
in  manuscript.  He  also  translated,  frooi  PococVs  edition, 
**  Fbilosophos  Autodidactus,  sive  Epistola  Abi  Gioaphar 
£bn  Topbailde  Hai  Ebn  Yokdan/^  &c.  Lond.  1686,  Svo. 
Our  audior  died  at  Han  well,  Feb.  8,  169S,  and  was  buried 
in  the  church  of  that  place,  of  which  he  had  been  thirty* 
five  years  rector.  * 

ASHWORTH  (Caleb),  a  dissenting  minister,  was  borh 
in  Northamptonshire  1709,  and  served  an  apprenticeship 
to  a  carpenter ;  but  having  a  taste  for  learning,  he  was 
entered  a  student  in  the  academy  kept  by  Dr.  Doddridge, 
where  he  made  great  proficiency  in  all  sorts  of  useful  know* 
ledge.  He  was  afiberwaards  ordained  minister  of  a  dissent* 
ing  congregation  at  Daventry;  and  became  master  of  the 
academy  kept  by  the  excellent  Dr.  Doddridge,  by  the  doc« 
tor^s  express  desire  in  his  will.  He  died  much  respected  at 
Dairentry,  1 774,  aged  stx'ty-five.  His  principles  are  sakl 
to  have  been  those  of  moderate  Calvinism.  He  published 
three  ^  funeral  Sermons,*^  on  the  deaths  of  Dr.  Watt^, 
Mr.  Floyd,  and  Mr.  Clark ;  a  <<  Collection  of  Tunes  and 
Anthema;''  a  ^*  H^ebrew  Grammar;*'  and  an  *^  Introduc- 
tion to  ^lane  Trigonometry.''  * 

AStNARI  (Fredbkic),  count  de  Camerano,  a  nobleman 
af  Asti  m- Piedmont,  flourished  about  1550.  In  his  youth 
he  fdiowed  the  professiott  of  arms,  and  was  sent  by  the 
duke  of  Savoy,  with  four  hundred  men,  to  assist  Maximi- 
lian II.  when  be  held  a  diet  to  oppose  the  army  of  Soliman, 
an  event  which  i^  siaid  to  have  been  commemorated  by  a 
aiedal,  with  the  inscription,  '<  Fredericus  Asinarius  co« 
Camerani."  Asinari  amused  his  leisure  hours  with  poetry, 
and  submitted  his  compositions  to  the  Celebrated  Annibal 
Caro ;  and  they  were  afterwards  published  in  various  coU 
leetioiis.  1.  **  Two  Sonnets,"  in  the  second  part^^of  the 
«  Scelta  di  Rime  di  diversi  excellenti  Poeti,"  b^  ^libata, 
1579,  13mo.  2.  **Four  Canzoni^  and  a  Sonnet,"  iff  the 
**  Muse  Toscane"  of  Gherard  Borgogni,  '1 594,  Site. 
J.   *•  Bighty«4;wo  pieces,   sonnets,  canzoni,  hnadxigals,^ 

1  Bi«f .  Brit—Ath.  Ox.  to].  IT. 

*  Letters  to  DissentiDg  Minutefs^  by  Orton.<-«E:ippis'i  Liie  of  Doddri<IfOt 
p.  143. 

69  A.SINARt. 

Ac.  in  Borgognrs  *^  Rimfe  di  diversi  illustri  Poeti,"  Ve- 
jiice/  1599,  12mo«  Among  his  other  works,  which  remain 
in  manuscript,  there  are,  in  the  library  of  Turin,  **  Vari 
Sonetti  e  Canzoni;"  "  II  Tancredi,"  a  tragedy;  "  Tre 
libri  delle  transformazioni  ;'•  and  "  Tre  libri  delP  via 
d^Orlando."  Copies  of  these  are  ako  in  the  library  of  St^ 
Mark  at  Venice.  .  The  tragedy  of  Tancred  was  printed  at 
'^^  Paris,  1587,  8vo,  under  the  title  of  "  Gismonda,"  one  of 
the  dramatis,  persomey  and  attributed  to  Torquato  Tasso. 
Kext  year  an  edition  wa^  printed  at  Bergamo,  4to,  in  which 
this  error  was  corrected,  but  another  substituted  by  stat-» 
ing,  that  it  was  the  performance  of  Ottavio  Asinari,  the  fa-* 
ther  of  our  author ;  and  the  editor,  Gherard  Borgogni, 
either  was,  or  aifected  to  be  ignorant  of  the  edition  pre^ 
Tiously  printed  at  P^-ris,* 

ASKEW  (Anne),  daughter  of  sir  William  Askew,  of 
ICelsay,  in  (.ipcolnsbire,  knight,  was  born  in  1529..  She 
received  a  liberal  and  learned  education,  and  manifested 
in  early  life  a  predilection  for  theological  studies.  Her 
eldest  sister,  after  having  been  contracted  in  marriage  to 
the  son  of  Mr.  Kyme,  of  Lincolnshire,  died  before  the 
nuptials  were  cgpipleted.  Her  father,  on  this  event,  un-t 
willing  to  lose  a,  connection  which  promised  pecuniary 
fidvantages,  compelled  his  second  daughter  Atine,  not«^ 
withstanding .  h^r  reluctance,  to  become  the  wife  of  Mr. 
Kyme,  a  marriage  which  probably  laid  the  foundation  of 
her  future  misfortunes*  Her  husband  was  a  bigoted  Ro*- 
man  Catholic,  while  she,  by  studying  the  scriptures  and 
the  opinions  of  the  reformers,  i^ecame  a  convert,  which  so 
disgusted  him  that  he  turned  her  out  of  doors.  Conceiv- 
ing herself,  by  this. treatment,  at  liberty  to  sue  for  a  sepa* 
ration^  she  came  to  London,  where  she  was  favourably 
received  by  some  of  the  ladies  of  the  court,  ^.nd  by  the 
queen,  who  secretly  favoured  the  reformed  religion.  But 
at  length  she  was  accused,  by  her  husband  and  the  priests, 
of  hol(||ng  heretical  opinions  respecting  the  sacrament  j 
and*  h^  1545,  was  apprehended,  and  repeate41y  es^amined 
by  CJfristdpher  Dare,  the  lord  mayor,  the  bishops,  chancel- 
ior^;^nd  others,  to  whose  questions  she  replied  in  a  firm, 
eaisy,  and  ^^constrained  manner,  and  even  with  some  de<w 
^ree  of  wit  aid  ridicule.  She  was  then  committed  to  prison 
for^  tieyea  cays^  and  prohibited  from  any  commiinicatioa 

^  »  ^Piog.  UaiversellCf  ^ 

ASKEW.  «i 

Mfh  her  friends.  During  this  confinement,  she  employe^l 
herself  in  composing  prayers  and  meditations,  and  in  forti* 
fying  her  resolution  to  endure  the  trial  of  her  principles. 

On  the  23d  of  March,  a  relation,  who  had  obtained  per«» 
mission  to  visit  her,  endeavoured  to  bail  her,  and  his 
earnest  application  to  the  mayor,  to  the  chancellor,  and 
to  Bonner,  the  bishop  of  London,  was  at  length  success- 
ful. On  this  occasion  she  was  brought  before  the  bishop/*" 
who  affected  concern  for  what  she  had  suffered,  while  he 
endeavoured  to  entrap  her  by  ensnaring  questions.  Mr* 
Britagne,  her  relation,  and  Mr.  Spilman,  of  Gray's  iun» 
became  h^  sureties.  But  a  short  time  after,  she  was  again 
apprehended,  and  summoned  before  the^ing's  council,  at 
Greenwich,  when  Wriothesely  the  chancellor,  Gardiner 
bishop  of  Winchester,  and  other  prelates,  once  more  ques- 
tioned her  on  the  doctrines  of  the  church  of  Rome.  She 
replied  with  firmness,  and  without  prevarication,  and  on 
finding  her  impracticable,  her  judges  determined  on  other 
measures,  and  remanded  her  to  Newgate,  though  she  was  at 
the  time  suffering  under  a  severe  indisposition.  Having 
entreated,  in  vain,  to  be  allowed  a  visit  from  Dr.  Latimer, 
she  addresseda letter  to  the  king  himself,  declaring — ^^  That 
respecting  the  Lord's  supper,  she  believed  as  much  as  had 
b^n  taught  by  Christ  himself,  or  as  the  Catholic  church  . 
required." — But  still  refusing  her  assent  to  the  popish 
meaning,  her  letter  served  only  to  aggravate  her  crime. 
She  then  wrote  to  the  chancellor,  inclosing  her  address  to 
the  king,  but  with  no  better  success.  From  Newgate  she 
was  conveyed  to  the  Tower,  where  she  was  interrogated 
respecting  her  patrons  at  court  with  several  ladies  of  which 
she  held  a  correspondeuce,  but,  heroically  maintaining  her 
fidelity,*  she  refused  to  make  any  discoveries  of  tliat  kind. 
This  magnanimity,  so  worthy  of  admiration,  so  incensed 
her  bsurbarous  persecutors,  that  they  endeavoured  by  the 
lack  to. extort  &om  her  what  she  had  refused  to  their  de-- 
mauds,.  but  idie  sustained  the  torture  with  unshaken  forti* 
tode  and  meek  resignation.  Wriothesely,  with  unmanly 
and  infernal  rage,  commanded,  with  menaces,  the  lieute* 
nant  of  the  Tower  to  strain  the  instrument  of  his  vengeance, 
and  when  he  refused,  he  himself  became  executioner,  and 
every  limb  of  the  innocent  victim  was  dislocated.  When 
recovered  f^om  a  swoon  into  which  she  fell,  she  remained 
sitting  two  hours  on  the  bare  ground,  calmly  reasoning  with 
her  tormentors^  who  were  confounded  by  her  courage  and 


fe^oItitioB.  Ps^rdoi!!  w$^  afterwardU  offered  if  Hhe  woiAl 
recant,  but  having  rejected  every  offer  of  the  kmd^  the 
was  condemned  to  be  burnt  at  thie  stake,  wbi^b  was-aC'^ 
cordingly  executed,  July  16, 1546.  She  bore  this  infaiMiian 
punishment  with  amazing  courage  and  firmness,  adhering 
(o  the  last  to  the  principles  of  her  faith*  ^ 

ASKEW  (Anthony),  M.  D.  an  excellent  scholar  and 
promoter  o(  literature,  was  born  at.Kendal  in  Westaiore^^ 
land,  in  1729.  His  father.  Dr.  Adam  Askew,  waa  in  such 
high  estimation  at  Newcastle,  tha4:  he  was  considered  as 
another  Radcliffe,  and  consulted  by  all  ifche  families  c€ 
i^onsequence  for  many  miles  round.  .  Anthony  was  edu^ 
cated  at  Sedburgh  school,  and  from  thenee  removed  to 
Emanuel  college,  in  Cambridge,  where  he  continued  ua^ 
til  he  took  bis  degree  of  B.  A«  in  December  1745.  He 
then  went  to  Leyden,  and  resided  there  twelve  months^ 
with  the  view  of  being  initiated  into  the  science  of  medi*» 
eine.  In  the  following  year  we  find  him  in  the  suite  of 
his  majesty's  ambassador  at  Constantinople.  Returning 
from  thence  through  Italy,  he  came  to  Paris  in  1749,  and 
was  admitted  a  member  of  the  aeademiy  of  belles  lettres* 
He  had  here  an  opportunity  of  purchasing  a  ccnsiderabls 
number  of  rare  and  valuable  MSS.  and  printed  books  in 
the  classics,  and  in  various  branches  of  science,  and  of.lay« 
ing  the  foundation  of  an  elegant  and  extensive  library^ 
which  soon  after  his  death  was  sold  by  Baker  and  Leigfa, 
Tavistock-streeV  for  upwards  of  5000^. 

Having  finished  his  travels,  be  returned  to  Cambridge, 
and  in  the  year  1750  commenced  M.  D.  He  was  soon  after 
admitted  fellow  of  the  Royal  College  of  Physicians,  and 
dT  the  Royal  Society,  in  London.  What  time  conld  hn 
afterwards  spared  from  attending  bis  professional  engage«i» 
xnents  was  dedicated  to  the  conversation  of  literary  meui 
and  to  increasing  and  arranging  his  collection  of  booka^ 
He  died  at  Hampstead,  in  the  neighbourhood  of  London, 
Feb.  27,  1774.  Amongst  his  bboks  and  MSS.  was  a  com^ 
plete  collection  of  the  editions  of  w£schylus,  some  iUotfi* 
trated  with  MS  notes,  and  likewise  one  or  two,  if  not 
more,  MSS.  of  the  same  author;  which  were  collected 
purposely  for  the  intention  of  publishing  at  some  future 
period  an  edition  of  iEscbylus.  In  1746,  he  printed  a 
specimen  of  this  intended  edition  in  a  small  quarto  pam-* 

^  Fox^s  AqU  and  MonaDieDts.«-*BaUiir4'J  lIeiiioiri» 


ASKEW.  tf5 

phlet  attder  the  following  title :  **  Novae  Editioiiis  Tragoe* 
dianim  £schyli  Specimen,  curante  Antonio  Askew,  M.  B. 
ColL  Emman.  apud  Cantabrigienses  hand  ita  pridem  socio 
C(»mnensali,  Lugduni  Bat^voruoi,  1746/'  This  pamphiet, 
which  is  now  become  extremely  scarce,  was  dedicated  ta 
Dr.  Mead,  and  consisted  only  of  twenty-nine  lines,  namely, 
from  V.  563  to  v.  596  of  the  Eumenides  (edit,  Scbultz):  It 
contained  various  readings  from  his  MSS.  and  printed 
books,  and  the  Notse  Variorum.  Dr.  Askew  was  indeed 
reckoned  one  of  th&  best  Grecians  in  England.  Dr.  Tay« 
lor,  usually  called  Demosthenes  Taylor,  was  his  great 
friend,  from  a  similarity  of  taste  and  study,  and  left  him 
his  executor,  and  heir  to  bis  noble  collection  of  books^and 

ASPEIt  (Hans),  a  Swiss  painter,  was  born  1499,  at* 
Zurich,  and  painted  portraits  with  so  much  life,  nature, 
and  character,  that  his  reputation  was  littje  inferior  to  that 
of  Holbeiu«  His  drawings  in  water-colours,  of  birds,  fishes, 
dead  game,  and  flowers,  though  done  with  great  simplicity 
and  freedom,  are  nearly  deceptions.  He  is  said  to  ba?e 
furnished  the  designs  for  Conrad  Gesner's  ^'  Historia  Ant- 
maliuin;*'  nor  was  he  ignorant  of  historic  composition. 
Many  of  Rodolph  Meyer's  etchings  for  Murer's  •*  Helvetia 
Sancta"  were  drawn  from  his  originals.  To  record  his  me- 
rit, a  medal  was  struck,  with  his  head,  name,  and  age, 
in  front ;  and  on  the  reverse,  a  death's  skull,  with  a  moral 
sentence  itt  rhyme.  That  he  should  have  been  suffered, 
after  such  a  pledge  of  public  esteem,  to  live  and  die  in 
iadigence,  is  not  easily  accoitnted  for.     He  died  in  1571.* 

ASSELIN  (Giles  Thomas),  doctor  of  the  Sorbonne,  and 
provisor  of  the  college  of  Hareourt,  wa»  bom  at  Vire  in 
1682.  He  was  the  scholar  of  Thomas  Comeille,  and  the 
friend  of  la  Motte-Houdar,  and  appointed  principal  of  the 
college  of  Hareourt.  He  died  at  Issy^  October  11,  1767, 
at  the  age  of  eighty<^five.  He  had  borne  off  the  prize  of 
poetry  at  the  French  academy  in  1709,  and  those  of  the 
idyllium  and  the  poem  at  the  floral  games  in  1711.  The 
ode  on  the  existence  of  God,  and  the  immortality  of  the 
soul,  is  his  best  performance;  His  poems  crowned  at  the 
a^ademie  Fran^oise,  and  at  that  of  the  jeux  floreau,  add  less 
lustre  lo  his  name,   as  hi^  verification  is  low,  and  his 

1  Gent.  Mag.  vol.  LXXIII.— Cole's  MSS  Atkens  Cantab,  in  Brit.  Mm.-* 
Bttm'i  History  of  Westraoreiand. 
*  PAking ton's  Diet,— Biog.  Uoirersellc 


style  d^Gierit  in  force  and  ornament*  Bat  Asselin  Wilii' 
cli&tinguished  for  his  zeal  in  behalf  of  letters^  and  his  ad^ 
berence  to  integrity.  His  poetiqai  works,  and  an  address 
to  the  deists  in  behalf  of  truths  were  published  at  Paris, 
1725,  8vo.* 

ASSELYN  (John),  a  Flemish  painter,  was  born  at  Ant«» 
werp  in  1610,  and  was  a  disciple  of  Esaias  Vandervelde^ 
and  under  the  guidance  of  so  able  a  master^  he  became  an 
excellent  painter  of  landscape.  His  companions  nicknamed 
lum  Crabbe^e,  from  a  crooked  turn  in  his  fingers  and  his 
bandy  which  caused  him  to  hold  his  pallet  with  some  de-^ 
gree  of  awkwardness.  And  yet,  by  the  lightness,  freedom^ 
and  spirit  of  his  touch,  it  could  not  be  supposed  that  his 
hand  had  the  smallest  imperfection.  He  was  one  of  the 
first  Flemish  painters  who  adopted  the  clean  and  1>right 
manner  of  landscape  painting.  He  studied  after  nature  in 
the  country  about  Rome,  improving  his  taste  by  the  de* 
lightful  situations  of  towns,  villas,  antiquities,  figures,  and 
animals,  which  he  sketched  upon  paper,  to  make  a  proper 
use  of  them  in  his  designs.  In  the  style  of  Ifis  landscape 
he  chose  particularly  to  imitate  Claude  Lorraine ;  but  in 
other  parts  of  his  painting  he  seemed  fond  of  making  Bam- 
boccio  his  model.  He  enriched  his  landscapes  with  the 
vestiges  of  noble  buildings,  and  the  views  of  such  seats  as 
he  observed  to  be  beautiful,  by  their  situation  or  c<Histruc- 
tion.  His  colouring  is  extremely  bright  and  clear;  his 
skies  are  warm  ;  his  touch  is  free  and  firm ;  his  figures  and 
animals  are  well  drawn,  and  judiciously  disposed ;  and  his 
pictures  justly  merit  the  approbation  which  they  have  always 

Of  the  personal  history  of  this  artist  very  little  is  known. 
He  married  at  Lyons  in  1645,  the  daughter  of  a  merchant 
of  Antwerp,  who  happened  accidentally  to  be  in  that  place, 
and  died  at  Amsterdam  in  1660,  in  the  fiftieth  year  of  bis 
age.  ^  Perelle  has  engraved  some  of  his  landscapes,  and  of 
bis  Italian  ruins.  * 

ASSEMANI  (Joseph  Simon),  keeper  of  the  Vatican, 
and  archbishop  of  Tyre,  who  died  at  Rome  in  his  eightieth 
year,  Jan.  14,  1768,  was  a  v^ry  able  scholar  in  the  lan» 
guages  of  the  East.  During  the  years  from  17 19  to  1728, 
he  published  a  work  of  great  importance  to  the  collectors 

.*  Biop.  Unirerselle. 

*  Pilkiogton's  Diet. — Abregi  de  la  Vie  des  plus  fftOMo^  Paintres,  t^I.  IIU 
p.  132.— Sandrart,  p.  304. 


ASS  E  M  A  N  f.  ■      €S' 

^  Oriental  manuscripts,  in  th^  mafincr<1>f  Herfeelot)  en- 
titled "  BiUiotbeca  Orientalit,  Ctementino-Vatieana,  re- 
eenseivs,  mamisoriptos  oodices,  Syriaco»,  Arabicos,  &c. 
jtBflu  et  mumiioenti&  Clem*  XL"  Rome,  17)9—1728, 4  vols. 
foL  He  published  also,  2.  An  edition  of  the  works  df 
Ephrem  Syrus,  Rome,  1732 — 1734,  6  vols.  fol.  3.  *^De 
Sanctis  Ferentinis  in  Tascia  Bonifecio  ae  Redempto  epis- 
copisy  &€.  dissertatio,"  Rome,  1745.  4.  ^^Italicse  histories 
scriptores  ex  Bibl.  Vatic.' &c.  eoltegit  et  preefat.  notisque 
]lin€itravit  J.  S.  Assemanus,**  Rome,  1751 — 1753,  4  vols. 
4to.  5.  <^  Kalendaria  ecelesiaB  universsBj"  Rome,  1755---^ 
1757,  6  vols.  4to.  His  edition  of  Ephrem  is  by  far  the 

ASSEMANI  (Stei^en  Evooius),  nephew  of  the  pre- 
eeding,  tod  archbishop  of  Apamea,  succeeded  his  uncle 
in  the  charge  of  the  Vatican  library,  and  became  equally 
celebrated  as  an  eastern  scholar  and  a  man  of  general  learn-» 
ing.  His  works  are,  1.  **  Bibliothecse  Mediceo-Lauren- 
tiansB  et  Palatine  codicum  manuscr.  Orientalium  catailo- 
gus/'  Flor^ce,  1742,  2  vols.  fol.  with  notes  by  Gori.  2. 
♦*  Acta  sanctorum  martyrum  Orientalium  et  Occidentalium^ 
&c.  Rome^  1748,  2  vols.  fol.  In  conjunction  with  his  uncle^ 
he  published  "  Bibl.  Apoist.  Vatic,  codic.  MS8.  Catal.'* 
Rome,  1756 — ►1769.  This  was  to  have  consisted  of  4  vols, 
and  he  had  printed  some  sheets  of  the  fourth,  when  an  ac-- 
cidental  fire  destroyed  the  manuscript.  The  time  of  his 
death  is  not  mentioned^' 

ASSER,  a  celebrated  rabbi,  in  the  year  476,  in  con- 
junction with  Hammai,  another  rabbi,  composed  the  Tal- 
mud of  Babylon,  so  called  from  the  place  of  their  resi- 
dence. This  collection  of  visions  has  had  the  honour  of 
two  commentators,  the  rabbi  Mah*  in  the  year  547,  and 
another  Asser,  who  died  in  1328,  and  was  printed  by  El- 
«ivir  at  Leyden^  -in  1630,  4to,  and  again  with  all  its  com- 
mentators at  Amsterdam  in  1 644,  in  1 2  vols,  folio. ' 

ASSERIUS  (Menevensis),  or  ASSER,orASKER(calU 
ed,  by  Pitts,  John,)  a  learned  monk  of  St.  DavidTs,  atiA 
historian,  wis  of  British  extraction,  probably  of  that  part 
of  South  Wales  called  Pembrokeshire,  and  was  bred  up  ill 
the  learning  of  those  times,  in  the  monastery  of  St.  David's 
(in  Latin  Menevia),  whence  he  derived  his  surname  of 
Menevensis.     There  he  is  said  to  have  had  for  his  tutor 

.    ^  Bio(.Univei^}4.--«JSlni»On<miaft<         .  9^  Ibid,        »$si)g.UDi«ersdla^'^ 

Vol.111.  F  ' 


Johannes  Patriciui^y  one  of  the  most  celebrated  seholftrs  of 
his  age^  and  had  i^lso  the  countenance  of  Nobis,  or  Novis^ 
archbishop  of  that  see,  who  was  his  relation ;  but  it  does 
not  appear  that  he  was  either  his  secretary  or  his  chan« 
cellor,  as  some  writeris  would  have  us  believe.  From  St, 
David's  he  was  invited  to  the  court  of  Alfred  the  Great,' 
merely  from  the  reputation  of  his  learning,  probably  about 
the  year  880,  or  somewhat  earlier.  Those  who  had  the  charge 
of  bringing  him  to  court,  conducted  him  from  St.  David's 
to  the  town  of  Dene  (Dean)  in  WiltshirCj  where  the  king- 
received  him  with  great  civility,  and  shewed  him  in  a  little 
time  the  strongest  marks  of  favour  and  affection,  insomuch' 
that  he  condescended  to  persuade  him  not  to  think  any 
more  of  returning  to  St.  David's,  but  rather  to  continue 
with  him  as  his  domestic  chaplain  and  assistant  in  his  studies; 
Asserius,  however,  modestly  declined  this  proposal,  al- 
ledging,  that  it  did  not  become  him  to  desert  that  holy 
place  where  he  had  been  educated,  and  received  the  order 
of  priesthood,  for  the  sake  of  any  otlier  preferment.  King 
Alfred  then  desired  that  he  would  divide  his  time  between 
the  court  and  the  monastery,  spending  six  months  at  court,* 
and  six  at  St.  David's.  Asserius  would  not  lightly  comply 
even  with  this  request,  but  desired  leave  to  return  to  St; 
David's,  to  ask  the  advice  of  his  brethren,  which  he  ob« 
tained,  but  in  his  journey  falling  ill  at  Winchester  of  a  fe- 
ver, he  lay  there  sick  about  a  year ;  and  as  soon  as  he  re* 
covered  he  went  to  St.  David's,  where,  consulting  with  his 
brethren  on  the  king's  proposal,  they  unanimously  agreed 
that  he  should  accept  it,  promising  themselves  great  ad- 
vantages from  his  favour  with  the  king,  of  which,  at  that 
time,  they  appear  to  have  had  need,  to  relieve  them  from 
the  oppressions, of  one  Hemeid^  a  petty  prince  of  South 
'Wale3.  But  they  requested  of  Asserius,  that  he  would 
prevail  on  the  lung  to  allow  him  to  reside  quarterly  at 
court  and  at  St.  David's,  rather  than  that  he  should  remain 
dt>sent  six  months  together.  When  he  came  back  he  found 
the  king  at  Leoneforde,  who  received  him  with  every  mark 
of  distinction.  He  remained  with  him  then  eight  months 
at  once,  reading  and  explaining  to  him  whatever  books 
were  in  his  library,  and  grew  into  so  great  credit  with  that 
•generous  prince,  that  on  Christmas-eve  following,  he  gave 
him  the  monasteries  of  Amgresbyri,  and  Banuwille,  that 
is,  Ambrosbury  in  Wiltshire,  and  Banwell  in  Somersetshire, 
with  a  silk  pall  of  great  value,  an4  as  much  incense  as  a 

A  s  s  £  R  I  u  &  er 

strong  man.  could  carry^  aending  together  with  them  this 
compliment,  <^  That  these  were  but  small  things,  and  by 
way  of  earnest  of  better  which  should  follow  them/*  Sooa 
after,  he  had  Exeter  bestowed  upon  him,  and  not  long 
after  that,  the  bishopric  of  Sherburn,  which,  however,  he 
seems-  to  have  quitted  in  the  year  883,  though  he  always 
retained  the  title,  as  Wilfred  archbishop  of  York  was  con- 
stantly so  styled,  though  he  accepted  of  another  bishopric* 
Thenceforward  he  constantly  attended  the  court,  in  the 
manner  before  stipulated,  and  is  named  as  a  person,  in 
whom  he  had  particular  confidence,  by  king  Alfred,  in  his 
testament,  which  must  have  been  written  some  time  be- 
fore the  year  885;  since  mentioii  is  made  thereof  Esna 
bishop  of  Hereford,  who  died  that  year.  He  is  also  men- 
tioned by  the  king,  in  his  prefatory  epistle  placed  before 
his  translation  of  Gregory's  Pastoral,  addressed  to  Wulfsig 
bishop  of  London  ;  and  there  the  king  does  not  call  him 
bishop  of  Sherburn,  but  **  my  bishop,"  acknowledging  the 
help. receiyed  from  him  and  others  in  that  translation.  It 
appears  to  have  been  the  near  resemblance,  which  the 
genius  of  Asserius' bore  to  that  of  the  king,  that  gained 
him  so  great  a  share  iu  his  confidence ;  and  very  probably, 
it  was  on  this  account,  that  Asserius  drew  up  those  me** 
moirs  of  the  life  of  Alfred  which  we  still  have,  and  which 
be  dedicated  and  presented  to  the  king  in  the  year  893.  In 
this  work  we  have  a  curious  account  of  the  manner  in 
which  that  prince  and  our  author  spent  their  time  together. 
Asserius  tells  us,  that  having  one  day,  being  the  feast  of 
St.  Martin,  cited  in  conversation  a  passage  of  some  famous 
author,  the  king  was  mightily  pleased  with  it,  and  would 
have  him  write  it  down  in  the  margin  of  a  book  he  carried 
in  his  breast ;  but  Asserius  finding  no  room  to  write  it 
there,  and  yet  being  desirous  to  gratify  his  master,  he 
asked  king  Alfred  whether  he  should  not  provide  a  few 
ieaves,  in  which  to  set  down  such  remarkable  things  as 
occurred  either  in  reading  or  conversation  :  the  king  was 
delighted  with  this  hint,  and  directed  Asserius  to  put  it 
immediately  in  execution.  Pursuing  this  method  con- 
stantly, th^ir  collection  began  to  swell,  till  at  length  it 
became  of  the  size  of  an  ordinary  Psalter ;  and  this  was 
what  the  king  called  his  ^'  Hand-book,  or  Manual."  As- 
serius, bkowever,  calls,  it  Enchiridion.  In  all  probability, 
Asserius  continued  at  court  during  the  whole  reign  of  Al- 
fred, and,  probably^  several  years  after :   but  where,  or 

F   2 


rw)iie|ibe  died  is  doubtful,  though  the  Saxon  Chronicle  pt)^ 
sitively  fixes  it  to  the  year  910.  The  editor  of  his  life  in 
the  Biog,  Brit,  tdkes  Asser  the  monk,  and  Asser  bishop  of 
ShQi'burn,  for  one  and  the  same  person,  which  somehow-^ 
c^ver  have  denied,  and  asserts  him  to  have  been  also  arch-*- 
^sliOp  of  St.  David* s,  upon  very  plausibly  authority.  He 
admits,  however,  that  if  there  was  such  a  reader  in  the 
public  $eh{>o)9  at  Oxford  as  Asser  the  monk,  be  must  have 
Jbieen  some  other  person  of  the  same  name,  and  not  our  au- 
thor :  but  this  point  rests  almost  wholly  on  the  authority 
of  Harj^sfield  ;,  nor  is  the  account  consistent  with  itself  ia 
A^veral  other  respects,  as  sir  John  Spelman  has  justly  ob« 
$erved.  There  is  no  less  controversy  about  the  works  of 
Asserius,  than  about  his  pi-eferments :  for  some  alledge 
^hat  he  never  wrote  any  thing  but  the  Annals  of  king  Al« 
fired :  wbereas,  Pitts  gives  us  the  titles  of  no  less  than  five 
Qtber  hooks  of  his  writing,  and  adds,  that  he  wrote  many 
more.  The  first  of  these  is  a  *'  Commentary  on  Boetius,'* 
which  is  mentioned  by  Leland,  on  the  authority  of  the 
Chronicle  of  St.  Neot's  :  but  he  probably  only  explaihed 
tliis  author  to  king  Alfred  when  he  made  his  Saxon  ti*ans- 
lation.  The  second  piece  mentioned  by  Pitts,  is  the  An* 
Dais  of  Alfred's  life  and  reign.  The  third  he  styles  **  An- 
nates Britannia?,*'  or  the  Annals  of  Britain,  in  one  book, 
'  meutioned  also  by  Leland  and  Bale,  and  which  has  been 
ftinee  published  by  the  learned  Dr.  Gale.  The  fourth  piece, 
he  calls  ^^  Aurearum  Sententiarum  Enchiridion,  lib.  1.'* 
Vhi^h  is  without  question  the  Manual  or  common-place- 
\m>k  made  for  king  Alfred,  and  reckoned  among  bis  works 
by  Pitts  himself.  Leland  has  also  spoken  of  this  Enchiri- 
dion, as  an  instance  of  the  learning  and  diligence  of  Asser^ 
which  it  certainly  was :  and  though  the  collections  he  made 
f^oncerning  this  author,  are  much  better  and  larger  than 
those  of  Bale  and  Pitts,  yet  he  modestly,  upon  this  subject^ 
apologizes  for  speaking  so  little  and  so  obscurely  of  so  great 
a  msLU.  The  next  in  Pitts's  catalogue,  is  a  "Book  of  Ho- 
lailies,''  and  the  last,  "  A  Book  of  Epistles  :**  but  the  ex- 
ifijleoce  of  these  seems  unsupported  by  any  authority ;  nop 
in  it  known  where  be  was  interred.  He  appears  to  bare 
been  one  of  the  most  pious  and  learned  prelates  of  the  age 
ia  Which  he  lived.    . 

,  His  "  Life  of  Alfred"  was  first  published  by  archbishop 
Flb^ker  at  the  end  of  M  Walsinghami  Hist"  London,  1574^ 
fol.  and  it  vfs»  reprinted  by  Camden  in  kW  ^  Auglia,  Nor«* 

ASSERius  e^r 

ijdanica^  &c/'  Francfort,  1603.  It  was  again  reprititi^,  \A 
a  very  elegant  octavo  volume,  by  Mr.  Wise^  at  Otfotdj 

ASSHETON  (Dr.  William),  son  of  Mr.  A^sheton,  rectof 
of  Middleton  in  Lancashire,  was  born  in  1641 ;  and  bein^ 
instructed  in  granunar-learning  at  a  private  country-scbooii 
was  removed  to  Brazen-Nose  college  at  Oxford,  in  1658.; 
and  elected  a  fellow  in  1663.  After  taking  bothhii^d^^ 
grees  in  arts,  he  wenl  into  orders,  became  chaplain  to  thd 
duke  of  Ormond,  chancellor  of  that  university,  and  wal 
admitted  doctor  of  divinity  in  January  1673.  In  the  foU 
lowing  month  he  was  nominated  to  the  prebend  of  Knares-^ 
burgh,  in  the  church  of  York ;  and  whilst  he  attended  hii 
patron  at  London,  obtained  the  living  of  St.  Aritholin.  M 
1670,  by  the  duke's  interest  with  the  family  of  the  St.  Johtis^ 
he  was  presented  to  the  rectory  of  Beckenham,  in  Keiit} 
and  was  often  unanimously  ehosen  proctor  for  Rochester  iti 

He  was  the  projector  of  the  scheme  for  providing  d 
maintenance  for  clergymen's  widows  and  others,  by  a  join- 
ture payable  by  the  Mercers'  company.  The  bfiiigitlg  thil^ 
project  to  perfection  took  up  his  thoughts  for  many  years ; 
for,  though  (Encouraged  by  many  judicious  persons  to  pro^ 
secute  it,  he  found  much  difficulty  in  providing  such  a  fund 
as  might  be  a  proper  security  to  the  subscribers.  He  fir^ 
addressed  himself  to  the  corpotation  of  the  tslergy,  whe 
declared  they  Were  not  in  a  capacity  to  accept  the  prdpd^ 
sal.  Meeting  with  no  better  success  in  bis  next  application 
to  the  Bdnk  of  England,  he  applied  himself  to  the  Met^ 
ters'  company^  who  agreed  with  him  upon  certain  tules 
and  orders,  of  which  the  following  ar6  the  chief : 

1.  "  That  the  Company  will  take  iri  subscriptiotis  at  ^xkf 
time,  till  the  sum  of  100,000/.  be  subscribed,  but  wiH 
never  exceed  that  sum.  2.  Thait  all  married  men,  at  the 
age  of  thirty  years  or  under,  may  subscribe,  any  sum  tick 
exceeding  1000/.  That  all  married  men,  not  exceeding 
the  age  of  forty  years,  may  subscribe  any  sum  not  exceed- 
ing 500/.  And  that  all  married  tnen,  not  exceeding  the 
age  of  sixty  years,  may  subscribe  any  sum,  not  exceeding 
300/.  And  that  die  widows  of  all  persons,  Vub^riblifig 
according  to  tliese  limitations,  ^k^W  i^eceive  the  benefit  of 

1  Biog.  Brit,  in  Aj^'serius.-^WhiUker's  Life  of/ St.  Neot,  who  enters  largely  iato 
Asserts  bistory,  ictid  proves  the  forgery  of  the  celebrated  passage  respecting  Ui9 
•lomidfltioa  of  t!ie  tiAivefsity  of  Oxford. 


70  A  S  S  H  E  T  O  N. 

30  per  ^ent.  per  annum,  according  to  the  former  proposal, 
free  of  all  taxes  and  charges,  at  the  two  usual  feasts  of  the 
Annunciation  of  the  Blessed  Virgin  Mary,  and  St.  Michael 
the  Archangel ;  and  that  the  first  of  these  payments  shall 
be  made  at  the  first  of  the  said  feast  days,  which  shall  hap- 
pen four  months  or  more  after  the  decease  of  the  person  or 
persons  so  subscribing ;  excepting  such  as  shall  voluntarily 
jnake  away  with  themselves,  or  by  any  act  of  theirs  occa- 
sion their  own  death ;  either  by  duelling  or  committing 
.any  crime,  whereby  they  shall  be  sentenced,  and  put  to 
death  by  justice :  in  any,  or  either  of  these  cases,  the 
inridows  to  receive  no  annuity ;  but,  upon  delivering  up  the 
company's  bond,  to  have  the  subscription  money  paid  to 
them.  3.  That  no  sea-faring  men  may  subscribe,  who  fol<- 
low  it  as  their  business  or  vocation;  nor  others,  who  go 
farther  than  Holland,  Ireland,  or  the  coasts  of  England; 
and  that  any  person  may  subscribe  for  any  others,  whom 
be  shall  nominate  in  bis  last  will,  during  the  natural  life 
of  his  wife,  if  she  survive,  and  his  intention  be  declareil 
in  his  subscription.''  The  company  had  several  meetings 
in  committees  with,  the  doctor,  about  settling  a  sufficient 
security;  in  which  they  satisfied  him  that  their  estates, 
being,  clear  rents,  amounted  to  28S8/.  8^.  lOd.  besides  the 
payments  of  the  benefactors,  to  be  paid  out  of  the  same ; 
which,  by  a  moderate  calculation,  would  yield,  when  the 
Jeases  came  out,  above  13,500/.  per  aiinum.  All  things 
being  agreed  upon,  the  deed  of  settlement  was  executed 
by  the  company  and  trustees,  at  a  general  court  of  the 
said  company,  held  on  Wednesday  the  4th  of  October,  1699* 
Thi^  deed  is  enrolled  in  the  high  court  of  chancery,  and 
an  authentic  copy  of  it  kept  by  the  company ;  but  owing 
to  some  miscalculations,  the  scheme  did  not  ultimately 
succeed,  as  originally  planned. 

A  few  years  before  his  death,  he  was  invited  to  accept 
the  headship  of  the  college,  then  vacant,  but  modestly 
declined  it.  He  died  at  Beckenham,  Sept.  1711,  in  the 
seventieth  year  of  his  age,  and  was  buried  in  the  chancel 
of  that  church.  The  writer  of  his  life  gives  him  the  highest 
character/ for  piety,  probity,  and  infiexible  adheirence  to 
the  doctrines  and  interests  of  the  church  of  England.  His 
general  sentiments  and  turn  of  mind  may  be  discovered  in 
the  titles  of  his  various  works :  1.  '^  Toleration  disapproved 
and  condemned  by  the  authority  and  convincing  reasons 
of,  I.  That  wise  and  learned  king  James,  and  his  privy- 



A  S  S  H  E  T  O  N.  Tl 

council.  Anno  Reg.  II*»®.  II.  The  honourable  Commons  as- 
sembled in  this  present  parliam^ent,  in  their  Votes,  &c. 
Feb.  25,  1662.  III.  The  Presbyterian  ministers  in  the  city 
©f  London,  met  at  Sion  College,  December  18,  1645. 
IV.  Twenty  eminent  divines,  most  (if  not  all)  of  them  mem- 
bers of  the  late  assembly;  in  their  Sermons  before  the  two 
houses  of  parliament  on  solemn  occasions.  Faithfully  col- 
lected by  a  very  moderate  hand,  and  humbly  presented  to  the 
serious  consideration  of  all  dissenting  parties,"  Oxford,  1 670. 
He  published  a  second  edition  of  this  book,  the  same  year, 
with  his  name,  and  the  pro- vice-chancel  lor  of  Oxford's 
imprimatur,  prefixed  to  it.  2.  **  The  Cases  of  Scandal  and 
Persecution -,  being  a  seasonable  inquiry  into  these  two 
things:  I.'Whether  the  Nonconformists,  who  otherwise 
think  subscription  lawful,  are  therefore  obliged  to  forbear 
it,  because  the  weak  brethren  do  judge  it  unlawful?  II. 
Whether  the  execution  of  penal  laws  upon  Dissenters,  for 
non-communion  with  the  Church  of  England,  be  persecu- 
tion ?  Wherein  they  are  pathetically  exhorted  to  return 
into  the  bosom  of  the  church,  the  likeliest  expedient,  to 
stop  the  growth  of  Popery,"  London,  1674.  3.  "The 
Royal  Apology:  or.  An  Answer  to  the  Rebel's  Plea; 
wherein  are  the  most  noted  anti-monarchical  tenets,  first 
published  by  Doleman  the  Jesuit,  to  promote  a  bill  of  ex- 
clusion against  king  James  I. ;  secondly,  practised  by  Brad- 
shaw,  and  the  regicides,  in  the  actual  murder  of  king 
Charles  I.;  thirdly,  republished  by  Sidney,  and  the  asso- 
ciates to  depose  and  murder  his  present  majesty,'^  London^ 
1685,  the  second  edition.  4.  ^^  A  seasonable  Vindication 
of  their  present  Majesties,"  London.  5.  **  The  Country 
Parson^s  Admonition  to  his  Parishioners  against  Popery ; 
with  directions  how  to  behave  themselves,  when  any  one 
designs  to  seduce  them  from  the  Church  of  England,*' 
London,  1686.  6.  "  A  full  Defence  of  the  former  Dis- 
course against  the  Missionaries  Answer :  being  a  farther 
examination  of  the  pretended  Infallibility  of  the  Church  of 
Rome :"  or,  as  it  is  intitled  in  the  first  impression,  **  A 
Defeiice  of  the  Plain  Man's  Reply  to' the  Catholic  Mis- 
sionaries,'* &c.  1688.  7.  **  A  short  Discourse  against  Blas- 
phemy,'' 1691.  8.  "A  Discourse  against  Drunkenness,'* 
1692.  9.  "A  Discourse  against  Swearing  and  Cursing," 
1692.  10.  "Directions  in  order  to  the  "suppressing  of 
Debauchery  and  Prophaneness,"  1693.  1 1  .**  A  Confer- 
ence with  an  Anabaptist ;  Part  I.  Concerning  the  subject 

7»  A  S  8  H  E  T  O  N. 

of  Baptism :  being  a  Defence  of  Infant-Baptistti,^  i^9h 
It  was  occasioned  by  a  separate  congregation  of  Anabaptist* 
being  set  up  in  Dr.  Assheton^s  parish  *,  but  the  meeting 
soon  breaking  up,  the  author  never  published  a  second 
part.    12.  "  A  Discourse  concerning  a  Death*bed  Repent* 
ance."    13.  "A  Thedlogical  Discourse  of  last  Wills  and 
TestamentSji"  London,  1696.    14.  <<  A  seasonable  Vindica^ 
ticm  of  the  blessed  Trinity ;  being  an  answer  to  this  ques-« 
tion,  Why  do  you  believe  the  doctrine  of  the  Trinity? 
Collected  from  the  works  of  the  most  reverend  doctof 
•^ohn  Tillotson,  late  lord  archbishop  of  Canterbury,  and 
the  right  reverend  doctor  ^ward  StillingiEl^et,  now  lord 
bishop  of  Worcester,"  Lond<H),  )  679.     15.  <*  A  brief  state 
of  the  Secinian  Controversy,  concerning  a  Trinity  in  Vni- 
tv ;"  collected  from' the  Works  of  Dr.  Isaac  Barrow,  Lon- 
dDO,  1698.     16.  "  The  Plain  Man's  Devotion,  Part  I.    In 
a  method  of  daily  Devotion ;  and,  a  method  of  Devotion 
for  the  Iiord's  Day.  Both  fitted  to  the  meanest  capacities/* 
)698.     17.  ^^  A  full  Account  of  the  rise,  progress,  and 
^vantages  of  Dr.  Assheton's  Proposal  (a's  now  improved 
and  managed  by  the  worshipful  company  of  Mercers,  Lpn« 
don,)  for  the  benefit  of  Widows  of  Clergymen,  and  others^ 
by  settled  Jointures  and  Annuities,  at  the  rate  of  thirty  per 
cent.     With. directions  for  the  widow  how  to  receive  her 
annuity,  without  any  delay,  charges,  or  deductions.  ^  Plead 
for  the  widow/  Isa.  i.  17.  1713.     18.  "A  Vindication  of 
the  Immortality  of  the  Soul,  and  a  Future  State,''  London, 
1703p    19.  ''A  brief  exhortation  to  the  Holy  Communion, 
with  the  nature  and  measures  of  Preparation  concerning  it ; 
fitted  to  ^e  meanest  capacities,'*  1705.     20.  "A  Mtethod 
of  Devotion  for  sick  and  dying  persons :  with  particular 
4ire.c4^ions  from  the  beginning  of  Sickness  to  the  hour  of 
Death,"  London,  1706.     21.  "The 'Possibility  of  Appari- 
tions :  being  an  answer  to  this  question ;  ^  Whether  can 
departed  souls  (souls  separated  from  their  bodies)  so  ap- 
pear, as  to  be  visibly  seen,  and  converse  here  on  earth  ?' 
This  book  was  occasioned  by  the  remarkable  story  of  one 
dying  at  Dover,  and  appearing  to  her  friend  at  Canterbury. 
22.  •*  Occasional  Prayers  from  bishop  Taylor,  bishop  Co- 
sins,   bishop   Kenn,"  &c.  and   **  A  devout  collection  of 
Divine  Hymns  and  Poems,  on  several  occasions,"  Lon-» 
don,  170S.   23.  ^*  A  seasonable  Vindication  of  the  Clergy  ; 
being  ai»  answer  to  some  reflections  in  a  late  box^k,  entitled 
The  Bights  of  the  Christian  Church  asserted,  ;&c.  Humbly^ 

A  6  «  H  E  T  O  .JST-  T> 

gul^mitted  to  the  serious  <:oDsideFatioiv  pf  the  QObilUy  and 

f entry  of  Gres^t  Britain.  By  a  Divine  of  the  Oburch  of 
.ondon/'  1709.  24.  ^^  Directions  for  the  Converaattoa  of 
the  Clergy  :  collected  from  the  Visitatiop  Charges  of  the 
right  reverend  father  in  Cod|  Edward  StillingBeet?  D.  D« 
late  lord  bishop  of  Worcester,"  London,  1710*  $25.  <'  Two 
Sermons :  onp  preached  before  the  Sons  of  the  Clergy,  at 
St.  Paul's,  December  6^  1699  ;  the  other  before  the  Ho^^ 
nourable  Society  of  the  Natives  of  the  County  of  Keqt,  at 
St.  Mary  le  Bow,  Nov.  21,  1700.  Mr.  Wood  mentions 
9.nother  Sermon  on  the  Danger  of  Hypocrisy,  preached  al; 
Guildhall  chapel,  Aug,  3,  1673.* 

J  ASSOUCI  (Charlies  Coypeaf;,  sieue  d')  called  the  Apz 
of  ScARRO^,  was  born  at  Paris  in  1604»  the  son  of  an  avo-* 
cat  of  parlement.  At  eight  years  old  he  ran  away  from  hia 
father^s  bouse,  stopped  at  Calais,  where  he  gave  himself 
out  for  the  son  of  Caesar  Nostradamus ;  and  having  set  i;ip 
for  a  q^uack,  he  succeeded  in  restoring  to  health  a  patient 
who  fancied  himself  sick.  The  people  of  Calais,  thinking 
that  he  derived  his  medical  skill  from  magic,  were  upoa 
the  point  of  throwing  him  into  the  sea,  and  it  was  ivith  dif^ 
ficulty  that  he  saved  himself  from  their  fury  by  flight. 
After  many  more  adv^tures  at  London,  at  Turin,  and  in 
various  other  places,  he  came  to  Montpellier,  where  some 
irregular  amours  drew  upon  hioi  the  noticeof  the  magistrate. 
He  then  strolled  about  from  one  country  to  another,  and 
at  length  arrived  at  Rome,  where  his  satires  upon  the  court 
procured  him  to  be  imprisoned  in  the  in^quisiitioD*  Beings 
returned  to  France,  he  was  sent  to  the  Bastille ;  and  after^ 
wards  was  conducted  to  the  Chatelet  for  the  same  crime 
for  which  he  had  been  arrested  at  Montpellier.  But,  find* 
ing  protectors,  he  was  liberated  at  the  end  of  six  months. 
He  died  in  1679.  His  poetry  was  collected  into  three  vols.' 
12mo,  1678.  Among  these  pieces  is  a  part  of  the  Meta«» 
morphoses  of  Ovid  translated,  under  the  title  of  "  Ovid  in- 
good  humour.'^  It  is  a  burlesque  version,  iii  which, Nas  in 
all  works  of  that  nature,  there  are  a  thousand  instances  of 
dullness,  and  a  thousand  nK>re  of  indecency,  for  one  lively 
and  ingenious  turn  of  wit  We  find  also  the  rape  of  Pro- 
serpine^ from  Claudian,  whom,  he  makes  harangue  in  the 
manner  of  declaimers.  Assouci  published  also  his  adv^i^ 
tures  in  a  style  of  buffoonery,  3  vols«  I^mp,  167S.     Upon; 

»  Life  of  Pr.  Assheton,  by  MTatts,  8w,  1714.-^Biog.  Brit.— Wood'*  Atlu 


n  A  s  s  o  u  c  r. 

the  whole  he  appears  to  have  been  one  of  those  writer^ 
that  may  be  passed  over  with  very  slight  notice,  a  man^ 
with  sometaleiTt  for  Humour,  but  destitute  of  principle. ' 

ASTELL  (Mary),  a  learned  and  ingenious  lady,  was 
the  daughter  of  Mr.  Astell,  a  merchant  at  Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne,  where  she  was  born  about  1668.  Her  uncle,  who 
was  a* clergyman,  having  discovered  her  superior  capacity, 
generously  undertook  to  be  her  preceptor ;  and,  under  bis 
tuition,,  she  learned  Italian  and  French,  and  made  a  con- 
siderable progress  in  logic,  philosophy,  and  the  mathe- 
matics. At  the  age  of  twenty,  she  left  Newcastle  and 
went  to  London,  where,  and  at  Chelsea,  she  spent  the 
temaining  part  pf  her  life.  Here  she  assiduously  prose- 
cuted her  studies,  and  acquired  very  considerable  attain- 
meats  in  all  the  branches  of  polite  literature.  When  the 
Rev.  John  Norris  published  his  "  Practical  Discourses 
upon  divine  subjects,"  several  excellent  letters  passed 
between  him  and  Mrs.  Astell  upon  the  love  of  God,  which, 
at  the- request  of  Mr.  Nortis,  she  suffered  him  to  publish 
in  1695,  without  her  name>  a  precaution  which  their  me- 
rit rendered  useless.  Having  often  observed  and  lamented 
the  defects  in  the  education  of  her  sex,  which,  she  said, 
were  the  principal  cavises  of  tbeif  running  into  so  many 
follies  and  improprieties,  she  published  in  1696,  an  inge- 
nious treatise,  entitled,  ^^  A  serious  Proposal  to  the  Ladies, 
for  the  advancement  of  their  true  and  greatest  interest,'* 
&c..  and,  some  time  after,  a  second  part,  under  the  same 
title,  with  this  addition:  *' wherein  a  Method  is  offered 
for .  the  Improvement  of  their  Minds.'*  Both  these  per* 
formances  were  published  together  in  1696,  and  had,  in 
some  measure,  the  desired  effect  The  scheme,  indeed, 
in  her  proposal,  seemed  so  rational,  that  a  certain  opulent 
lady,  supposed  to  be  the  queen,  intended  to  have  given 
10,000/.  towards  the  erecting  a  sort  of  college  for  the  edu- 
cation and  .  improvement  of  the  female  sex  ;  aud  as  a  re- 
treat to  those  ladies  who  preferred  retirement  and  study  to 
the  noise  and  hurry  of  the  world.  Bishop  Burnet,  hearing 
of  the  design,  went  to  the  lady,  and  powerfully  remon- 
strated against  it,-  telling  her  it  would  look  like  paving  the 
way  for  popish  orders,  and  that  it  would  be  reputed  a  nun- 
nery; in  .consequence  of  which  the  design  was  relin- 
quished.. About  seven  years  after,  she  printed  "An  Essay 

I  Gen.  Diet,  in  art-  D'Assonci,  written  in  Bay]e^$  worst  style  of  impertinent 
reUuiidancy.— Biog.  Universelle. 

A  S  T  E  L  L.  IS 

in  Defence  of  the  Female  Sex.  In  a  Letter  to  a  Lady, 
Written  by  a  Lady."  These  publications  did  not  prevent 
her  from  being  as  intent  on  her  studies  as  ever ;  and  when 
she  accidentally  saw  needless  visitors  coming,  whom  she 
kaew  to  be  incapable  of  conversing  on  useful  subjects,  in« 
stead  of  ordering  herself  to  be  denied,  she  used  to  look  out 
at  the  window,  and  jestingly  tell  them,  *^  Mrs.  Astell  was 
not  at  home."  In  the  course  of  her  studies  she  became 
intimately  acquainted  with  many  classic  authors.  Those 
she  admired  most  were  Xenophon,  Plato,  Hierocles,  Tuliy, 
Seneca,  £pictetus,  and  M.  Antoninus^  In  1700,  she  pub- 
lished a  book  entitled  **  Reflections  on  Marriage,"  occa*' 
sioned,  as  it  is  said,  by  a  disappointment  she  experienced 
io  a  marriage«contract  with  an  eminent  clergyman.  How* 
ever  that  might  be,  in  the  next  edition  of  her  book,  1705, 
she  added  a  preface,  in  answer  to  some  objections,  which 
perhaps  is  the  strongest  defence  that  ever  appeared  in 
print,  of  the  rights  and  abilities  of  her  own  sex. 

When  Dr.D'Avenant  published  his  "  Moderation  a  Vir- 
tue," and  his  ^*  Essay  on  Peace  and  War,"  she  answered 
him  in  1704,  in  a  tract  entitled  "  Moderation  truly  stated.*' 
The  same  year  D'Avenant  published  a  new  edition  of  his 
works,  with  remarks  on  hers,  to  which  she  immediately 
replied  in  a  postscript,  and  although  without  her  name,  she 
was  soon  discovered,  and  distinguished  with  public  appro- 
bation. Some  eminent  men  of  the  time  bear  testimony  to 
the  merit  of  her  works,  as  Hickes,  Walker,  Norris,  Dod- 
well,  Evelyn,  and  bishop  Atterbury,  who  praises  her  con- 
troversial powers,  but  with  a  hint  that  a  little  more  urbanity 
of  manner  would  not  have  weakened  her  arguments* 
Among  her  other  works  was  '^  An  impartial  Inquiry  into 
the  Causes  of  Rebellion  and  Civil  Wars  in  this  kingdom,  in 
an  examination  of  Dr.  Kenneths  Sermon,  Jan.  30,  1703-4." 
**  A  fair  way  with  Dissenters  and  their  Patrons,  not  writ  by 
Mr.  Lindsay,  or  any  other  furious  jacobite,  whether  a  cler- 

Syman  or  a  layman ;  but  by  a  very  moderate  person  and 
utiful  subject  of  the  queen,"  1 704.  "  The  Christian  Re- 
ligion, as  practised  by  a  daughter  of  the  Church  of  Eng* 
land,"  1705.  This  was  suspected  to  be  the  work  of  Atter- 
bury. <<  Six  familiar  Essays  upon  Marriage,  Crosses  in 
Love,  and  Friendship,"  1706.  "Bart'lemy  Fair,  or  an 
Inquiry  after  Wit,"  1700,  occasioned  by  colonel  Hunter's 
celebrated  Letter  on  Enthusiasm.  It  was  republished  in 
1722,  without  the  words  *  Bart'lemy  Fair.'    Although  iiv- 

T*  A  S  T  E  L  L. 

ing  and  converfing  with  the  fashionable  world,  she  led  d 
pious  life,  generally  calm  and  serene,  and  her  deportment 
and  conversation  were  highly  entertaining  and  social.  She 
used  to  say,  the  good. Christian  only  has  reason^  and  he 
'  always  ought  to  be  cheerful ;  and  that  cjejected  looks  and 
melancholy  airs  were  very  unseemly  in  a  Christian.  But 
though  she  was  easy  and  affable  to  others,  she  was  severe 
towards  herself.  She  was  abstemious  in  a  very  great  de- 
gree ;  frequently  living  many  days  together  on  bread  and 
water :  and  at  other  times,  when  at  home,  rarely  eat  any 
dinner  till  night,  and  j;hen  sparingly.  She  would  fre- 
quently say,  abstinence  was  her  ^best  physic ;  and  that 
those  who  indulge  themselves  in  eating  and  drinking,  could 
not  be  so  well  disposed  or  prepared,  either  for  study,  or 
^e  regular  and  devout  service  of  their  Creator. 

She  enjoyed  an  uninterrupted  state  of  health,  till  a  few 
years  before  her  death,  when  a  cancer  in  her  breast,  which 
she  concealed,  except  from  a  few  of  her  most  intimate  ao« 
quaintance,  impaired  her  constitution  very  much.  She 
managed  it  .herself,  till  it  was  absolutely  necessary  to  sab«' 
mit  to  amputation,  which  she  did  without  discovering  the 
least  timidity  or  impatience,  without  a  groan  or  a  sigh; 
and  shewed  the  same  resolution  and  resignation  during ^er 
whole  illness.  When  she  was  confined  to  her  bed  by  a 
gradual  decay,  and  the  time  of  her  dissolution  drew  near, 
she  ordered  her  shrowd  and  coffin  to  be  made,  add  brought 
to  her  bed-side,  and  there  to  remain  in  her  view,  as  a  con* 
stant  memento  of  her  approaching  fate,  and  to  keep  ber 
mind  fixed  on  proper  contemplations.  She  died  May  24, 
1731,  in  the  63d  year  of  her  age,  and  was  buried  at 
Chelsea.  ^ 

ASTERIUS,  an  Arian  writer,  in  the  fourth  century, 
was  a  sophist  of  Cappadocia,  who  forsook  Gentilism,  and 
embraced  Christianity'.  He  afterwards  published  some 
works  in  favour  of  Arianism,  which  were  extant  in  th0 
time  of  Socrates,  the  ecclesiastical  historian,  who  also  in*- 
forms  us  that  Asterius,  although  he  was  very  much  witk 
the  Arian  bishops,  was  refused  admission  into  their  order, 
because  he  had  once  sacrificed  to  the  heathen  gods. 
This  lapse  of  Asterius  is  supposed  to  have  happened  about 
the  year  304,  and  probably  in  Maximian*s  piersecution, 

^  Biog.  Brit — Ballafd's  Memoirs  of  l4eanied  Ladies.— Atterbury's  Corre- 
spondence, vol.  I.  396,  vol.  V.  p.  287.— Tatler,  8vo,  1806,  fol.  I.  346,  34<>„ 
IlL  364,  IV.  44S. 


A  S  T  E  R  I  U  S.  .7t 

Jerom  says  lie  wrote  commentaries  on  the  epistle  to  the 
Komaos,  and  upon  the  gospels,  psalms,  &c,  which  were 
much  read  by  the  men  of  his  party.  None  of  these  re- 
main, however,  unless  as  quoted  by  Eusebius,  and  Athana* 
sius,  who  caMs  him  ^^  a  cunning  sophist,  and  a  patron  of 
heresy/'  ■ 

ASTERIUS,  a  native  of  Antioch,  and  bishop  of  Amasea 
m  Pontus^  in  the  fourth  century,  was  the  author  of  many 
homilies,  part  of  which  were  published  by  Rubenius,  and 
part  by  the  fathers  Combesis  and  Richer.  They  were 
translated  into  French  by  Maucroix  in  1695,  and  have 
been  admired  for  their  eloquence.  I'he  first  fourteen  are 
evidently  by  Asterius,  but  the  others  appear  doubtful, 
among  which  are  those  on  Daniel  and  Susannah,  St  Peter 
and  ^.  Paul.  In  the  last  the  supremacy  of  the  church  of 
Rome  is  maintained  against  the  pretensions  of  all  the 
pburches  in  the  East  and  West.  * 

.  ASTLE  (Thomas),  an  eminent  English  antiquary,  wa» 
descended  from  an  ancient  family  of  the  same  name, 
resident  at,  and  lords  of  the  manor  of  Fauld  in  Stafford- 
9bire.  His  father,  Daniel  Astle,  who  was  keeper  of  Need- 
wood  forest,  died  in  1774,  and  was  buried  in  Yoxal  church, 
where  is  a  neat  mural  monument  erected  to  his  memory^ 
His  eldest  son,  the  subject  of  this  article,  imbibed  an 
early  taste  for  the  study  of  antiquities,  particularly  that 
abstruse  and  laborious  part  of  it,  the  decyphering  of  an-* 
cient  records,  in  which  the  profession  of  an  attorney,  to 
which  he  was  brought  up  at  Yoxal,  gave  him  an  oppoirtu-- 
nity  of  excelling,  far  beyond  any  of  his  contemporaries^ 
His  father  was  about  to  fix  him  in  a  good  country  situa- 
tion, to  practise  in  the  profession  he  had  so  aptly  learnt ; 
but  his  genius  and  enthusiasm,  fortunately  for  himself  and 
the  public  at  large,  frustrated  that  design,  and  induced 
him  to  come  to  London,  where  alone  his  taste  could  be 
indulged' and  bis  talents  i;ewarded.  About  1763,  he  ob^ 
t,ain€(d  the  patronage  of  Mr.  Grehville,  then  first  lord  of 
the  treasury  a^d  chancellor  of  the  exchequer,  who  em- 
{ployed  him  as  well  in  his  pubUc  as  private  afiairs,  and 
joined  him  in  a  commission  with  the  late  sir  Joseph  Ay-» 
loiFe,  bart.  and  Dr.  Ducarel,  for  superintending  the  regu-i^ 
lation  .of  the  public  records  at  Westminster.  On  the 
death  of  his  colleague,  Mr.  Topham  was  substituted,  an4 

. .  .  -  •« 

*  Dupin.— Lardner's  works. 

*  D«pin.-— liioreri.  — Cave^  toI.  I,~»Saxii  Onomasticon. 

78  A  S  f  L  % 

koth  were  removed  by  Mr.  Pitt  during  his  administratioit« 
Previously,  however,  to  this,  if  we  mistake  not,  he  had 
cujoyed  the  patronage  of  lord  Townshend,  and  soon  aftet 
he  was  introduced  to  the  rev.  Philip  Morant,  author  of  the 
History  of  Essex,  a  gentleman  of  good  property  iti  that 
country,  whose  daughter  and  heiress  he  soon  after  mar- 
xied,  and  by  that  means^  at  her  father's  death,  possessed 
bis  estate* 

In  1765,  he  was  appointed  receiver-general  of  sixpence 
in  tl»3  pound  on  the  civil  list.     In  1766  he  was  consulted 
by  the  committee  of  the  House  of  Lords^  concerning  the 
printing  of  the  ancient  records  of  parliament.     To  the  su- 
perintendance  of  this  work  he  introduced  his  fether-in-law^ 
Mr.  Morant ;  and  on  his  death  in   1770,  was  himself  ap->- 
pointed  by  the  House  of  Lords  to  carry  on  the  work,  a 
service  in  which  he  was  employed  till  its  completion  five 
years  afterwards.     He  was  then  appointed,  on  the  death 
of  Henry  Kooke,  esq.  his  majesty's  chief  clerk  in  the  re- 
cord-office in  the  Tower  of  London  ;  and  on  the  decease 
of  sir  John  Shelly,  he  succeeded  to  the  office  of  keeper  of 
the  records.     He  likewise  bebame  a  member  of  the  Royal 
and  Antiquary  societies,  and  of  several  learned  bodies  on 
^e  continent,  and  was  one  of  the  trustees  of  the  British 
Museum.     Of  the  Antiquary  Society,  he  was  long  a  use- 
ful and   distinguished   member,  s^nd  contributed  several' 
vahiable  articles  to  the  Archaeologia,  in  vols.  IV*.  VII.  X^ 
XII.  and  XIIL     He  published  also  "The  Will  of  king 
Henry  VIL"   1775,  4to.     "A  Catalogue  of  the   MSS.  in 
the  Cottonian  Library  ;  to  which  are  added,  many  emen-' 
dations  and   additions :  with  an  appendix,  containing  an 
account  of  the  damage   sustained  by   the  fire  in   1731; 
and   also   a  catalogue  of  the   charters   preserved  in  the 
same  library,**    which   was  communicated  by  him   to  S. 
Hooper^    who    published   them    in    1777,    8vo.      **  The 
Origin  and   Progress  of  Writing,    as  well  hieroglyphic 
as  elementary;    illustrated  -  by    engravings    taken    frem 
marbles,  MSS.  and  charters,  ancient  and  modern':   al$o» 
^ome  account  of  the  origin   and  progress  of  Printing, 
178 V  4to.     A  new  edition  was  published  in  1803,  with, 
one  additional  plate  from  a  MS.  in  the  British  Museum^ 
marked  Nero,  D.  IV. ;  and  a  portrait  of  Mr.  A.  painted- 
by   Howard,    and  engraved  by   Sbelton,    in   which   the  ^ 
accidental  loss  of  an  eye  when  at  scWol  is  concealed. 

A  STL  E.  T9: 

^*  The  Will  of  king  Alfred/'  found  in  a  register  of  New^ 
minster^  Winchester^  in  the  possession  of  the  rev.  George 
North,  and  given  by  Dr.  Lort,  his  executor,  to  Mr.  AsUe^ 
1769,  was  printed  at  Oxford,  with  the  illustrations  of  Mr. 
Manning,  under  the  superintendance  of  sir  H.  Croft,  1788, 
4to.  *^  An  account  of  the  Seals  of  the  King^s  Royal  Burghs 
and  Magnates  of  Scotland,  with  five  plates,  1793-,"  foU 
The  Calendar  to  the  Patent  Rolls  in  the  Tower  of  Lon« 
don,  reaching  from  3  John  to  23  Edward  IV.  contain* 
ing  grants  of  ofEces  and  lands,  restitutions  of  temporalities 
to  bishops,  abbots,  and  other  ecclesiastical  persons ;  con-* 
firmations  of  grants  made  to  bodies  corporate,  as  well  ec- 
clesiastical as  civil ;  grants  in  fee  farm ;  special  licences ; 
grants  of  offices ;  special  and  general  patents  of  creations 
of  peers;  and  licences  of  all  kinds  which  pass  the  great 
seal:  and  on  the  backs ^of  these  rolls  are  commissions  to 
justices  of  the  peace,  of  sewers,  and  all  commissions  which 
pass  the  great  seal.  The  Calendar  of  these  Rolls,  published 
by  his  Majesty's  command,  in  pursuance  of  an  address  of 
the  House  of  Commons,  on  the  report  of  the  Commission* 
ers  for  inquiring  into  the  stalJe  of  the  Publid  Record^,  is 
printed  from  four  MS  volumes  procured,  in  1775,  by  Mr, 
Astle,  for  public  use,  from  the  executors  of  Henry  Rooke^ 
esq.  his  predecessor  in  the  office  of  keeper  of  the  Tower 
records,  collated  with  two  MSS.  in  the  Cottonian  library, 
marked  Titus  C.  II.  and  III.  which  appear  to  have  been 
compiled  in  the  reign  of  James  I.  by  some  experienced 
clerk,  who  seems  to  have  selected  from  the  records  them- 
selves what  appeared  to  him  most  useful  and  interesting* 
They  supply  many  omissibns  apd  deficiencies  in  the  Tower 
copy;  and,  after  all,  this  Calendar,  though  entitled  to 
great  merit,  is  only  a  selection,  various  entries  appearing 
on  the  Patent  Rolls  not  entered  here;  and  therefore, 
though  this  work  will  be  found  to  yield  abundant  informa- 
tion, no  one  is  to  be  deterred  from  an  examination  of  any 
record  mentioned  elsewhere  as  being  on  the  Patent  Roll 
^because  it  is  not  mentioned  here.  Mr.  A's  report  on  the 
state,  of  the  records  under  his  care  will  be  fo^nd  in  the  re- 
port of  the  Committee  abovementioned. 

His  principal  residence  for  some  years  before  his  death 

was  at  Battersea-rise,  a  beautiful  eminence  adjoining  tp 

Clapham  common,  where  his  house  was  richly  furnished 

jrith  ot^ec4;s  to  instruct  and  delight  an  antiquary,  particjit- 

$a  A  S  f  L  E» 

krly  bis  library,  Which  contained  a  largift  anct  ctioice  c(rf-i^ 
lection  of  books  and  manuscripts  ;  amongst  the  latter  wa»' 
B  series  of  original  Saxon  charters^  hitherto  unequalled  in 
number,  beauty,  and  preservation.  Here  he  departed  thi» 
life,  Dec.  1,  1803,  in  the  69th  year  of  his  age,  after  having^ 
been  for  dome  time  afflicted  with  a  dropsical  complaint/ 
lie  left  eight  sons  and  dau^hters« 

By  the  direction  of  his  will,  his  library  was  to  be  sold 
by  public  auction  ;  but  it  was  purchased  by  the  Royal  In- 
stitution for  1000^.     His  manuscripts  were  to  be  ofFer'ed 
on  certain  terms  to  the  marquis  of  Buckingham  ;  and  ont 
his    declining   the    purchase,    to    the    British    Museum. 
Those  who  know  the  value  of  the  latter  national  repository 
will  wish  he  had  bequeathed  them  unconditionally.     It  was 
here  he  first  obtained  employment  in  the  preparation  of 
the  Harleian  catalogue  of  MSS.  and  he  had  long  enjoyed 
the  honour  of  being  one  of  the  trustees.     Mr.  Astle  was^ 
however,  a  valuable  contributor  to  the  history  and  antiqui- 
ties of  his  country,  and  very  liberal  in  giving  assistance  to 
gentlemen  employed  in  any  species  of  historical  investiga- 
tion.    His  principal  work  is  nis  "  Origin  and  Progress"  of 
Writing,**  some  very  acute  remarks  on  which  may  be  seen 
in  the  Monthly  Review  for  October,  1784.     His  "  Preface 
and  Index  to  the  Catalogue  of  the  Harleian  CoUectioa  of 
HSS."-  was  published  in  1763.* 

ASTLEY  (John),  an  artist,  more  indebted  to  fortune 
than  genius,  for  the  distinction  he  obtained,  was  bom  at 
Wemm  in  Shropshire,  where  his  father  practised  phy^. 
When  of  an  age  to  assume  a  profession,  he  was  sent  to 
London,  and  placed  as  a  pupu  under  Mr^  Hudson.  He 
afterwards  visited  Rome,  and  was  there  about  the  same 
time  with  sir  Joshua  Reynolds.  After  returning  to  Ei!^gland, 
he  resided  some  months  at  a  friend's  house  in  London,  and 
went  thence  to  Dublin,  where  he  practised  as  a  painter 
for  three  years,  and  with  such  success  as  to  acquire  3000/. 
On  his  return,  he  accidentally  bemame  acquainted  with 
the  opulent  widow  of  sir  William  Daniel,  whom  he  mar- 
ried, and  eventually  got  possession  of  the  Duckenfield 
estate,  valued  at  500G/.  per  annum.  He  then  bought 
Schomberg  house  in  Pall-mall,  which  he  divided  into 
three  houses,   inhabiting  the  centre  house  himself^  now 

-^  i  SbaWs  Hist.- of  Stafibrdskire,  voK  I.  p.  6T.-«GeDt,  Miif .  vol.  •£XXIII.<^ 

Nichols's  Bowyer,  voL  III.  202«t 

ASTLE.t.  81 

Mr.  Payne's.  iTdwards  his  latter  days,  he  began  to  repent 
t{  having  passed  much  of  his  life  in  dissipation  ;  and  by  a 
transition  not  Vety  tincomman,  dreaded  being  reduced  to 
want.  He  died  at  his  house',  Duckenfield-lodge^  Cheshire, 
Not.  14,  llSiy  and  was  buried  at  the  chureh  of  that  vil- 
Isige.  As  an  artist,  his  talents  were  by  no  Itieans  of  an  in-» 
feriox  class,  particularly  in  pd'rtrait  pointing ;  but  he  had 
i^ot  much  dehght  in  bis  profession,  and  when  he  obtained 
a  fortune,  practised  no  longer.  * 

ASTON  (Sir  Arthur),  an  officer  of  note  in  king 
Charles  L's  army,  was  son  of  sir  Arthur  Aston  of  FuVham 
ih  Middlesex,  who  was  the  second  son  of  sir  Thomas  Aston, 
of  Aston,  of  Bucklow-hundred  in  Cheshire ;  "  an  ancient 
and  knightly  family  of  that  county.'*  He  was  a  great  tra- 
▼ellei*,  and  made  several  campaigns  in  foreign  countries. 
Being  returned  into  England  about  the  beginning  of  the 
grand  rebellion,  with  as  many  soldiers  of  note  sis  he  could 
bring  with  him,  he  took  part  with  the  king  against  the 
parliament.  He  commanded  the  dragoons  in  the  battle  of 
Edge-hill,  and  with  them  4id  his  majesty  considerable 
service.  The  king,  having  a  great  opinion  of  his  valour 
and  Conduct,  made  him  governoi^  of  the  garrison  of  Read- 
ing in  Berkshire,  and  commissary-general  of  the  horse: 
in  which  post  he  three, times  repulsed  the  earl  of  Essex, 
who,  at  the  he&d  of  the  parliament  army,  laid  siege  to 
that  place.  But  sir  Arthur  being  dangerously  wounded, 
the  command"  was  devolved  on  .colonel  Richard  Fielding, 
the  eldest  colonel  in  the  garrison.  Sir  Arthur  was  suspect- 
ed of  taking  this  opportunity  to  get  rid  of  a  dangerous 
command.  Some  time  after,  he  was  appointed  governor 
of  the  garrison  of  Oxford,  in  the  room  of  sir  William  Pen- 
nyman  deceased.  In  September  following,  he  had  the 
fiiisfortune  to  break  his  leg  by  a  fall  from  his  horse,  and 
was  obliged  to  have  it  cut  off,  and  on  the  twenty-fifth  of 
December,  he  was  discharged  from  his  command,  which 
vras  conferred  on  colonel  Gage*  After  the  king's  death, 
sir  Arthur  was  employed  in  the  service  of  king  Charles  II, 
and  went  with  the  flower  of  the  English  veterans  into  Ire- 
land, where  he  was  appointed  governor  of  Drogheda^ 
commonly  called  Tredagh ;  **  af  which  time  (Mr.  Wood 
tells  us)  he  laid  an  excellent  plot  to  tire  and  break  the 
English  army.'*     But  at  length  Cromwell  having  taken  the 

>  JEdwards'8  Aneedutes  ot  Paintert^  4to,  1808. 

Vot.  III.  G 


S2  A  S  T  O  U 

tow.n,  about  the  tenth  of  August  1649,  and  piit  the  inba* 
bitants  to  the  sword,  sir  Arthur  the  governor  was  cut  to 
pieces,  and  his  brains  beateu  out  with  his  wooden-leg. 
Wood  says,  that  he  was  created  doctor  of  physic,  May  1, 
1641,  and  that  he  left  behind  him  a  daughter,  Elizabeth 
Thompon,  alias  Aston.  According  to  Clarendon's  ac- 
count, sir  Arthur's  conduct  was  not  upon  the  whole  favour* 
able  to  the  royal  cause,  and  as  a  commaqder  he  seems 
never  to  have  been  popular.  * 

ASTON  (Sir  Thomas),  a  brave  and  loyal  gentleman, 
was  the  son  of  John  Aston,  of  Aston  in  Cheshire,  esq.  by 
his  wife  Maud,  daughter  of  Robert  Needham,  of  Shenton 
in  Shropshire.  He  was  entered  a  gentleman  commoner, 
of  Brazen-nose  college  in  Oxford,  in  1 62^-7,  but  was 
sooh  called  home  by  his  relations,  and,  being  married, 
was  created  a  baronet  in  July  1628.  In  1635  he  was 
high-sheriff  of  Cheshire,  and  firmly  attached  to  the  cause 
of  Charles  I.,  Upon  the  approach  of  the  rebellion,  he 
wrote  some  pieces  against  the  Presbyterians,  and  was 
afterwards  the  first  man  in  his  county  that  took  part  with 
the  king.  During  the  civil  war,  he  raised  a  party  of  horse 
for  his  majesty's  service,  which  was  defeated  by  a  party  of 
rebels  under  sir  William  Breerton  of  Honford,  near  Nant- 
wich  in  Cheshire,  July  28,  1642;  but  sir  Thomas  escaped 
with  a  slight  wound.  Some  time  after,  he  was  taken  in  a 
skirmish  in  Staffordshire,  and  carried  prisoner  to  Stafford, 
where  endeavouring  to  make  his  escape,  a  soldier  gave 
him  a  blow  on  the  head,  which,  with  other  wounds  he  had 
a  little  before  received,  threw  him  into  a  fever,  of  which 
he  died  March  24,  1645..  His  body  was  carried  to  Aston,^ 
and  interred  in  the  chapel  belonging  to  his  own  house. 
His  writings  were,  "  A  Remonstrance  against  Presbytery,'* 
Lond.  1641,  4to.  "A  short  survey  of  the  Presbyterian 
discipline."  "  A  brief  review  of  the  Institution,  Succes- 
sion, and  Jurisdiction  of  the  ancient  and  venerable  order 
pf  the  Bishops."  These  two  last  were  printed  with  the 
"  Remonstrance." '  He  also  made  "  A  collection  of  sun- 
dry Petitions  presented  to  the  King  and  Parliament,"  4to, 

ASTORI  (John  Anthony),  a  learned  Italian  antiquary, 
was  born  at  Venice,  Jan.  16,  1672,  and  soon  made  very 
extraordinary  proficiency  in  classical  and  polite  literature. 

»  Biog.  Brit.— Clarendon's  History.— Wo6d's  Ath,  Ox.  vol.  II. 
*  Biojp.  Brit.— Ath.  Ox.  vol.  II. 

A  S  T  o  R  r.  «s 

In  1698,  h&  lost  bis  parents,  and  went  into  the  churchy 
where  his  merit  procured  him  the  offer  of  preferment, 
which  his  love  of  a  literary  life  induced  him  for  the  pre- 
sent to  decline.  He  became  member  and  secretary  of 
the  academy  of  the  Animosi  at  Venice,  and  was  likewise  a 
member  of  that  of  the  Arcades  of  Rome,  under  the  name 
of  Demade  Olimpico.  He  likewise  carried  on  an  eicten- 
sire  correspondence  with  the  most  eminent  scholars  of  his 
age,  both  Italians  and  foreigners,  particularly  Alexander 
Burgos,  bishop  of  Catania ;  father  Guglielmini,  Fardella, 
Lazzarini,  Apostolo  Zeno,  Scipio  Maffei,  Poleni,  Mor« 
gagni,  &c.  In  his  latter  days  he  was  master  of  the  choir^ 
and  canon  of  the  dacal  church  of  St.  Mark ;  and  died  in 
Venice,  June  23^  1743.  He  wrote,  1.  *'  Commentariolum 
in  antiquum  Alcmanis  poets  Laconis  monumentum,''  Ve- 
nice, 1697,  fol.  reprinted  in  the  "Galleriadi  Minerva,*' 
and  by  Sallengre  in  the  ^^  Novus  Thesaurus  antiquitatum 
Romanarum,*'  Hague,  1718,  foL  2.  *^  De  Deo  Brotonte 
Epistola,*'  reprinted  in  both  the  above  collections.  3* 
Many  letters  and  dissertations  on  Medals,  &c.  in  various 
collections.  4.  **  Mantui,  tragoedia  sacra  musice  recitan- 
da,'*  Venice,  1713.  5.  **  Supplices,  tragcedia  sacra,"  ibid. 
1713;  besides  many  lesser  pieces  in  Greek,  Latin,  and 
Italian,  in  the  collections.  ^ 

ASTORINI  (Elus),  born  in  the  province  of  Cosenza 
in  the  kingdom  of  Naples  in  1651,  was  first  a  Carmelite, 
and  afterwards  professor  of  mathematics  and  natural  philo* 
sophy.  He  died  in  1702,  leaving  the  following  publica-* 
tions,  I.  f*  A  dissertation  on  the  life  of  the  Fcetus  in  uteroy^ 
1686.  2.  "A  translation  of  the  Elements  of  Euclid,'* 
1691.  3.  <*  A  treatise  on  the  power  of  the  Holy  See,'* 
1693.  4.  <<  A  translation  of  ApoUonius  on  ^onic  Sec« 
tions,"   1702,  4to.*  '        * 

ASTRONOME  (L'),  the  name,  or  assumed  name  of  a 
person  who  lived  in  the  ninth  century,  and  uTote  *^  The 
life  of  the  emperor  Lewis  le  Debonnaire,"  at  whose  court 
he  is  supposed  to  have  enjoyed  some  office.  He  is  said  to 
have  had  many  conferences  with  that  prince  on  astronomical 
subjects.  The  life  was  written  in  Latin,  and  has  been 
translated  into  French  by^e  president  Cousin.  The  ori- 
ginal is  in  Du  Chesne's  Collection  of  Historians. ' 

1  Biog.  VnivcneUe.-^Mazzuchelli.-^Saxii  Onomasticoo. 

^  Diet.  Historique.  >  Ibid.^Biof,  Uoirenelle.— Moreru 

Q  2 


i«  A  S  T  R  U  C* 

ASTRUC  (John),  a  very  celebrated  Freiicii  pby^kianff 
was  born  in  1684,  at  Sauve  in  the  diocese  of  Alais.  His 
father,  who  was  a  Protestant  clergyman,  bestowed  great 
pains  upon  bis  early  education,  after  which*  be  was  sent  to 
the  university  of  Montpelier,  where  he  was  created  M.  A^ 
in  1700.  He  then  began  the  study  of  medicine;  and  in 
two  years  obtained  tbe  degree  of  bachelor,  having  upor> 
that  occasion  written  a  dissertation  on  the  cause  of  fer^* 
mentation,  which  he  defended  in  a  very  able  manner.  On 
Jan.  25,  1703,  he  was  created  doctor  of  physdc,  after  which^ 
before  arriving  at  extensive  practice,  he  applied  to  the 
atudy  of  medical  authors,  both  ancient  atid  modern,  widi 
uncommon  assiduity.  Thet  good  effects  of  this  study  soon 
Appeared;  for  in  1710  he  published  a  treatise  concerning 
inuscular  motion,  from  which  he  acquired  very  high  reputa- 
tion. In  17 17  he  was  appointed  to  teach  mediciue  at  Mont-* ' 
pelier,  which  he  did  with  such  perspicuity  and  eloquence, 
that  his  fame  soon  rose  to  a  very  great  height ;  the  king, 
assigned  him  an  annual  salary,  and  he  was  at  tbe  same  time 
appointed  to  superintend  the  mineral  waters  in  the  province 
of  Languedoc.  But  as  Montpelier  did  not  afford  sufficientr 
scope  for  one  of  his  celebrity,  he  went  to  Paris  with  a  gr^at 
number  of  manuscripts,  which  be  designed  for  the  presft^ 
Soon  afterwards,  however,  he  left  it,  having  in  1729  ac- 
cepted the  office  of  first  physician  to  the  king  of  Poland^ 
which  was  then  offered  to  him ;  but  here  his  stay  was  very 
abort,  as  he  disliked  v^  ceremonious  restrauit  of  a  couvt* 
He  again  therefore  returned  to  Paris,  and  upon  the  death' 
cf  the  celebrated  G^offroy,  in  1731,  he  was  appointed  r^* 
gius  professon  The  duties  of  this  office  he  discharged  in 
^uch  a  manner  as  to  answer  tbe  most  sanguine  expecta- 
tions; and  he  drew,  from  the  otjier  universities  to  that  of 
Paris,  a  great  concourse  of  medical  students,  foreigners  a» 
well  as  natives.  At  tbe  same  time  he  was  not  more  cele- 
brated as  a  professor  than  as  a  practitioner,  ajfid  his  private 
character  was  in  all  respects  truly  .amiable.  He  reached  a 
very  advanced  age,  and  died  May  5,  1766*  Of  his  works^ 
which  are  very  numerous^  the  following  are  tbe  principal  i 
1.  ''  Origine  de  la  Peste,"  1721,  8vo.  2.  "  De  la  Coi|ta- 
gion  de  la  Peste,"  1724,  8vo.  51  "  De  Motu  Musculari,'* 
1710,  12mo.  4.  "  Memoires  pour  servir  a  I'Histoire  na* 
turelle  de  Languedoc,"  1737,  4to.  5.  "  De  Morbis  Ve- 
nereis,  libri  sex,"  1736,  4to,  afterwards  enlarged  to  tvr® 
vols,  and  translated  into  French  by  Jault,  4  vols.  12mo. 

A  S  T  R  U  C.  85 

f-  <<TraItedes  maladies  desFemmes,'*  1761 — 1765,  6  vols. 
420)0.  7.  "  L*Art  dlAccoucher  reduk  &  ses  principles,'* 
1766,  12ino.  8.  "Theses  de  Phantasia,"  &c.  9.  «  De 
motus  Fermentativi  causa,**  1702,  12mo.  10.  "Memoir© 
•  sur  la  Digestion,"  1714,  8va  IK  "  Tractatus Pathologi- 
c«is,"  1766,  6vo.  ^sides  these,  in  1759  he  published 
*^  Traite  des  Tumeurs,"  2  vols.  12mo;  and  one  or  two 
treati^ies  not  connected  with  medicine,  one  with  the  singu- 
lar title  of  "  Conjectures  sur  les  Memoires  originaux  qui 
ont  servi  a  Moise  pour  eorire  la  Genese;**  Paris,  1753, 
|2mo,  and  a  dissertation  on  the  immateriality  and  immor- 
tality of  the  Soul,  Paris,  1755.  His  work  on  the  venereal 
disease,  and  those  on  the  diseases  of  women,  and  on  mid* 
wifery,  have  been  translated  into  English. ' 

ATANAGI  (Dennis),  a  native  of  Cagli,  in  the  duchy 
of  Urbino,  came,  to  Rome  in  1532,  where  he  was  dis- 
tinguished f(Mr  his  taste  and  eloquence;  but  having  a  reluc- 
)3ace  to  any  regular  profession  Vhich  might  have  afforded 
bim  an  opportunity  and  means  to  cultivate  literature,  he 
soon  fell  into  extreme  poverty.  In  1560,  however,  he  be<» 
came  corrector  of  the  press  at  Venice,  and  there  had  like 
to  have  been  sacrificed  to  the  rage  of  a  student  belonging 
to  the  univei^ity  of  Padua,  who  having  committed  a  work 
to  his  correctioo,  Atanagi  adopted  it  and  published  it  un* 
4et  bis  pwQ  name.  This  is  the  only  incident  recorded  of 
this  eccentric  genius,  whom  the  Italians  consider  as  a  very 
pure  writer,  and  one  of  their  best  critics.     He  published^ 

1.  ^  Rhetoricorum  Aristotelis,  necnon  paraphrasis  Her- 
mogenis  tabuls,  ft  D.  A.  collectss,^'  Venice,   1553,   4to* 

2.  **  Lettere  famigliari  di  XIII.  uomini  illustri,**  Home, 
1554,  8vo.  3.  "  Rime  di  M.  Bernardo  Cappello,"  Venice^ 
J  560,  4to^  with  a  long  dedication  by  the  editor.  4.  "  So- 
netti,  Canzoni,  rime  ed  eglogbe  pescatorie  di  Berardino 
Rota,"  Venice,  1567,  8vo.  He  also  published  Rota's  La-r 
tiib  poetry,  with  a  Latin  preface,  very  elegantly  written. 
5.^"  Rime  e  versi  Latini  di  diversi,  in  morte  d' Irene  di 
Spilimbergo,''  Venice,  1561,  8vo.  6.  "  Delle  Lettere  fa- 
cete  e  piacevoli  di  diversi  uomini  gtandi  e  chiari  e  begrin** 
gegni,  raccolte,  &c.  libro  prime/*  Venice,  1561,  8vo.  Th^ 
second  volume,  in  1574,  was  published  after  Atanagi'a 
death.  7.  "  II  libro  degli  uomini  illustri  di  Caio  PUpio 
iJecilio,  ridotto  in. lingua  volgare,  &c.'*  Venice,  1562,  ivo. 

1  Diet  Hist— Bio(,  yfii7«nwU^.-*Eiicycilop.  Brit.*-rHalter  BlU.  Med^^Sa^ii 

.    I 


3.  '*  De  Ic  rime  di  diversi  nobili  poeti  Toscani,"  Venice, 
1565,  2  vols.  8vo,  one  of  the  best  collections  of  the  kind* 
The  time  of  Atanagi's  death  has  not  been  ascertained,  but 
it  is  supposed  to  have  hiappened  about  1 574,  ^ 

ATHANASIUS  (St.),  an  eminent  father  of  the  Christ- 
ian church,  of  the  fourth  century,  was  born  at  Alexandria, 
of  heathen  parents.  He  was  noticed,  when  very  young, 
by  Alexander,  bishop  of  that  see,  who  took  care  to  have  him 
educated  ip  all  good  learnings  and  when  of  age,  ordained 
him  deacon,  ^e  took  him  in  his  company  when  he  at- 
tended the  council  of  Nice,  where  Athanasius  distingui^^d 
himself  as  an  able  and  zealous  opposer  of  the  Arians.  Soon 
after,  the  dissolution  of  the  council,  Alexander  died,  and 
Athanasius  was  appointed  to  succeed  him  in  the  govern- 
ment'of  the  church  of  Alexandria.  This  was  in  the  year 
S26,  when  Athanasius  is  supposed  to  have  been  about 
twenty-eight  years  of  age. 

Arius  and. some  of  the  principal  of .  his  followers  re« 
nounced  their  opinions,  and  subscribed  to  the  Nicene 
fSaith,  by  which  means  they  obtained  the  countenance  and 
&vour  c^  the  emperor  Constantine^  who  wrote  letters  to 
Athanasius,  insisting  upon  his  re-admitting  Arius  into  the 
church,  and  receiving  him  into  communion ;  but  this  he 
peremptorily  and  inflexibly  refused  to  do,  though  urged 
warmly  by  sovereign  authority,  and  menaced  with  the  rod 
of  imperial  vengeance.  While  thus  he  lay  under  the  em« 
{>eror*s  displeasure,  his  enemies  took  the  opportunity  of 
bringing  against  him  many  grievous  accusations,  which, 
however,  appeared  in  the  end  to  be  false  and  groundless. 
Among  others,  they  charged  him  with  threatening  that  he 
would  take  care  no  corn  should  be  carried  from  Alexandria 
to  Constantinople ;  and  said,  that  there  were  four  prelates 
'  ready  tq,  testify  that  they  had  heard  such  words  from 
bis  own  mouth.  This  so  much  incensed  the  emperor, 
that  he  exiled  him  into  France;  though  some  writers 
intimate,  that  this  sentence  was  not  the  effect  of  his  re- 
sentment, but  his  policy,  which  indeed  is  more  pro- 
bable. It  was  the  desire  of  the  emperor  to  remove  all 
frivolous  disputes  about  words,  to  allay  the  heats  and  ani^ 
mosities  among  Christians,  and  to  restore  peace  and  una- 
nimity to  the  church,  and  perhaps  he  looked  upon  Atha- 
nasius as  a  great  obstacle  to  his  favourite  design,  aa  he 

>  Biog.  UiUFenell«^«-]>ict.  Histbrique* 

A  T  H  A  N  A  S  I^  U  S-  87 

could  by  no  means  be  brought  to  communicate  with  the 

After  the  death  of  the  emperor,  he  was  recalled  by  his 
successor  Constantine  the  younger,  and  restored  to  his  see, 
and  received  by  his  people  with  great  joy.  This  emperor's 
reign  was  short,  and  his  enemies  soon  found  means  to 
draw  down  upon  him  the  displeasure  of  Constantius ;  so 
that,  being  terrified  with  his  threats,  he  sought  his  safety 
by  flight,  and  by  hiding  himself  in  a  secret  and  obscure 
place.  Julius,  at  this  time  bishop  of  Rome,  being  greatly 
affected  with  the  injurious  treatment  of  Athanasius,  sought 
him  out  in  his  obscurity,  and  took  him  under  his  protec- 
tion. He  summoned  a  general  council  at  Sardis,  where 
the  Nicene  creed  was  ratified,  and  where  it  was  determined^ 
that  Athanasius,  with  some  others,  should  be  restored  to 
their  churches.  This  decree  the  emperor  shewed  great 
unwillingness  to  comply  with,  till  he  was  influenced  by  the 
warm  interposition  of  his  brother  in  the  west ;  for  at  this 
time  the  empire  was  divided  between  the  two  surviving 
brothers.  Being  thus  prevailed  upon,  or  rather  indeed 
constrained  by  necessity,  he  wrote  several  letters  with  his 
own  hand,  which  are  still  extant,  to  Athanasius,  to  invite 
him  to  Constantinople,  and  to  assure  him  of  a  safe  conduct. 
He  restored  him,  by  an  edict,  to  his  bishopric ;  wrote  let- 
ters both  to  the  clergy  and  laity  of  Alexandria  to  give  him 
a  welcome  reception ;  and  commanded  that  such  acts  ^s 
were  recorded  against  him  in  their  courts  and  synods^ 
should  be  erased. 

When  the  emperor  restored  Athanasius,  he  .told  him, 
that  there  were  several  people  in  Alexandria  who  differed 
in  opinion  from  him,  and  separated  themselves  from  his 
communion ;  and  he  requested  of  him,  that  he  would  per- 
mit them  to  have  one  church  for  themselves.  The'  bishop 
replied,  the  emperor's  commands  should  be  obeyed;  but 
he  humbly  presumed  to  beg  one  favour  in  return,  viz.  that 
he  would  be  pleased  to  grant  one  church  in  every  city  for 
such  as  did  not  communicate  with  the  Arians.  The  pro- 
"posal  was  made  at  the  suit,  and  through  the  insinuations,  of 
the  Arians ;  who,  when  they  heard  the  reply,  and  had  no- 
thing either  reasonable  or  plausible  to  object  to  it,  thought 
proper  to  desist  from  their  suit,  and  make  no  more  mention 
of  it.  This  is  one  proof  among  many  others,  that  the  Ari- 
ans had  no  reason  to  reproach  Athanasius  with  intolerant 


««  A  T  H  A  N  A  S  I  U  S. 

At  the  death  of  Constans,  which  happened  soon  aft^^r* 
wards,  he  was  again  deposed,  and  Constantiusgave  orders 
that  be  should  be  executed  wherever  he  was  taken.  He 
was  re-instated  by  Julian ;  but,  before  the  end  of  that 
apostate's  reign,  was  again  obliged  to  have  recourse  to 
flight  for  safety.  When  orthodoxy  found  a  patron  in  Jo* 
yian,  and  the  Nicene  creed  became  again  the  standard  of 
catholic  faith,  Athanasius  recovered  his  credit  and  his  see^ 
which  he  enjoyed  unmolested  in  the  time  of  Valentinian ; 
and  even  Valens,  that  furious  and  persecuting  Arian, 
thought  it  expedient  to  let  him  exercise  his  function  un-> 
molested,  because  he  found  there  was  a  great  multitude  of 
people  in  Egypt  and  Alexandria,  who  were  determined  to 
live  and  die  with  Athanasius.  He  died  in  peace  and 
tranquillity  in  the  year  373,  after  having  been  bishop 
forty-six  years.  His  works  were  published  in  Greek  and 
Latin,  at  Heidelberg,  1601;  at  Paris,  16i^7;  at  Cologne, 
1686;  but  the  best  edition  is  that  given  by  Montfaucon, 
at  Paris,  1698,  in  3  vols,  folio.  There  has  been  a  reprint 
of  this,  however,  at  Padua,  in  1777,  4  vols,  folio,  which 
some  prefer  as  being  more  complete  and  more,  elegantly 

Photius  greatly  extols  Athanasius  as  an  elegant,  clear« 
and  excellent  writer.  It  is  controverted  among  learned, 
jpen,  whether  Athanasius  composed  the  creed  commonly- 
received  under  his  name.  Baronius  is  of  opinion  that  it 
was  composed  by  Athanasius  when  he  was  at  Rome,  and 
offered  to  pope  Julius  as  a  confession  of  his  faith ;  which 
circumstance  is  pot  at  all  likely,  for  Julius  never  questioned 
his  faith.  However,  a  great  many  learned  men  havc^ 
ascribed  it  to  Athanasius;  as  cardinal  Bona,  Petavius, 
Bellarmine,  and  Rivet,  with  many  others  of  both  commu* 
pions.  Scultetus  leaves  the  matter  in  doubt ;  but  the  best 
and  latest  critics  make  no  question  but  that  it  is  to  be 
ascribed  to  a  Latin  author,  Vigilius  Tapsensis,  an  African 
bishop,  who  lived  in  the  latter  end  of  the  fifth  century,  in 
the  time  of  the  Vandalic  Arian  persecution.  Vossiqs  and 
Quesnel  have  written  particular  dissertations  in  fayouy  of 
this  opinion.  Their  arguments  are,  1.  Because  this  cree4 
is  wanting  in  almost  all  the  manuscripts  of  Athana$ius*s 
works.  2.  Because  the  style  and  contexture  of  i%  do  not 
bespealc  a  Greek  but  a  Lathi  author.  3.  Because  neither 
Cyril  of  Alexandria!  nor  the  council  of  Ephesus,  nor  pope 
Leo,  nor  the  council  of  Chalcedon,  have  ever  mentioned  it 

A  T  HA  N  A  S  I  U  «•  ft 

in  ftH  th^kt  diey  say  against  the  Nestorians  or  Eutychians. 
4.  Because  this  Yigilius  Tapsensis  is  known  to  have  pub*- 
lished  others  of  his  writings  under  the  borrowed  name  of 
Athanasius,  with  which  this  creed  is  commonly  joined* 
These  reasons  have  persuaded  Pearson,  Usher,  Cave,  and 
Dupin,  :critics  of  the  first  rank,  to  come  into  the  opinion^ 
that  this  ereed  was  not  composed  by  Athanasius,  but  by  a 
later  and  a  Latin  writer. 

.  With  respect  to  the  writings  of  Athanasius,  it  has  been 
justly  observed,  that  there  is  little  important  in  them,  but 
what  relates  to  the  Arian  controversy,  in  which  he  was  oc- 
cupied during  the  greater  part  of  his  life.  What  Photius 
asserts  of  his  style  .may  be  allowed  ;  but  in  his  life  of  An- 
thony the  monk,  and  some  other  of  his  pieces,  we  iihd  him 
giving  too  much  support  to  the  superstitions  and  follies  of 
the  monastic  system*  In  other  respects,  he  is  one  of  the 
ablest  supporters  of  the  Trinitarian  doctrine,  and  in  his 
private  conduct,  although  occasionally  exasperated  by  op- 
|>ression,  he  was  in  general  consisteut  and  upright.  * 

ATHELARD,  or  ADELARD,was  a  learned  monk  of  Bath 
in  England,  who  flourished  about  1 1 50,  as  appears  by  some 
manuscripts  of  his  in  the  libraries  of  Corpus  Christi  and 
Trinity  colleges,  Oxford.  Vossius  says,  he  was  universally 
le^^roed  in  all  the  sciences  of  his  time,  and  that,  to  increase 
Ills  knowleclge,  he  travelled  into  France,  Germany,  Italy, 
$pain,  Egypt,  and  Arabia  He  wrote  many  books  himself, 
9ud  translated  others  from  different  languages  ;  among  the 
latter,  he  translated  froni  Arabic  into  Latin,  EucIid^s  Ele* , 
iR^nts,  at  a  time  before  any  Greek  copies  had  been  dis* 
covered,  and  ^^  Eriqhiafarim^'  upon  the  seven  planets. 
He  wrote  a  treatise  on  the  several  liberal  arts,  another*  on 
the  astrolobe,  another  on  the  causes  of  natural  composi-* 
tipns,  besides  several  on  physics  and  on  medicine.  Some 
Uianuscripts  of  bis  referred  to  by  Vossius  remain  in  thecoU 
leges  in  Oxford ;  as  ii)  Oriel,  **  De  decisionibus  natural!- 
bus,'*  and  "  De  philosophia  Danielis,''  in  Corpus  Christi, 
^f  De  pausis  naturalium  Gompositionum,**  and  in  Trinity- 
college,  bis  trs^nslation  of  Euclid,  besides  several  in  ther 
]^odleian.;  but  others  appear  to  have  been  taken  away.  * 

*  Dupin. — Cave. — Mosheim  and  Milqer's  Eccl.  Histories. — ^W^terland^g  Hi8t» 
«f  the  Athanasian  Creed.*-Saxii  Onomasticon. 

>  Button's  Math.  Oict.-^ Vossius  de  Scient,  Math.— -Catalog^.  MSS.  An^L  ef 
'|l)benua^.r-0ruci(er.  % 

90  ATH£N^US. 

ATHEN-SUS,  a  Greek  grammarian,  bom  at  Naucratis 
in  Egypt,  flourished  in  the  third  cetitury.  He  was  one  of 
the  most  learned  men  in  his  time,  and  had  read  so  much, 
and  had  such  an,  uncommon  memory,  that  he  might  be 
styled  the  .Varro  of  the  Greeks.  Of  all  his  writings  none 
remain  but  the  work  entitled  "  The  Deipnosophists,"  or, 
the  Sophists  discoursing  at  Table*  Here  an  infinite  variety 
of  facts  and  quotations  are  preserved,  which  are  to  be  met 
^th  no  where  else ;  and  hence,  as  Bayle  truly  observes,  it 
is  probable  that  this  author  is  more  valued  by  us  than  he 
was  by  his  contemporaries,  who  could  consult  the  originals 
from  which  thes6  facts  and  quotations  were  taken.  Athe« 
HSBUS  is  supposed  to  have  been  injured  by  transcribers ; 
the  omissions,  transpositions,  and  false  readings  in  him  be- 
ing extremely  numerous.  The  work  consists  of  fifteen 
books,  the  two  first  and  beginning  of  the  third  of  which  are 
wanting,  but,  with  many  hiatuses  in  the  rest,  have  been 
supplied  from  an  abridgment  which  is  extant.  It  was  first 
printed  in  1514,  by  Aldus  Manutius,  Venice,  folio,  and  rie-* 
printed  Under  the  inspection  of  Casaubon,  Leyden^  1600, 
folio.  The  last  edition  is  that  of  Shweighaeuser,  Stras-* 
burgh,  1801 — 1807,  14  vols.  8vo,  which  Mr.  Dibdin  has 
copiously  described,  and  highly  praised.  The  French  cri- 
tics, and  perhaps  others,  have,  however,  objected  that  thid 
editor  was  not  sufficiently  versed  in  the  rules  of  Greek  ver- 
sification, and  that  he  neglected  to  consult  some  modern 
critics,  in  whose  works  he  might  have  found  many  pas^ 
sages  of  AthensBUs  correqted. ' 

ATHEN-ffiUS,  of  Byssantium,  an  engineer  under  the 
emperor  Gallienus,  about  the  year  200  before  the  Christ- 
ian era,  was  employed  by  that  prince  to  fortify  such  parts 
of  Thrace  and  lUyricum,  as  were  exposed  to  the  incursions 
of  the  Scythians.  He  is  the  reputed  author  of  a  treatise 
on  '^  The  Machines  for  War,"  which  was  piinted  in  the 
collection  of  the  works  of  the  ancient  Mathematicians,  Pa- 
ris,  1693,  fol  Gr.  and  Lat.* 

ATHEN-ZEUS,  a  physician,  born  at  Attalia,  a  city  of 
Cilicia,  was  contemporary  with  Pliny,  in  the  first  century, 
and  was  the  founder  of  the  Pneumatic  sect.  His  doctrine 
was,  that  the  fire,  air,  water,  and  earth,  are  not  the  true 
elements,  as  is  generally  supposed,  but  that  their  qualities 

1  Gen.  Diet.— Moreri.— Saxii  Onomasticon.— Biog.  Univeraelle.— Dibdin's 
Classics.  t  j{iog,  UiiiYerseUe.---Saxii  Onomasticon. 

A  T  H  E  N  -«:  u  a  9r 

»re  so,  namely^  heat,  cold,  moisture,  and  dryness.  T6 
these  he  added  a  fifth  element,  which  he  called  spirit 
(«vEv/btfi),  whence  his  sect  had  its  name.  He  thought  that 
this  spirit  penetrated  all  bodies,  and  kept  them  in  tt^ir 
natural  state ;  this  he  borrowed  from  the  Stoics,  whence 

.  Galen  calls  Chrysippu^,  one  of  the  most  famous  of  those 
philosophers,  the  Father  of  the  Pneumatic  sect ;  but  Athe- 
nsBUS  was  the  first  who  applied  it  to  physic.     He  thought 

.  that,  in  the  greatest  part  of  diseases^  this  spirit  was  the  first 
that  suffered ;  and  that  the  pulse  was  only  a  miction  caused 
by  the  natural  and  involuntary  dilatation  of  the  heat  in  the 
arteries  and  heart.  We  have  but  very  little  of  this  famous 
author  remaining,  and  must  look  for  a  further  account  of 
the  doctrines  of  his  sect  in  the  writings  of  Aretaeus.  ^ 

ATHENAGORAS,  an  Athenian  philosopher,  who  be-» 
came  a  convert  to  Christianity.     He  was  remarkable  for 
his  zeal,  and  also  for  his  great  learning,  as  appears  from 
the  Apology  which  he  addressed  to  the  emperors  Aurelius 
and  Commodus,  about  the  year  180.     Bayle  thinks  that 
this  Apology  wais  not  actually  presented,  but  only  pub- 
lished.    Besides  the  Apology,  there  is  also  remaining  of 
Ath^iagoras,  a  piece  upon  the  Resurrection,  both  written 
in  a  style  truly  Attic.    They  have  been  printed  often,  but 
the  best  edition  is  that  of  Dechair,  Gr.  and  Lat.  OxoUi 
1706,  8vo.     His  works  are  also  to  be  found  in  the  Biblio* 
theca  Patrum.     Dr.  Waterland  gives  an  account  of  him  in 
his  '*  Importance  of  the  doctrine  of  the  Trinity,"  which 
Athenagoras  held.    In  1 599,  a  romance,  pretendedly  trans* 
lated  from  Athenagoras,  was  printed  at  Paris  by  Daniel 
Guillemot  in  1612,  with  the  following  title:  ^<  Du  vrai  et 
parfait  Amour,  escrit  eii  Grec  par  Athenagoras,  philosophe 
Athenien,  contenant  les  Amours  honestes  de  Theogone  et 
de  Charide,  de  Pherecides  et  de  Melahgenie  :"  «V  e.  "  Of 
true  and  perfect  Love,  written  in  Greek  by  Athenagoras, 
an  Athenian  philosopher;  containing  the  chaste  loves  of 
Theogbnus  and  Charidea,  of  Pherecides  and  Melangenia.** 
Martin  Fum^e,  lord  of  Genille,  had  made  this  translation, 
and  sent  it,  in  1569,  to  Mr.  de  Laman6,  secretary  to  car- 
dinal d' Armagnac.     It  was  found  in  the  papers  of  Bernard 
de  San-Jorry,  who  published  it  in  1612.     Huetius  speaks 
very  largely  of  this  book,  and  conjectures  that  Philander 

was  the  real  author  of  it.     He  tells  us  that  this  Fum^e 

<>  * 

*  Gen.  Dict<^Moreri. 

It  A  T.  H  ENAGORAS. 

boasted  that  be  bad  the  original  Greek  by  means  of  Lt-i^ 
ipan£,  protonotary  to  cardinal  d^Artnagnac.  There  is  no 
doubt,  however,  that  it  was  not  th^  firoduction  of  Athena^ 
goras;  but  Cave,  from  whom  we  borrow  the  preceding 
account,  does  not  appear  to  have  seen  the  first  edition, 
which  was  published  at  Paris,  159^.* 

ATHENODORUS  (surnamed  CoRDYUO),  a  Stoic  phi-: 
losopher,  was  probably  of  Pergamus,  where  he  lived  till  be 
was  very  much  advanced  in  years.     He  constantly  refused 
to  accept  the  favours  which  kings  and  generals  would  have* 
bestowed  upon  him.     Cato  the  younger,  being  in  Asia  at 
thehe^ad  of  an  army,  and  knowing  the  merit  of  this  eminent 
character,  was  very  desirous  of  having  him  with  him ;  but 
thinking  that  a  letter  would  not  prevail  upon  him  to  leave 
his  retirement,  he  resolved  to  go  himself  to  Pergamus,  and  - 
by  bis  intreaties  and  prayers  he  prevailed  upon  Atbenodo-*  . 
rus  to  follow  him  to  the  camp,  whither  he  returned  in  a  tri« 
umphant   manner,   being  more   remarkable   for  his  newE 
acquisition  than   LucuUus  or  Pompey  cpuld  be  for  the 
conquests  they  had  made.     Athenodorus  contiuued  with 
Cato  till  bis  death,  which  happened  about  fifty  before  tfa^ 
Christian  era.     He  is  perhaps  the  same  who  is  mentioned  - 
by  Diogenes  Laertius,  in  the  life  of  Zeno  Citticus.  * 

ATHENODORUS,  the  son  of  Sandon,  was  another  ce-  . 
leb rated  Stoic  philosopher.     He  was  born  at  Tarsus,   or  ■ 
perhaps  at  Cana,  a,  village  near  it,  whence  he  was  surnamed  • 
Cananita.     He   lived  at  Rome  i  and  on  account  of  bis    - 
learning,  wisdom,  and  moderation,  was  highly  esteemed  by    , 
Augustus.     His  opinion  and  advice  bad  great  weight  witli   . 
the  emperor,  and  are  said  to  ha>ve  led  him  into  a  milder    . 
plan  of  government  than  he  had  at  first  adopted.     He  ob-^ 
tained,  for  his  fellow-citizens,  the  inhabitants  of  Tarsus,    . 
relief  from  a  part  of  the  burthen  of  taxes  which  had  been 
imposed  upon  them,  and  was  on  this  account  honoured  with 
an  annual  festival.     Athenodorus  wiuf  intrusted  by  Augus«*  . 
tus  with  the  education  of  the  young  prince  Claudius; rand 
that  he  might  the  more  successfully  execute  his  charge,  hia 
illustrious  pupil  became  for  a  while  resident  in  his  house*  - 
This  philosopher  retired  in  his  old  age  to  Tarsus,  where  he 
died  in  bis  eighty-second  yean     Other  particuls^rs  of  him  •  / 
are  given  in  the  General  Dictionary,  and  in  the  auUxori- 

1  G«n,  Dict.»i«Bnicker«-*I^rc|nQf's  Wpr1cs.-«oCftVey  rol,  L-*-rSaxii  Onomafttp 
*6«B.  Diet,  .     - 



^es  cited  by  Brucker,  but  there  appear  to  have  been  two 
of  the  name  (besides  the  one  of  whom  we  have  before 
given  an  account),  oi^  there  is  much  confusion  in  all  the 
writers  we  have  had  an  opportunity  of  consulting  respect- 
ing this  one.  ^ 

ATHIAS  (Joseph),  a  Jew  rabbi,  and  printer  at  Amster- 
dam, to  whom  we  owe  one  of  the  most  correct  editions  of 
the  Hebrew  bible.  It  was  printed  twice,  in  1661  and 
1667,  2  vols.  8vo,  and  has  been  followed  by  most  of  the  ' 
modem  editors,  particularly  Clodius,  Magus,  Jablonski, . 
J.  H.  Michaelis,  Opitius,  Van  der  Hooght,  Houbigant,  and 
Simon,  It  is  also  the  basis  of  the  edition  of  Reineccius, 
reprinted,  in  1793,  by  the  learned  Dorderlein.  The, 
states-general  entertained  such  a  sense  of  the  merit  of 
Athias,  in  this  useful  undertaking,  that  in  1667  they  voted 
him  a  chain  of  gold.  He  is  said  to  have  died  in  1700. 
•"  His  father,  Tobias  Athias  published  a  Spanish  bible  for  the 
use  of  the  Jews,  in  1555,  according  to  the  Diet,  Hist. ;  but 
the  above  dates  seem  to  render  this  doubtful. ' 

ATKINS  or  ETKINS  (James),  bishop  of  Galloway  in 
Scotland,  was  the  son  of  Henry  Atkins,  sheriff  and  commis- 
sary of  Orkney,  and  was  born  in  the  town  of  Kirkwall,  in 
the  stewartry  of  Orkney.  He  was  educated  in  the  college 
of  Edinburgh,  where  he  commenced  M.  A.  and  from 
thence  went  to  Oxford  in  1637-8,  to  finish  his  studies 
under  the  tuition  of  Dr.  Prideaux,  the  regius  p'rofessor  of 
divinity;  Soon  after  he  was  appointed  chaplain  to  James  ■ 
marquis  of  Hamilton,  his  majesty's  high-commissioner  for 
Scotland)  in  which  station  he  acquitted  himself  so  well, 
that,  by  the  application  of  his  noble  patron  upon  his  re- 
turn to  England,  he  obtained  from  the  king  a  presentation 
to  the  church  of  Birsa,  in  the  stewartry  of  Orkney.  Here  - 
he  continued  some  years,  and  his  prudence,  diligence,  and 
&ithfulness  in  the  discharge  of  his  office,  procured  him 
'  much.veneration  and  respect  from  all  persons,  especially 
from  bis  ordinary,  who  conferred  upon  him  the  dignity  of 
Moderator  of  the  presbytery.  In  the  beginning  of  1650, 
when  James  marquis  of  Montrose  landed  Jn  Orkney,  Dr. 
Atkins  %vas  nominated  by  the  unanimous  votes  of  the  said 
presbytety,  to  draw  up  a  declaration  in  their  names,  con- 

'  Gen.  Diet — Brooker.— -Moreru 

•  MurttTi.-^Biog.  Univcnwlle,— tc  Lom^,  Bibl.   Sacra.-r-D>ct.  Hittorlque.*^ 
ftiokhoro'i  Introduction,  1803,  aad  Ws  History  •£  Mudera  Pbilology,  IS07.-« 

94  ATKINS.., 

taining  the  strongest  expressions  of  loyalty  and  allegiance 
to  king  Charles  II.,  for  which  the  whole  presbytery  being 
deposed  by  the  assembly  of  the  kirk  at  that  time  sitting  at 
Edinburgh,  Dn  Atkins  was  likewise  excommunicated  as 
one  who  held  a  correspondence  with  the  said  marquis* 
At  the  same  time  the  council  passed  an  act  for  the  appre- 
hending and  bringing  him  to  his  trial ;  but  upon  private 
notice  from  his  kinsman  sir  Archibald  Primrose,  then  clerk 
of  the  council,  he  fled  into  Holland,  where  he  lay  concealed 
till  16.53,  and  then  returning  into  Scotland,  he. settled  with 
his  family  at  Edinburgh,  quietly  and  obscurely,  till  1660. 
Upon  the  restoration  of  the  king,  he  accompanied  Dr.  Tho- 
mas Sydserf,  bishop  of  Galloway  (the  only  Scotch  bishop 
who  survived  the  calamities  of  the  usurpation)  to  London, 
where  the  bishop  of  Winchester  presented  him  to  the  rec- 
tory of  Winfrith  in  Dorsetshire.     In  1677,  he  was  elected 
and  consecrated  bishop  of  Murray  in  Scotland,  to  the  great 
joy  of  the  episcopal  party;  and,  in  1680,  he  was  translated 
to  the  see  of  Galloway,  with  a  dispensation  to  reside  at 
Edinburgh,  on  account  of  his  age,  and  the  disaffection  of 
the  people  to  episcopacy.    At.  this  distance,  however,  he 
continued  to  govern  his  diocese  seven  years,  and  died  at 
Edinburgh  of  an  apoplexy,   October  2dth,    1687,   aged 
seventy -four  years.     His  body  was  decently  interred  m 
the  church  of  the  Grey -friars,  apd  his  death  was  extremely 
regretted  by  all  good  and  pious  men.  ^ 

ATKYNS  (Sir  Robert),  lord  chief  baron  of  the  ex- 
chequer^ was  descended  of  a  very  ancient  family  in  Gloces- 
tershire,  and  son  of  sir  Edward  Atkyns,  one  of  the,  barons 
of  the  exchequer,  by  Ursula,  daughter  of  sir  Thomas 
Dacres  of  Cheshunt  in  Hertfordshire.  He  was  born  in 
1621,  and,  after  being  instructed  in  grammar-learning  in 
his  father's  housf,  was  sent  to  Baliol  college,  Oxford. 
Removing  thence  to  one  of  the  inns  of  court,  he  applied 
himself  very  closely  to  the  istudy  of  the  law.  In  April 
1661,  at  the  coronation  of  king  Charles  II.  he  was  made  a 
knight  of  the  bath ;  and  in  September  the  ^ame  year  cre-<^ 
ated  M.  A.  in  full  convocation  at  Oxford.  In  1671  he  was 
appointed  a  king's  serjeant  at  law;  and  in  1672,  a  judge 
of  the  court  of  common  pleas.  In  1679,  from  an  appre* 
hension  of  very  troublesome  times,  he  resigned  his  office, 
and  retired  into  the  country.    In  July  1683^  when  lord 

I  Atb.  Ot.  Yol.  Il—BIog.  Brit. 

A  T  K  Y  N  S.  95 

Russel  was  first  imprisoned,  on  account  of  that  conspiracy 
for  which  he  afterwards  suffered,  sir  Robert  Atkyns,  being 
applied  to  for  his  advice,  gave  it  in  the  following  letter, 
probably  addressed  to  some  of  the  friends  of  that  noble* 
man,  which  manifests  his  courage  and  integrity,  as  well  as 
his  prudence  and  learning : 

^*  Sir,  I  am  not  without  the  apprehensions  of  danger 
that  may  arise  by  advising  in,  or  so  much  as  discoursing  of, 
public  affairs ;  yet  no  fear  of  danger  shall  hinder  me  from 
performing  the  duty  we  owe  one  to  another,  to  counsel 
those  that  need  our  advice,  how  to  make  their  just  defence 
when  they  are  called  in  question  for  their  lives ;  especially 
if  they  are  persons  that  have,  by  their  general  carriage  and 
conversation,  appeared  to  be  men  of  worth,  and  lovers  of 
their  king  and  country,  and  of  the  religion  established 
among  us.  I  will  follow  the  method  you  use,  and  answer 
what  you  ask  in  the  order  I  find  it  in  your  letters* 

'^  I  cannot  see  any  disadvantage  or  hazard,  by  pleading 
the  general  plea  of  Not  Guilty.  If  it  fall  out  upon  the 
proofs,  that  the  crime  is  only  misprision  of  treason,  and 
not  the  very  crime  of  treason,  the  jury  must  find  the 
prisoner  not  guilty  of  treason;  and  cannot,  upon  an  in- 
dictmejit  of  treason,  find  the  party  guilty  of  misprision, 
because  he  was  not  indicted  for  the  offence  of  misprision; 
and  treason  ai>d  misprision  of  treason,  are  offences  that  the 
law  hath  distinguished  the  one  from  the  other ;  and  there* 
fore,  if  the  proofs  reach  no  farther  than  to  prove  a  mispri- 
sion, and  amount  not  to  treason,  the  prisoner  may  urge-  it 
for  himself,  and  say,  that  the  proofs  do  not  reach  to  the 
crimes  charged  in  the  indictment ;  and  if  the  truth  be  so, 
the  caurt  ought  so  to  direct  the  jury  not  to  find  it.  Now 
being  in  company  with  others,  where  those  others  do  con- 
sult and  conspire  to  do  some  treasonable  act,  does  not 
make  a  man  guilty  of  treason,  unless  by  some  words  or 
actions  he  signify  his  consent  to  it,  and  approbation  of  it ; 
but  his  being  privy  to  it,  and  not  discovering  of  it,  makes 
him  guilty  of  misprision  of  treason,  which  consists  in  the 
concealing  it ;  but  it  makes  him  not  guilty  of  treaison ;  and 
if  the  same  person  be  present  a  second  time,  or  oftener, 
this  neither  does  not  make  him  guilty  of  trieason,  only  it 
raises  a  strong  suspicion  that  he  likes,  and  consents  to  it, 
and  approves  of  it,  or  else  he  would  have  forborne  after 
being  once  amongst  them.  But  the  strongest  suspicion 
does  not  sufficiently  provQ  a  guilt  in  treason,  nor  can  it  go 

96  A  T  K  Y  N  S. 

Yor  any  evidence,  and  that  upon  two  accounts : — first,  the 
proo£»  in  case  of  treason  must  be  plain,  and  clear,'and  po-» 
jitive,  and  not  by  inference  or  argument,  or  the  strongest 
suspicion  imaginable.  Thus  said  sir  Edward  Coke,  in 
'  many  places  in  his  ThirJ  Institutes,  in  the  chapter  of  High 
Treason.  Secondly,  in  an  indictment  of  high  treason 
there  must  not  only  be  a  general  charge  of  treason,  nor  is 
it  enough  to  set  forth  of  what  sort  or  species  the  treason  is, 
as  killing  the  king,  or  levying  war  against  him,  or  coining 
money,  or  the  like ;  but  there  must  be  also  set  forth  some 
overt  or  open  act^  as  the  statute  of  the  25th  of  Edward  III. 
calls  it,  or  some  instance  given  by  the  party  or  offender, 
whereby  it  may  appear  he  did  consent  to  it,  and  consult  it, 
and  approve  of  it ;  and  if  the  barely  being  present  shoulcl 
be  taken  and  construed  to  be  a  sufficient  overt  or  open  act, 
or  instance,  then  there  is  no  difference  between  treason 
and  misprision  of  treason ;  for  the  being  present  without 
consenting  makes  no  more  than  misprision  ;  therefore  there 
must  be  something  more  than  being  barely  present,  to 
xxiake  a  man  guilty  of  treason,  especially  since  the  law  re- 
quires an  overt  or  open  act  to  be  proved  against  the  prisoner 
accused.  Se^  sir  Edward  Coke's  Third  Institutes,  fol.  12* 
upon  those  words  of  the  statute.  Per  overt  fact.  And 
that  there  ought  to  be  direct  and  manifest  proofs,,  and 
not  bare  suspicions  or  presumptions,  be  they  never  so 
strong  and  violent ;  see  the  same  fol.  in  the  upper  part  of 
il,  upon  the  word  Proveablement.  And  the  statute  of  the 
Mb  of  Edward  VI.  cap.  2,  requires  that  there  should  be 
two  witnesses  to  prove  the  crime :  so  that  if  tliere  be  but 
one  witness,  let  him  be  never  so  credible  a  person,  and 
never  so  positive,  yet  if  there  be  no  other  proof,  the  party 
ought  to  be  found  not  guilty;  and  those  two  witnesses  must 
prove  the  person  guilty  of  the  same  sort  or  species  of  trea- 
son. As  for  example,  if  the  indictment  be  for  that  species 
of  treason,  of  conspiring  the  king's  death,  both  witnesses 
must  prove  some  fact,  or  words  tending  to  that  very  sort 
of  treason  ;  but  if  there  be  two  witnesses,  and  one  prove* 
the  prisoner  conspired  the  death  of  the  king,  and  the  other 
witness  proves  the  conspiring  to  do  some  other  sort  of  trea- 
son, this  comes  not  home  to  prove  the  prisoner  guilty  upon 
that  indictment ;  for  the  law  will  not  take  away  a  man^s  life 
in  treason,  upon  the  testimony  and  credit  of  one  witness  j 
it  is  so  tender  of  a  man^s  life,  the  crime  and  the  forfeitures 
are  so  great  and  heavy.    And  as  there,  must  be  two  wit- 

A  T  K  Y  N  S.  91 

Jkesses,  so  by  the  statute  made  in  the  thirteenth  year  of  his 
>resent  Majesty,  cap.  i.  (entitled  for  the  safety  of  his  Ma- 
jest's  person)  those  two  ivitnesses  must  not  only  be  lawful^ 
)ut  also  credible  persons.  See  that  statute  in  the  fifth 
paragraph ;  and  the  prisoner  must  be  allowed  to  object 
against  the  credit  of  all,  or  any  of  the  witnesses ;  and  if 
there  be  but  one  witness  of  clear  and  good  credit,  and  the 
rest  not  credible,  then  the  testimony  of  those  that  are  no£ 
credible  must  go  for  nothing,  by  the  words  and  meaning 
of  this  statute :  See  the  statute.  Now  were  I  a  juryman,  I 
should  think  no  such  witness  a  credible  witness,  as  should 
appear,  either  by  his  own  testimony,  or  upon  proof  made 
by  others  against  him,  to  have  been  particeps  criminisj  for 
that  proves  him  to  be  a  bad,  and  consequently  not  so  cre- 
dible, a  man ;  especially  if  it  can  appear  the  witness  has 
trepanned  the  prisoner  into  the  committing  of  the  crime  : 
Then  the  witness  will  s^ppear  to  be  guilty  of  a  far  higher 
crime  than  the  prisoner,  and  therefore  ought  not  to  be  be- 
lieved as  a  credible  witness  against  the  prisoner ;  for  he  is 
a  credible  witness  that  has  the  cre£t  of  being  a  good  and 
honest  man,  which  a  trepanner  cannot  have ;  and  this  tre« 
panning  proves  withal,  that  the  trepanner  did  bear  a  spite 
and  maUce  against  the  person  trepanned,  and  intended  to 
do  him  a  mischief,  and  designed  to  take  away,  his  life* 
'  Shall  such  a  one  be  a  credible  witness,  and  believed  against 
him?  God  forbid!  Then  again,  it  cannot  but  be  be- 
lieved, that  such  persons  as  have  been  guilty  of  the  same 
crime,  will,  out  of  a  natural  self-love,  be  very  forward  and 
willing  to  swear  heartily,  and  to  the  purpose,  in  order  to 
the  convicting  of  oth^s,  that  they  may,  by  this  service^ 
merit  their  pardon  ana  save  their  own  lives ;  and  for  this 
reason  are  not  so  credible  witnesses,  such  as  the  statute  of 
13  Car.  II.  does  require.  Read  over  the  whole  chapters  of 
sir  Edward  Coke,  of  high  treason,  and  of  petty  treason ;  for 
in  this  latter,  of  petty  treason,  there  is  much  matter  that 
concerns  high  treason. 

.  <<  I  wish  with  all  my  soul,  and  I  humbly  and  heartily 
pray  to  almighty  God,  that  these,  gentlemen  who  have 
given  so  great  proof  of  their  love  to  the  true  religion,  and 
of  the  just  rights  and  liberties  of  their  country,  and  of 
th^ir  zeal  against  popery,  may  upon  their  trial  appear  in-« 
nocent.  I  am  so  satisfied  of  their  great  wortb,  that  I  can- 
not easily  believe  them  guilty  of  so  hdrrid  a  crime.  J  pray 
God  stand  by  them  in  the  time  of  theiic  distress.  I  wish  I 
Vol.  III.  H 

»»  A  T  K  Y  N  S;. 

might  baT«  the  liberty  fairly  to  give  them  nrfaat  isststance  I 
could  in  that  wberein  I  might  be  any  way  capable  of  doing 
^t.  I  beseech  almighty  God  to  heal  oat  divisioas^and 
establish  us  upon  the  sure  foundation  of  peace  and  right-* 
eousness.  I  thank  you  for  the  favour  you  have  done  me 
by  impai^ting  some  pubiiq  affairs,  which  might  perhaps 
have  been  unknown  to  me,  or  not  known  till  after  a  long 
lime,  for  I  keep  no  correspondence.  When  there  is  any 
occasion,  pray  oblige  me  by  a  farther  account,  especially 
what  concerns  these  gentlemen ;  and  though  I  have  written 
nothing  here  but  what  is  innocent  and  justifiable,  yet  that 
I  may  be  the  surer  against  any  disadvantage  or  miscon- 
Btruction,  pray  take  the  pains  to  transcribe  what  notes  you 
think  fit,  out  of  this  large  paper,  but  send  me  this  paper 
back  again,  inclosed  in  another,  by  the  same  hand  that 
brings  it. 

'  "  There  is,  nor  ought  to  be,  no  such  thing  as  construc- 
tive treason  :  this  defeats  the  very  scope  and  design  qf  the 
statute  of  the  2dth  of  Edward  III.  which  is  to  make  a  plaiu 
declaration,  what  shall  be  adjudged  treason  by  the  ordinary 
courts  of  justice.  The  conspiring  any  thing  against  the 
king's  person  is  most  justly  taken  to  be,  to  conspire  against 
his  life ;  but  conspiring  to  levy  war,  or  to  seize  the  guards, 
is  not  conspiring  against  the  king's  life ;  for  these  are  trea* 
sons  of  a  different  species.'' 

In  1684  he  appeans  to  have  given  a  fresh  proof  of  his^ 
deep  learning,  in  the  case  between  the  king  and  sif  Wil* 
liam  Williams.  An  information  was  exhibited  against 
Williani  Williams,  esq.  late  speaker  of  the  House  of  Com«» 
xnons,  for  endeavouring  to  stir  up  sedition,  and  procure 
ilUwill  between  the  king  and  his  subjects,  by  appointing  a 
certain  seditious  and  infamous  libel,  entided  ^^  The  inf<Mr« 
mation  of  Thomas  Dangerfield,"  to  be  printed  and  pub- 
j^isheci.  The  defendant  pleaded  to  the  jurisdiction  of  the 
court,  setting  forth  that  he  was  speaker  of  the  House  o£ 
Commons,  and  that,  in  obedience  to  their  order,  he  had 
appointed  that  narri^ive  to  be  printed ;  wherefore  he  tie- 
nanded  the  judgment  of  the  court  of  king's  bench,  whe>^ 
Iher  it  ought  to  take  farther  cognizance  of  the  matter.  Sir 
Kobert  Adcyns  undertakes,  in  his  argument  in  support  of 
this  plea,  to  prove  three  propositions  r-i—First,  that  what  waa 
done  in  this  case  was  done  in  a  course  of  justice,  and  thait 
in.  the  highest  court  of  the  hation,  and  according  to  the  Item 
and  custom  of  parliaiaent.    Secondly^  tbat^  bovre^r)^^  tbs^ 

A  T  K  y  N  i  9f 

wbich  was  done  in  this  case  was  not  to  be  imputed  to  the 
pendant,  who  acted  in  it  but  as  a  servant  or  minister  of 
the  parliament,  though  in  a  very  honourable  station.  Third- 
ly, that  these,  being  matters  transacted  in  parliament,  and 
by  the  parliament,  the  court  of  king's  bench  ought  not  to 
take  cognizance  of  them,  nor  had  any  jurisdiction  to  judge 
Or  determine  them. 

An  action  was  brought  in  Easter-term,  in  the  second 
year  of  king  James  II.  against  sir  £dward  Hales,  for  act* 
ing  as  a  colonel  of  foot  without  receiving  the  sacramQut, 
or  taking  certain  oaths  appointed  by  an  act  of  parliament 
to  be  taken  within  a  certain  time;  whereupon  being  legally 
indicted  in  the  county  of  Kent,  and  omvicted,  the  plaintiff 
became  entitled  to  the  forfeiture  of  five  hundred  pounds. 
To  this  the  defendant  pleaded,  that  the  king,  by  his  letters 
patent,  had  dispensed  with  his  taking  the  sacrament  or  the 
oaths,  and  therefore  demurred  generally;  the  plaintiff 
joined  in  demurrer,  and  judgment  was  given  in  the  king's 
bench  for  the  defendant  This  gave  occasion  to  sir  Ro« 
berths  excellent  inquiry  into  the  power  of  dispensing  with 
penal  statutes,  wharein  the  doctrine  of  dispensations  is 
largely  handled. 

At  the  revolution,  which  sir  Robert  zealously  promoted, 
he  was  received  with  great  marks  of  distinction  by  king 
William,  who,  in  May  1689,  made  him  lord  chief  baron  *of 
the  exchequer.  In  October  following,  the  marquis  of  Ha- 
li&x,  whom  the  Lords  had  chosen  for  their  speaker,  desire 
ing  to  be  excused  from  discharging  that  office  any  longer^ 
the  lord  chief  baron  Atkjms  was  immediately  eleoted  in  his 
Yoom^  and  was  speaker  till  the  great  seal  was  given  to  sic 
John  Sommersj  in  the  beginning  of  1693. 

October  30,  1693,  when  the  lord  mayor  of  London  elect 
was  sworn  in  before  sir  Robert,  in  the  exchequer,  he  made 
a  famous  speech,  wherein,  after  drawing  a  terrible  picture 
of  the  designs  of  Lewis  XIV.  and  of  the  means  employed 
to  accompUsh  them^  he  has  the  following  passage,  which 
will  assist  our  readers  in  judging  of  the  baron's  character : 
**  There  is  one  piece  of  policy  of  his,  wherein  he  outdoeth 
jsll  other  princes  whatsoever ;  and  that  is,  the  great  thing  of 
maintaining  and  fnanaging  intelligence.  He  can  tell  when 
your  merchant- ships  set  out,  and  by  what  time  they  shall 
return ;  nay,  perhaps,  he  docs  take  upon  him  to  know,  by 
the  help  of  some  confederacy  with  him  that  is  prince  of  the 
power  of  the  air^  that  the  wind  shail  not  serve  in  suoh  or 


100  A  T  K  Y  N  S. 

such  a  comer  till  such  a  time  :  he  knowetb  when  our  royal 
navy  is  to  be  divided,  and  when  it  is  united. 

*^  And  shall  I  guess  how  he  comes  to  have  such  intelli- 
gence? That  were  well  worth  the  hearing.  I  would  hut 
guess  at  it ;  and  I  would  in  my  guesses  forbear  saying  any 
thing  that  is  dishonourable  to  any  among  ourselves.  We 
all  know  the  scripture  tells  us,  that  the  good  angels  are 
ministers  of  God  for  good  to  the  elect :  it  is  the  comfort  of 
all  good  men  that  they  are  so.  It  is  said,  He  will  give  his 
angels  charge  over  thee,  to  preserve  thee  in  thy  way ;  and, 
I  hope,  we  are  every  one  of  us  in  our  way.  But  we  have? 
reason  to  believe  that  the  wicked  angels  are  very  instru- 
mental in  carrying  on  such  designs  as  this  great  man  hath 

.  *^  It  is  a  vulgar  error  that  hath  obtained  among  some  of 
us,  that  these  wicked  spirits  are  now  confined  under  chains 
of  darkness  in  the  place  of  torment.  I  remember  that  ex- 
pression of  some  of  them  to  our  Saviour,  Art  thou  come  to 
torment  us  before  the  time  ?  It  was  not  then  the  time  of  their 
being  tormented :  it  is  rather  to  he  believed  that  they  are 
wandering  about  in  the  air,  and  there  fleeting  to  and  fro, 
driving  on  such  wicked  purposes  as  this  our  enemy  is  en- 
gaged in.  We  know  grave  and  serious  historians  give  us 
instances  of  correspondences  held  both  by  good  and  badi 
spirits  here ;  the  wicked  by  God's  permission,  the  good  by 
his  command  and  particular  good  providence.  So  th^ 
death  of  Julian  the  apostate  heathen'  emperor,  who  was 
filled  in  his  wars  in  Persia,  was  known  in  the  very  moment 
of  it  at  the  city  of  Rome,  at  a  great  distance  from  the  place 
of  battle,  to  the  no  little  joy  of  the  Christians.  And  this, 
I  suppose,  was  by  the  ministry  of  a  good  angel. 

**  We  have  instances  of  another  nature,  of  what  has 
been  done  by  evil  angels.  In  the  instant  of  our  Saviour*s 
passion,  if  we  may  believe  credible  historians,  it  was  known 
at  a  vast  distance  from  Jerusalem,  at  sea  among  some  wh« 
were  then  on  a  voyage :  they  heard  a  voice  in  the  air,  cry- 
ing out  of  the  death  of  the  great  god  Pan :  after  which  fol- 
lowed great  bowlings  and  screechings.  Whence  we  may 
suppose  by  the  expression,  that  this  was  by  some  wicked 
spirits  that  were  then  hovering  in  the  air,  and  did  commu- 
nicate this  piece  of  intelligence.'' 

In  June  1695,  being  then  in  his  74th  year,  he  resigned 
his  office,  and  retired  to  his  seat  at  Saperton-hall  in  Glo- 
x^estershire,  where  he  spent  the  last  fourteen  years  of  his 

A  T  K  Y  N  a.  101 

life  in  ease  and  quiet.  He  died  in  the  beginning  of  the 
year  1709,  aged  eighty-eight.  He  was  a  man  of  great 
probity  as  well  as  of  great  skill  in  his  profession,  and  a 
warm  friend  to  the  constitution.  .  He  was  twice  married^^ 
first  to  Mary  daughter  of  sir  George  Clerk,  of  Welford  in 
Northamptonshire,  and  afterwards  to  Anne  daughter  of  sir 
Thomas  Daeres.  He  left  behind  him  an  only  son,  the 
subject  of  theiUext  art^le.  His  writings  are  collected  into 
one  volume,  8vo,  under  the  title  of  Parliamentary  and  Po- 
litical Tracts,  1734,  containing,  !•  "The  power,  juris- 
diction, and  privilege  of  Parliament,  and  the  antiquity  of 
the  House  of  Commons  asserted  :  occasioned  by  an  infor- 
mation in  the  king's  bench,  by  the  attorney-general, 
against  the  speaker  of  the  House  of  Commons.'*  2.  "  An 
Argument  in  the  great  case  concerning  the  Election  of 
Members  to  Parliament,  between  sir  Samuel  Barnardiston, 
plaintiff,  and  sir  William  Soame,  sheriff  of  Suffolk,  defen- 
dant, in  the  court  of  king's  bench,  in  an  action  upon  the 
case,  and  afterwards  by  error  sued  in  the  exchequer  cham- 
ber." 3.  ^^  An  inquiry  into  the  power  of  dispensing  with 
Penal  Statutes.  Together  with  some  animadversions  upon- 
a  book  writ  by  sir  Edward  Herbert,  lord  chief  justice  of 
the  court  of  common  pleas,  eiUitled,  A  short  account  of 
the  Authorities  in  law  upon  which  judgment  was  given  in 
sir  Edward  Hale's  case."  4.  "  A  Defence  concerning  the 
Ecclesiastical  Jurisdiction  in  the  realm  of  England."  5.n^^  A 
Defenci^  of  the*  late  lord  Russel's  Innocency,  by  way  of 
confutation  of  a  libellous  pamphlet,  entitled,  An  Antidote 
against  Poison  ;  with  two  letters  of  the  author  of  this  book, 
upon  the  subject  of  his  lordship^s  trial."  The  first  and 
chief  of  these  letters  we  have  given  above.  6.  "  The  lord 
fiussel's  Innocency  further  defended,  by  way  of  reply  to 
an  Answer,  entitled,  The  Magistracy  and  Government  of 
England  vindicated."  7.  *^  The  lord  chief  baron  Atkyns's 
Speech  to  »ir  William  Ashurst,  lord  ma3H>r  elect  for  the 
city  of  London,  at  the  time  of  his  being  sworn  in  their  ma- 
jesties court  of  exchequer."  Besides  these  tracts,  he  wrote 
a  treatise  against  the  exorbitant  power  of  the  court  of  Chan- 
ceiy,  pubUshed  in  1695,  entitled  **  An  inquiry  into  the 
Jurisdiction  of  the  Chancery  in  causes  of  Equity,'^  and  an- 
nexed to  it  ^^  The  case  of  Sir  Robert  Atkyns  about  .a  Se- 
parate Maintenance,"  fbl.  He  was  also  the  author  of  a 
tract,    <<  The  true  and  ancient  jurisdiction  of  the  House 

10«  A  T  K  Y  N  S. 

ef  Peers,"  foL  1699,  but  neither  are  in  the  above  vo« 
lume. ' 

ATKYNS  (Sir  Robert),  son  of  the  preceding,  by  Anne, 
daughter  of  sir  Thomas  Dacres  of  Hertfordshire,  was  born 
in  1646,  and  educated  with  great  care  under  the  eye  of 
his  father.     He  became  early  attached  to  the  study  of  an-* 
tiquities,  and  as  he  had  a  very  considerable  estate  settled 
upon  him,  he  lived  chiefly  upon  it,  pursuing  his  studies 
and  exercising  old  English  hospitality.     He  was  elected 
to  represent  his   county  in   parliament  as.  often  as  he 
chose  to  accept  that  honour,  and  his  knowledge  and  in- 
tegrity  induced  many  of  his  neighbours  to  make  him  the 
arbitrator  of  their  differences,  which  he  readily  undertook, 
and  generally  executed  to  the  satisfaction  of  both  parties^ 
He  married  Louisa,  daughter  to  sir  John   Carteret,   o£ 
Hawnes  in  Bedfordshire ;  but  having  by  her  no  issue  male, 
his  father  settled  his  estate  on  the  male  issue  of  sir  Edward 
Atkyns,  which  settlement  was  the  unfortunate  cause  of  a 
law-suit  between  the  father  and  son.     Sir  Robert  differed 
in  other  respects  from  his  father's  opinions,  being  mor<b  at* 
tached  to  the  house  of  Stuart,  yet  he  inherited  both  bis  pru"^ 
deuce  and  his  probity,  and  was  equally  esteemed  and  be« 
loved  by  men  of  all  parties.     His  design  of  writing  '^  The 
History  of  Gloucestershire,*'  took  its  rise  from  an  intention 
of  the  same  sort  in  Dr.  Parsons,  chancellor  of  the  diocese 
of  Gloucester,  who  had  been  at  great  pains  and  trouble  to 
collect  the  materials  for  such  a  work,  in  the  compiling  of 
which  he  was  hindered  by  the  infirm  and  declining  state 
of  his  health.     Sir  Robert,  however,  did  not  live  to  see  i% 
published,  which  was  done  by  his  e^equtors*     It  appeared 
in  1712,  in  one  volume  folio.     It  was  very  expensive  to 
the  undertaker,  who  printed  it  in  a  pompous  manner, 
adorning  it  with  variety  of  views  and  prospects  of  the  seats 
of  the  gentry  and  nobility,  with  thiir  arms ;  and  be  has 
inserted  some,  which,  in  Mr.  Gough's  opinion,  very  littl<» 
deserve  it.     It  were  to  be  wished,  says  the  same  excellent 
anti(|uary,  that  more  authorities  had  been  given,  and  the 
charters  and  grants  published  in  the  original  language^ 
The  transcripts  of  all  these  were  collected  by  Parsops.  The 
price  of  this  work,  which  was  five  guineas,  has  been  greatly 
yaised  by  an  accidental  fire,  Jan.  30,   17|2-13,  which 

>  Sio|^  Britaiiiiici^ 

A  T  K  Y  N  S. 


destroyed  ihost  of  the  copies  in  the  house  of  Mr.  Bowyer, 
printer,  in  White  Fryars.  All  the  plates,  except  two  or 
three,  falling  into  tbe  haud&of  Mn  Herbert,  engravc^r  of 
charts,  he  caused  the  lost  ones  to  be  supplied,  and  repub« 
lisbed  this  book  in  1768,  correctiog  the  literal  errors,  but 
without  so  much  as  restoring  in  their  pcoper  place  several 
particulars  pointed  out  iu  the  original  errata.  Great  part 
of  this  second  edition  was  also  destroyed  by  fire. 

Sir  Robert  resided  usually  at  Pinbnry  park  in  Gloucester* 
shire  during  the  summer,,  and  at.hia  house  in  Westminster, 
daring  the  winter  season,  where,  in  1711,  he  was  seized 
with  a  dysentery,  of  which  he  died  Oct.  2d,  in  the  ^xty-> 
fifth  year  of  his  age.  He  waa  interred  in  the  parish  church 
of  Sapecton,  whefie  a  noble  monument  was  erected  to  his 
memory  by  Louisa  lady  Atkyns,  his  widow ;  and  a  good 
tnsiny  years  after  a  neat  monument  was  erected  in  West* 
minster  abbeys  neaiiy  opposite  Sfaakspeare\  to  tbe  me- 
mory of  sir  Robert  Atkyns  senior,  his  brother  sir  Edward 
Atkyns,  and  sir  Robert  Atkyns^  jun.  ^ 

ATKYNS  (Richard),  a  typographical  author,  bom  in 
Gloucestershire,  in  1615;,  studied  at  Baliol  college.  Ox* 
ford,  in  1629,  whene  he  was  a  gentleman  commoner,  aad 
remored  afterwards  to  Lincohi*s  inn.  He  riaited  France 
with  a  young  nobleman^  and  at  his  return  frequented  the 
court ;  but  the  oiTil  wars  breaking  oat,  he  suffered  miudi 
on  account  of  his  loyalty.  After  the  restoratioh  he  was  a 
deputy-lieutenant  of  Gloucestershire.  Having  been  at  the 
expence  of  above  a  thousand,  pounds  in  law-isuits  for  near 
twenty- four  years,  tp  prove  the  right  of  the  king's  grant  in 
printing  law  boolus;,  he  had  some  hopes  gf  repairing  his  fi* 
nances  by  his  pen ;  and  published  his  ^<  Original  and 
growth  of  Plrinting  in  England,^'  4to,.  1664.  Fire  years 
aficar  he  pnUished  his  ^^  Vindication,"  &c.  containing  a 
relation  of  several  passages  in  the  western  wars  of  EngUnd^ 
wherein  he  was  coooeroed.  To  which  are  added  his  *'  Sighs 
and  Ejaculations,^'  4ito,.  1 669.  He  was  married,  but  it  seemns 
unfortunately,  for  it  is  said,  that  it  proved  his  ruin  towards 
the  end  of  his  days.  He  died  a  prisoner,  for  debt,  in  the 
Marahalsea,  Sept.  14, 1677,  and  was  buried  in  St.  George^s^ 
Southwark,  at  the  expence  ol  baron  Atkyns,  to  whom  he 
was  related. ' 

1  Biog.  Britannica. — Gongh's  British  Topography,  rol.  f. 
*  Biog.  Brit,— Alhu  Os,  voi.  U.«*^raa^>  vok  lY,p.  13. 


ATTAIGNANT  (Gabriel  Charles  de  l'),  a  French 
poet,  was  born  at  Paris  in  1697,  educated  for  the  churchy 
and  ndade  a  canon  of  Rheinis.  He  passed  his  life,  however^ 
in  Paris,  keeping  all  sorts  of  company,  good  and  bad,  and 
rendering  himself  universally  agreeable  by  his  impromptus, 
his  songs,  and  madrigals,  some  of  which  were  of  the  satirical 
kind,  and  occasionally  iuTolved  him  in  quarrels.  Towards 
the  close  of  his  life,  he  renounced  the  world,  and  was  made 
a  convert  to  piety  by  the  abb6  Gautier,  who  was  after* 
wards  the  confessor  of  Voltaire.  The  Parisian  wits  ob- 
served that  such  an  attempt  was  worthy  of  Gautier,  as  he 
was  chaplain  to  the  hospital  of  incurables^^  The  abb^  At* 
taignant  died  at  Paris  Jan.  10,  1779.  He  published 
1.  ^^  Pieces  d^rob^es  a  un  ami,''  1750,  2  vols.  12mo,  pub- 
lished by  Meunier  de  Querlon,  who  dedicated  them  to  the 
author  himself.  All  the  pieces  which  form  this  collection 
were  reprinted  in  his  next  publication.  $^  ^^  Poesies  de 
J'abb6  de  I'Attaignant,'*  1757,  4  vols.  l2roo.  In  1779  a 
fifth  volume  appeared  under  the  title  of  ^^  Chansons  et 
poesies  fugitives  dePabb^  de  TAttaignant.'*  3.  ^^  Epitre  a 
^  M.  L.  P.  sur  ma  retraite,"  1 769,  8vo.  4.  **  Reflexions  noc- 
turnes," 1679,  8vo.  It  would  appear  that  this  abb£  lost 
the  reputation  lie  gained  as  au  extempore  composer  and. 
singer,  by  turning  author,  his  countrymen  being  of  ppinion. 
that  very  few  of  his  printed  works  will  bear  the  test  of 
criticism.  * 

ATTARDI  (Bonaventure),  an  Augustin  monk,  was 
born  at  St.  Philip  of  Agire,  or  Argire,  an  ancient  town  of 
Sicily,  and  became  professor  of  church  history  in  the  uni** 
versity  of  Catania,  *and  in  1758. provincial  of  his  order  in 
Sicily  and  Malta.  He  wrote,  1.  *^  Bilancia  dell^  Verita,'* 
Palermo,  1738,  4to.  JThis  was  an  answer  to  a  book  entitle^ 
^^  Paulus  apostolus  in  Mari,  quod  hunc  Venetus  sinus  dici* 
tar,  naufragus,",  by  P.  Ignatius  Qidrgi,  a  Benedictine  of 
Bagusa.  The  dispute  respected  the  name  of  the  island  on 
which  St.  P^ul  was  shipwrecked,  called  hi  Latin  Melita, 
Giorgi  was  of  opinion  idiat  it  was  an  island  in  Dalmatia, 
now  called  *  Melada,  while  Attardi  maintained  the  more 
iBOmmon  opinion  that  it  was  the  well  known  islapd  of  Malta, 
5S*  '^  Lettera  scritta  ad  un  suo  amico,  in  prova  che  San . 
Filippo  d'Argira  fu  mandato  dal  principe  degli  apostoli 
San  Piqtro,"  Palermo,  1738,  4to.     ?.  "  LaRiposta  senz8^ 

}  Wiogf  UiU¥enelte.>f--Dict.  Hut.  is  airt.  L'Attaignantf 

A  T  T  A  R  D  I.  i05 

maschera  al  sig.  Lodovico  AntxDuio  Muratori,"  Palermo, 
1742.  This  is  one  of  the  many  attacks  on  Muratori,  for 
publishing,  under  the  name  of  Antonio  Lampridip,  ^*  that 
it  was  not  necessary  to  defend  the  immaculate  conception 
by  force  of  arms."  The  time  of  Attardi*s  death  is  not 
mentioned.  ^ 

ATTAVANTI  (Paul),  generally  known  in  Italy  by  the 
name  of  Father  Paul  of  Florence,  was  born  in  that  city  in 
141^.  He  entered  early  in  life  into  the  religious  order  of 
the  Servites,  that  is,  the  Servants  of  the  Blessed  Virgin, 
instituted  first  in  1223,  in  Tuscany,  by  some  Florentine 
merchants.  To  great  piety  he  is  said  to  have  added  a  por« 
tion  of  learning,  not  very  common  in  his  time,  and  Marsi- 
lius  Ficinus  compared  his  eloquence  to  the  charms  of  Or^* 
pheus.  He  was  intimate  with  the  most  learned  men  of  his 
time,  and  was  often  present  at  the  Platonic  academy  which 
met  in  the  palace  of  Lorenzo  de  Medici.  He  contributed 
much  to  the  extent  of  his  order  in  Piedmont,  Savoy,  and 
Switzerland,  and  became  provincial  in  Tuscany.  He  died 
at  Florence,  in  May  1499.  His  works  were,  l.**Vita 
beati  Joachimi,"  inserted  in  Bollandus's  Acts  of  the  Saints. 
2.  **  Quadragesimale  de  reditu  peccatoris  ad  Deum,"  Mi- 
Jan,  1479,  4to.  3.  **  Breviarium  totius  juris  canonici,'* 
Milan«  1478, 1479,  fol.  Meinmingen,  1486,  Basil.  1487, 4to. 

4.  *^  Expositio  in  Psalmos  poenitentiales,*'  Milan,  1479,  4to, 

5.  "  De  origine  prdinis  Servorum  beatae  Marias  dialogus." 
This  work,  which  was  written  in  1456,  and  dedicated  to 
Peter  de  Medici,  the  son  of  Cosmo  and  the  father  of  Lo- 
renzo, was  not  printed  until  1727,  Parma,  4to,  and  Lamt 
published  a  second  edition^  more  correct,  at  Florence  in 
]74],  8vo^  with  a  Life  of  the  author.  Attavanti  left  also 
many  work«  in  manuscript  * 

•  ATTENDOLO  (DARiiJs),  a  military  character,  and  a 
man  of  letters,  was  born  at  Bagnacvallo  in  the  kingdom  of 
Naples,  about  the  year  1 530,  and  accompanied  the  prince 
of  Salerno,  general  to  Charles  V.  in  his  expedition  against 
Piedmont.  He  diverted  the  fatigues  of  his  campaigns  bj 
the  study  of  polite  literature,  and  the  cultivation  of  a 
poetical  taste.  His  works  were,  <*  II  Duello,'*  Venice,  1560, 
which  is  a  history  of  celebrated  duels,  and  the  laws  respect- 
ifig  that  remnaat  of  barbarity.    *^  A  Discourse  on  Honour, 

}  Bio|^.  UpiTeneUie,  f  Ibtd.^MazzuchtUi.— Life^  ubi  supra. 


loe  A  'P  T  E  N  D  O  L  O. 

1562,  and  various  poems  which  have  been  inserted  in  coU 

ATTENDOLO  (John  Baptist),  a  learned  writer  of  the 
sixteenth  century,  was  the  son  of  an  able  engineer  of  the 
same  name,,  s^nd  born  at  Capua.  He  became  a  secular 
priest,  and  was  distinguished  not  only  for  his  knowledge  of 
modern  languages,  to  which  he  added  the  Hebrew,  Arabic, 
and  Greek,  l^ut  for  his  poetry,  and  the  active  part  he  tool^ 
in  the  famous  dispute  between  the  academy  of  La  Crijaca 
and  C^n^ille  Pelegrino,  on  the  subject  of  Tasso's  ^^  Jera^ 
salem  delivered.'*  Attendolo  espoused  the  cause  of  Tasao^ 
sdthojugh  himself  a  member  of  the  academy,,  smd  highly 
r^spect^d  by  his  brethren.  He  was  killed  by  the  overturn- 
ing of  a  carriage,  the  wheels  of  which  went  over  his  body, 
an,d  injared  hiip  so  much  that  he  died  in  a  few  hours,  Thia 
accident  happened  in  1592,  or  1,593.  His  works  are^ 
J,  ^^  Orazione  neir  essequie  di  Carlo  d' Austria  principe  di 
Spagiia,'*  Naples,  1571,  4to^  2«  '^  Orazione  militare,  all* 
altiezza  del  serenissimp  D.  Giovanni  d' Austria,  per  la  vit« 
|;Qria  navale  ottenuta  dalla  Santa  Lega  nelP  Echinadi,*' 
Kaples,  1573,  4to.  3.  ^^  J^imey  con  un  breve  discorso  dell* 
epica  poesia,''  Florence^  1584,  Svo,  Naples,  158S,  4tOy 
with  additions.  4.  ^^  Bo^zo  di  XIL  Lezioni  sopra  la  can- 
zone  di  M.  Francesco  Petrarca :  Vergine  Bella,  &c,"  Na* 
pies,  1^04,  4to,  a  work  left  imperfect  by  the  death  of  the 
ftuthor.  5.  "  Unita  della  materia  poetica  sotto  died  pre« 
llicamenti  e  ^entimenti  ne^.  due  principi  della  Toscaua  e 
JLatina  poesia,  Petrarca  e  Virgilio,^'  Naples,  1724^  Svo,  thi^ 
feqond  edition  ;  the  firs(.  is  uncommonly  rare*  He  also, 
fifter  the  death  of  Tansillo,  corrected  and  published  hia 
poemj^  *^  La  Lacrime  di  S.  Pietrq,''  which  the  author  had 
left  imperfect,  but  the  friends  of  Tansillo  were  of  opinion 
behad  takep  too  great  liberties,  which  in  the  subsequent 
editions  they  endeavoured  to  obviate  by  restoring  the  poem 
inore  nearly  to  the  state  in  which  Tansillo  left  it.  ^ 
.  ATTERBURY  (LEyris),  born  about  the  year  163h  H# 
igras  the  son  of  Francis  Atterbury,  rector  of  ]Middletoa 
Ms^ser^  or  Milton,  ii^  Northamptonshire,  who  amoiDtg  other 
ininisrters  subscribed  the  solemn  league  and  covenant  in 
1648.  He  was  entered  a  fU;udent  of  Christ«churcl;i,  Oxford* 
16^79  took  the  degree  of  B.  A*  Feb.  83,  l$49,  and  wa« 

^  Bioj^i  ViuvfrseUe.  ; 

A  T  T  E  N  D  O  L  O.  19» 

created  M.  A.  by  dispensation  from  Oliver  Crbmwdll  the 
chaQcellor,  March  1,  1651.  He  was  ooe  of  those  who  bad 
submitted  to  the  authority  of  the  visitors  appointed  by  the 
parliament.  In  1654  he  became  rector  of  Great  or  Broad 
Bissington,  in  Gloucestershire ;  and  after  the  restoration^ 
took  a  presentation  for  that  benefice  under  the  great  seal^ 
and  was  instituted  again  to  confirm  his  title  to  it.  Sept.  II , 
1657,  he  was  admitted  rector  of  Milton,  or  Middleton^ 
Keynes,  in  Bucks;  and  at  the  return  of  Charles  II.  took 
the  same  prudent  method  to  corroborate  his  title  to  thi« 
living.  July  25,  1660,  he  was  made  chaplain  extraordinary 
to  Henry  duke  of  Gloucester;  and  D.  D.  Dec.  1,  the  same 
year.  Returning  from  London,  whither  the  law-suits  ha 
was  frequently  involved  in  had  brought  him,  he  hadtha 
misfortune  to  be  drowned  near  his  own  house,  Dec.  7,1693^ 
He  published  three  occasional  Sermons,  entitled  "  The 
good  old  Subject ;  or  the  right  Test  of  Religion  and  Loy^i 
alty,"  London,  1684,  4to.  "Tha  Ground  of  Christina 
Feasts,"  1686, 4to,  and  "  Babylon'u  DownfalVM^^l,  4to, 

ATTERBURY  (Lewi6)>  eldest  son  of  the  preceding, 

was  bom  at  Caldecot,  in  the  parish  of  Newport  Pa^el^  ia 

Bucks,  on  May  3,  1 656.    He  was  educated  at  Westminster-^ 

school  under  Dr.  Busby,  and  sent  to  Christ-church,  Ox«« 

ford,  at  the  age  of  eighteen.     He  was  ordained  deacon  in 

Sept.  1679,  being  then  B*  A-  stnd  priest  the  year  following, 

when  also  be  commenced  M.  A.    In  1683,  he  served  the 

office  of  chaplain  to  sir  William  Pritchard,  lord  mayor  of 

London.     In  Feb.  1684  he  was  instituted  rector  of  S}rtnel 

in  Northamptonshire,  which  living  he  afterwards  refiigned 

upon  his  accepting  of  other  preferments,    July  8,  1687,  bo 

accumulated  the  degrees  of  bachelor  and  doctor  of  civil  iaw« 

In  1691  we  find  him  lecturer  of  St.  Mary  Hill  in  London* 

§oon  after  his  marriage  he  settled  at  Highgate,  where  ho 

supplied  the  pulpit  of  the  reverend  Mr.  Daniel  Latbom^ 

who  was  v^ry  old  and  infirm,  and  had  lost  his  sight ;  and, 

iipon  the  death  of  this  gentleman,  was  in  June  1695  elected 

by  the  trustees  of  Highgate  chapel  to  be  their  preacher4 

He  had  a  little  before  been  appointed  one  of  the  sisc  preach-4 

iug  chaplains  to  the  princess  Anne  of  Denmark  at  White<« 

ball  and  St.  James's,  which  place  he  continued  to  supply 

after  she  qslvoq  to  the  crown,  and  likewise  during  part  of 

}  Biog.  Brit.»^W«od>8  Atb.  vol.  H.-i^Nicbols's  Atterburj,  vol.  J,  p.  1^17. 489» 


the  reign  of  George  I.  When  he  first  resided  at  Highgate, 
observing  what  difficulties  the  poor  in  the  neighbourhood 
Tinderwent  tor  want  of  a  good  physician  or  apothecary,  he 
studied  physic  ;  and  acquiring  considerable  skill,  practised 
it  gratis  among  his  poor  neighbours.  In  1707,  the  queen  pre- 
sented him  to  the  rectory  of  Shepperton  in  Middlesex ;  and 
in  March  1719,  the  bishop  of  London  collated  him  to  the 
rectory  of  H&rnsey,  which  was  the  more  agreeable  to  him, 
because  the  chapel  of  Highgate  being  situate  in  that  parish, 
many  of  his  constant  hearers  became  now  his  parishioners. 
In  1720,  on  a  report  of  the  death  of  Dr.  Sprat,  arch- 
deacon of  Rochester,  he  applied  to  his  brother,  the  cele- 
brated bishop,  in  whose  gift  this  preferment  was,  to  be  ap- 
pointed to  succeed  him.  The  bishop  giving  his  brother 
some  reasons  why  he  thought  it  improper  to  make  him  his 
archdeacon ;  the  doctor  replied,  "  Your  lordj^hip  very  well 
knows  that  Lanfranc,  archbishop  of  Canterbury,  had  a 
brother  for  his  archdeacon ;  and  that  sir  Thomas  Morels 
father  was  a  puisne  judge  when  he  was  lord  chancellor. 
And  thus,  in  the  sacred  history,  did  God  himself  appoint 
that  the  safety  and  advanciement  of  the  patriarchs  should 
be  procured  by  their  younger  brother,  and  that  they  with 
their  father  should  live  under  the  protection  and  govern* 
ment  of  Joseph.'*  In  answer  to  this,  which  was  not  very 
conclusive  reasoning,  the  bishop  informs  his  brother,  that 
the  archdeacon  was  not  dead,  but  well,  and  likely  to  con^ 
tihue  so.  He  died,  however,  soon  after ;  and,  on  the  20th 
of  May  1720,  the  bishop  collated  Dr.  Brydges,  the  duke 
of  Chandos's  brother,  to  the  archdeaconry,  after  writing 
thus  in  the  morning  to  the  doctor :  *M  hope  you  are  con- 
vinced by  what  I  have  said  and  written,  that  nothingN  could 
have  been  more  improper  than  the  placing  you  in  that  post 
immediately  under  myself.  Could  I  have  been  easy  under 
that  thought,  you  may  be  sure  no  man  living  should  have 
bad  the  preference  to  you."  To  this  the  doctor  answered  : 
^*  There  is  some  shew  of  reason,  I  think,  for  the  non-ac- 
ceptance, but  none  for  the  not  giving  it.  And  since  your 
lordship  was  pleased  to  signify  to  me  that  I  should  over- 
rule you  in  this  matter,  I  confess  it  was  some  disappoint* 
ment  to  me.  I  hope  I  shall  be  content  with  that  meaner 
post  in  which  I  am ;  my  time  at  longest  being  but  short  in 
this  world,  and  my  health  not  suffering  me  to  make  those 
necessary  applications  others  do :  nor  do  I  understand  the 
language  of  the  present  times ;  for,  I  find^  I  begin  to  grow 

A  T  T  E  R  B  U  R  Y.  10» 

tn  old-fasbion^d  gentlanan,  and  am  ignorant  of  the  weight 
and'  value  of  words,  which  in  our  times  rise  and  fall  like 
stock.''  In  this  affecting  correspondence  there  is  evidently 
a  portion  of  irritation  on  thepart  of  Dr.  Lewis,  which  is  not 
softened  by  Sis  brother's  letters ;  but  there  must  have  been 
some  reasons  not  stated  by  the  latter  for  his  refusal,,  and  it 
is  certain  that  they  lived  afterwards  in  the  strictest  bonds 
of  affection. 

.  Dr.  Lewis  Atterbury  died  at  Bath,  whither  he  went  for 
a  paralytic  disorder,  Oct.^  20,  1731.  In  his  will  he  gave 
some  few  books  to  the  libraries  at  Bedford  and  Newport, 
and  bis  whole  collection  of  pamphlets,  amounting  to  up« 
wards  of  two  hundred  volumes,  to  the  library  of  Christ- 
church,  Oxford.  He  charged  his  estate  for  ever  with  the 
payment  of  ten  pounds  yearly  to  a  school-mistress  to  ih-^ 
struct  girls  at  Newport-Pagnel,  which  salary  he  had  himself 
in  his  lifetime  paid  for  many  years.  He  remembered  some 
of  his  friends,  and  left  a  respectful  legacy  of  one  hundred 
pounds  to  his  ^^  dear  brother,  ia  token  of  his  true  esteem  and 
affection,?'  as  the  words  of  the  will  are ;  and  made  the 
bishop's  son  Osborn  (after  his  grand-daughter,  who  did  not 
long  survive  him)  heir  to  all  his  fortune.  This  grand- 
daughter wa^  the  daughter  of  Mr.  George  Sweetapple  of 
St.  Andrew's,  brewer,  by  Dr.  Lewis's  only  daughter.  He 
had  married  Penelope,  the  daughter  of  Mr.  John  Beding** 
field,  by  whom  he  had  this  daughter,  and  three  sons,  pone. 
of  whom  survived  him ;  Mrs.  Atterbury  died  May  1,  1723, 
and  the  grand-daughter  in  1732. 

His  works  are,  1.  Two  volumes  of  "  Sermons,"  1699, 
8vo,  and  1703.  2.  ^'  The  Ji^euitent  Lady  ;  translated  from 
the  French  of  the  famous  madam  la  Valliere,"  1684, 12mo. 
S.  Some  Letters  relating  to  the  history  of  the  Council  of 
Trent.  4.  "  An  Answer  to  a , popish  book,  entitled,  A 
true  and  modest  account  of  the  chief  points  in  controversy 
between  the  Roman  Catholics  and  the  Protestants.  By  N. 
Colson,"  whose  real  name  was  Cornelius  Nary,  an  Irish 
priest,  and  author  of  a  Churclx  History  from  the  creation 
jto  the  birth  of  Christ;  some  controversial  Tracts  against 
Archbishop  Synge ;  and  an  English  version  of  the  New 
Testament.  In  his  "  True  and  modest  account"  Synge  had 
reflected  upon  Dr.  Tillotson,  which  induced  Atterbury  to 
answer  him.  5.  ^^  The  Re-union  of  Christians;  translated 
from  the  French,"  1708,  and  one  or  two  occasional  Sermons. 

Pursuant  to  the  directions  of  Dr.  Atterbury's  will,  Mr. 

lid  ATtERBURV, 

'Yardley,  archdeacon  of  Cardigan^  his  executor,  ptit)lis}k6d[ 
£roin  bift  manuscripts  two  volumes  of  Sermons  on  select  sub* 
jects.  To  which  is  pre&xed  a  short  account  of  the  authot^ 
London,  1743,  8vo.  ^ 

ATTERBURY  (Francis),  bishop  of  Rochester  in  th« 
reigns  of  queen  Anne  and  king  George  I«  was  borti  Marck 
6,  1662-3,  at  Milton  or  Middleton  Keynes,  near  New* 
port-Pagnel,  Bucks.  He  was  admitted  a  king^s  scholar  itt 
1676  at  Westminster-school;  and  thence,  in  1680,  was 
elected  a  student  of  Christ-Church  college,  Oxford,  where 
he  soon  distinguished  himself  by  his  wit  and  learning ;  and 
gave  «arly  proofs  of  his  poetical  talents,  in  a  Latin  versioa 
of  Dry  den's  "  Absalom  and  Achitophel,'*  published  in 
1682;  and  in  1684  he  edited  the  *^  Avdoxorro^  seu  selectii 
^aedam  poematum  Italorum  qui  Latine  scripserunt,'*  which 
was  afterwards  enlarged  and  published  by  Pope  in  1740, 
with  the  omission,  however,  of  Atterbury's  excellent  pre- 
face. In  1687  he  made  his  first  essay  in  controversial 
writing,  and  shewed  himself  as  an  able  and  strenuous  ad« 
iFocate  for  the  Protestant  religion,  in  **  An  Answer  to 
-some  Considerations  on  the  spirit  of  Martin  Luther,  and  the 
original  of  the  Reformation."  These  Considerations  wer« 
published  under  the  name  of  Abraham  Woodhead,  who 
was  a  popish  writer,  but  were  really  written  by  Obadiah 
Walker,  master  of  University  college,  Oxford.  Mr.  At- 
terbury's answer  was  soon  after  animadverted  upon  by  Mh 
Thomas  Deane,  fellow  of  University  coUegCj  at  the  end  of 
"The  Religion  of  Martin  Luther,  whether  Catholic  or 
Prote;3tant,  proved  from  his  own  works."  This  spirited 
performance  of  Atterbury  induced  bishop  Burnet  to  rank 
the  author  among  the  eminent  divines  who  had  distinguished 
themselves  by  their  admirable  defences  of  the  Protestant 
iTeligion.  Atterbury  also  pleads  this  pamphlet  in  his  speech 
at  his  trial,  as  a  proof  of  his  zeal  in  that  cause,  and  the 
•same  was  urged  by  his  counsel. 

•  •  His  applicatio'n  to  study  was  intense.  In  polite  literature, 
«nd  even  in  mathematical  researches,  he  is  known  to  have 
eminently  excelled,  and  there  are  some  proofs,  in  his  cor- 
respondence, of  his  attachment  to  religious  duties.  Nor 
was  be  less  distinguished  for  social  qualities.  Among  his 
more  immediate  intimates  may  be  reckoned  Smalridge, 
Whitfield,  Hickman,  Charlett,  Harrington,  Newton>  King, 

»  Bipg.  Bdt— WoQd>f  Atb.  vol  IL— :Kicliob*i  Atterbwy,  vol.  I.  p.  484i  U.  99; 

A  T  T  E  R  B  U  R  Y,  511 

Trairelly  Gougfa,  and  the  two  brothers,  Robert  and  Joh» 
Freind*  By  his  tutors  at  Westminster,  Busby  and  Knipe^ 
be  had  been  particularly  noticed,  and  at  Christ  Church  be 
was  honoured  with  the  friendship  of  Dr.  Aldrich.  Whil0 
thus  successful  in  the  severer  patl^tsof  study,  he  occa^ 
tionally  indulged  in  poetical  attempts ;  bi^t,  akhongh  hb 
attacfacnent  to  the  Muses  continued  unimpaired  throughout 
life,  not  many  of  his  poems  have  been  preserved,  and  some 
of  those  have  not  till  lately  been  ascertained  to  be  his  pn>« 
duction.  It  is  somewhat  singular  tbzt  his  name,  as  far  aa 
we  have  searched,  does  not  appear  in  any  one  <^  the  pub^ 
lie  complimentary  verses  which  have  issued  from  the  uni* 
versity  press  on  public  occasions.  We  have  translations  of 
three  odes  and  part  of  an  epistle  of  Horace,  one  eclogue 
from  Virgil,  an  idyllium  from  Theocritus,  two  short  ori^ 
ginal  songd,  a  Latin  elegy,  an  impromptu,  two  Latin  epi- 
grams, and  one  in  English,  much  admired,  on  the  fan  of 
Miss  Osborne,  the  lady  whom  he  afterwards  married.  These 
are  all  his  juvenile  pieces  that  have  been  recovered;  but 
there  are  some  elegant  epitaphs  from  his  maturerpen,  and 
some  political  squibs*  He  is  said  to  have  completed  a  ver- 
sion of  Virgil's  Georgics  not  long  before  his  death,  but  this 
has  never  been  ascertained.  In  1690,  his  zeal  for  the  me^ 
mory  of  a  favourite  writer  induced  lum  to  write  a  pre&ce 
to  the  **  Second  part  of  Mr.  Waller's  poems." 

The  time  of  his  entering  into  the  church  is  not  exactly 
known ;  but  may  be  very  nearly  ascertained  by  his  *^  Epis* 
tolary  Correspondence;"  where  a  letter  to  his  father  in  1690 
is  highly  expressive  of  a  superior  genius,  impatient  of  the 
i(hackles  of  an  humble  college  life ;  whilst  the  father's  an- 
swer displays  the  anxiety,  together  with  a  mixture  of  the 
severity,  of  the  paternal  character,  offended  by  the  que- 
Tulousness  of  the  son,  and  his  dissatisfaction.  He  had  takep 
the  deg^ree  of  B.  A.  June  13,  1684  (when  he  was  little  more 
than  twenty-two  years  old);  and  that  of  M.  A.  April  20, 1687; 
.and  it  has  been  ingeniously  conjectured,  that  he  had  ap- 
plied to  the  college  fc^r' permission  to  take  pupils  whilst  be 
was  B.  A.  only  (whith  is  unusual),  and  that  he  was  refused. 
After  passing  two  or  three  years  more  in  the  college,  be 
then  seems  to  have  thought  too  highly  6f  himself  (when  notir 
become  M.  Ai)  to  take  any  at  all,  and  to  be  ^^  pinned  down^ 
as,"  be  says,  '^  it  is  bis  hard  luck*  to  be,  to  this  iBCene." 
This  restlessness  appears  to  have  broken  out  in  October 
1690,  when  he  was  moderatcir  ef  the  collegei  aod  had  had 

112  A  T  T  E  R  B  U  R  Y. 

JMr«  Boyle  four  months  under  his  tuition,  who  'Hook  Up 
jbalf  his  time/'  and  whom  be  never  had  a  thought  of  part-» 
ing  with  till  he  should  leave  Oxford ;  but  wished  he  ^^  could 
part  with  him  to-morlrow  on  that  score."     The  father  tells 
him  in  November,  '^  You  used  to  say,  when  you  had  your 
.degrees,  you  should  be  able  to  swim  without  bladders* 
You  used  to  rejoice  at  your  being  moderator,  and  of  the 
quantum  and  sub-lecturer ;  but  neither  of  these  pleased 
.you ;  nor  was  you  willing  to  take  those  pupils  the  house 
afforded  you  when  master ;  nor  doth  your  lecturer's  places 
or  nobleman  satisfy  you."     tn  the  same  letter  the  father 
advises  his  marrying  into  some  family  of  interest,  ^'  either 
bishop's  or  archbishop^s,  or  some  courtier's,  which  may  be 
done,  with  accomplishments,  and  a  portion  too."     And  to 
■part  of  this  counsel  young  Atterbury  attended  ;  for  he  soon 
after  married  MissOsborn,  a  relation  (some  say  a  niece)  of 
the  duke  of  Leeds,  a  great  beauty,  who  lived  at  or  in  the 
neighbourhood  of  Oxford,  and  by  whom  he  had  a  fortune 
of  7000/*     In  February  1690-1,  we  find  him  resolved  "to 
bestir  himself  in  his  office  in  the  house,"  that  of  censor 
.probably,  an  officer  (peculiar  to  Christ  Church)  who  pre-» 
sides  over  the  classical  exercises;  he  then  also  held  the 
catechetical  lecture  founded  by  Dn  Busby.     About  this 
period  he  probably  took  orders,  and  entered  into  "  another 
scene,  and  another  sort  of  .conversation ;"  for  in  1691  he 
was  elected  lecturer  of  St.  Bride's  church  in  London,  and 
in  October  1693,  minister  and  preacher  at  Bridewell  cha« 
pel.    An  academic  life,  indeed,  must  have  been  irksome 
and  insipid  to  a  person  of  hiV  active  and  aspiring  temper. 
It  was  hardly  possible  that  a  clergyman  of  his  fine  genius^ 
improved  by  study,  with  a  spirit  to  exert  his  talents,  should 
remain  long  unnoticed ;  and  we  find  that  he  was  soon  ap- 
pointed chaplain  to  king  William  and  queen  Mary.     The 
earliest  of  his  sermons  in  print  was  preached  before  the 
queen  at  Whitehall,  May  29,  1692.     In  August  1694  he 
preached  his  celebrated  sermon  before  the  governors  of 
Bridewell  and  Bethlem,  *'  On  the  power  of  charity  to  cover 
tins ;"  to  which  Mr.  Hoadly  (afterwards  bishop)  published 
some  ^^  Exceptions"  in  the  postscript  to  his  '^  Second  Let- 
ter to  Dr.  Atterbury,"  mentioned  hereafter.     In  this  he 
accuses  Atterbury,  and  not  without  reason,  of  endeavour- 
ing  to  maintain  the  <  proposition  that  ^^  God  will  accept 
€ne  duty  (charity)  in  lieu  of  .many  others."    InrOctober 
that  year  he  preached  before  the  queen^  <^  The  scomdr 

ATT  E  R  BURY.  llj 

incapable  of  true  wisdbtn ;"  which  was  also  warmly  attack- 
ed by  a  friend  of  sir  Robert  Howard)  author  of  ^  Thm 
History  of  Religion,*'  supposed  to  be  alluded  to  in  this 
sermon.  The  pamphlet  was  entitled  <^  A  tivo-fold  Vindi- 
cation of  the  late  archbishop  of  Canterbury,  and  the 
Author  of  the  Hbtory  of  Religion^  &c«"  1696,  Svo» 

The  share  he  took  in  the  controversy  against  Bentley  i$ 
now  very  clearly  ascertained.     In  one  of  the  letters  to  his 
noble  pupil,  dated  ^<  Chelsea,  1698,''  he  says,  **  the  matter 
had  cost  him  some  time  and  trouble.    In  laying  the  design 
of  the  book,  in.  writing  above  half  of  it,  in  reviewing  a 
'  good  part  of  the  rest,  in  transcribing  the  whole,  and  at- 
tending the  press,"  he  adds,  /^  half  a  year  of  my  life  went 
away."     His  pupil,  afterwards  lord  Orrery,  about  the  year 
1695,  obliged  the  world  with  a  new  edition  of  Phalaris's 
Epistles;  in  the  preface  to  which>  he  complains  of  Dn 
Bentley,  the  king's  library-keeper,  who  had  (prosolitd  sud 
humanitatej  deuied  him  the  inspection  of  a  valuable  ma- 
nuscript.   This  sarcasm  so  exasperated  the  doctor,  that,  in 
order  to  his  revenge  on  Mr.  Boyle,  he  published  a  long 
letter  to  Dr.  Wotton,  who  was  Uien  employed  in  writing 
on  the  State  of  ancient  and  modern  Learning ;  in  which 
he  undertakes  to  prove,  that  the  Epistles,  which  g^  under 
the  name  of  Phalaris,  are  spurious^  and  probably  the  work 
of  some  modern  sophist.     This  drew  from  Mr.  Boyle  a  re- 
ply, so  full  of  satire  and  raillery,  that,  on  which  side  so- 
ever truth  and  argument  may  be  supposed  to  lie,  the  wit, 
and  the  laugh  too,  were  evidently  on  Mr.  Boyle's.     This 
reply  was  said  to  be  written,  jointly^  by  a  select  club  of 
ingenious  men  belonging  to  Christ  Church ;  among  whom 
Atterbury  is  now  clearly  proved  to  have  been  tl\e  chief. 

In  1700,  a  still  larger  field  of  activity  opened,  in  which 
Atterbury  was  engaged  four  years  with  Dr.  Wake  (after- 
wards archbishop  of  Canterbury)  and  others,  conceniing 
the  rights,  powers,  andprivileges  of  convocations :  in  which 
he  displayed  so  much  learning  and  ingenuity,  as  welLaa 
seal  for  the  interests  of  his  order,  that  the  lower  house  of 
convocation  returned  him  their  thanks ;  and  in  consequence 
of  this  vote  a  letter  was  sent  to  the  university  of  Oxford, 
expressing,  that,  "  whereas  Mr.  Francis  Atterbury,  late  of 
Christ  Church,  bad  so  happily  asserted  the  rights  and  pri- 
vileges of  an  English  c6nvocation,  as  to  merit  the  solemn 
thanks  of  the  lower  house  for  his  learned  pains  upon  that 
subject;  it  might  behoped^  that  the  university  would  be 
Vol.  III.  I 

114  A  T  T  E  B  15  U  R  y. 

no  less  forwftrd  in  taking  some  public  nodce  of  so  great  a 
piece  of  semce  to  tke  church  ;  and  that  the  most  ftopet 
and  seasonable  mark  of  reelect  to  him>  would  be  to  confer 
on  him  the  degree  of  doctor  in  divinity  by  diploma,  with« 
out  doing  exercise,  or  paying  fees."  The  university  ap- 
proved ^  contents  of  this  letter,  imd  accordingly  created 
Mr.AtteiburyD.D.  Ourauthor's  work  was  entitled,  ^^The 
iUghts,  Powers,  and  Privileges  of  an  Englisfa  Convocation 
stated  and  vindicated,  in  answer  to  a  late  book  of  Br*. 
Wake's,  entitled  *  The  Authority  of  Christian  Princes  over 
liieir  Ecclesiastical  Synods  asserted,'  &c.  and  several  other 
pieces,"  8vo.  The  fame  of  this  work  was  very  great;  but 
it  was  censured  by  Burnet,  and  in  November  the  judges 
had  a  serious  consultation  on  it,  as  being  supposed  to  af- 
fect the  royal  prerogativje.  Holt,  then  chief  j-ustice,  was 
strongly  of  that  opinion,  and  the  same  idea  was  encouraged 
by  archbishop  Tenison,  Dr.  Wake,,  and  others.  Endea-- 
▼ours  were  made  to  prejudice  king  William  against  iiim^ 
but  his  majesty  remained  indifferent;  and  on  the  other 
hand,  Atterbury  gained  the  steady  patronage  of  sir  Jona«^ 
than  Trelawny,  bishop  of  Exeter,  of  Lawrence  earl  of 
Rochester,  and  of  bi^p  Sprat.  In  December  1700,  he 
published  a  second  edition  of  *^  The  Rights,"  considerably 
enlarged,  and  with  his  name,  and  a  dedication  to  the  two 
archbishops.  This  was  immediately  answered  by  Drs.  Ken« 
net,  Hody,  and^Wake.  Another  controversy  of  some  im- 
portance was  at  this  time  also  ably  agitated  by  Atterbury, 
the  execution  of  the  pramumentesy  a  privil^e  enjoyed  by 
the  several  bishops  of  issuing  writs  to  summon  the  inferior 
clergy  to  convocation.  Bishops  Compton,  Sprat,  and  Tre** 
lawny,  were  his  strenuous  supporters  on  this  occasion,  and 
by  the  latter  he  was  presented  to  the  archdeaconry  of 
Totness,  in  which  he  was  installed  Jan.  29,  1700-1.  His 
attendance  in  convocation  was  regular,  and  his  exertions 
great  In  placing  Dr.  Hooper  in  the  prolocutor's  chair^ 
as  the  successor  of  Dr.  Jane ;  in  the  examination  of  ob- 
noxious books ;  in  the  controversy  between  the  lower  and 
tipper  houses ;  in  considering  the  methods  of  promoting 
the  propagation  of  religion  in  foreign  parts ;  and  in  pre* 
paring  an  address  to  Uie  king,  his  zeal  distinguished  itself. 
About  this  time  he  was  engaged,  with  some  other  learned 
divines,  in  revising  an  intended  edition  of  the  Greek  Tes«. 
tament,  with  GredL  Scholia,  collected  chiefly  from  the 
fnthers,  by  Mr,  archdeacon  Gregory.    On  the  29th  of  Mayr 

ATT  ER  BURY.  tis 


he  preached  before  the  House  bf  Commons ;  and  on  Aug.  l  $^ 
published  ^<  The  power  of  the  Lower  House  of  Convocation 
to  adjourn  itself/'  which  was  a  sort  of  analjrsis  of  the  vAioUe 
.controversy.  He  also  published  **  A  letter  to  a  olergy- 
tman  in  the  country,  concerning  the  Choice  of  Member^, 
&c.'*  Nov.  17,  1701;  a  second,  with  a  similar  title,  Dec. 
10,  1701;  and  a  third,  in  defence  of  the  two  former,  Jan.  8, 
1701-2.  In  October  he  published  "The  parliamentaiy 
origin  and  rights  of  the  Lower  House  of  Convocation 
cleared,  &c."  At  this  period  he  was  popular  as  pfeachi^r 
at  the  Rolk  Chapel,  an  office  which  had  been  conferred  on 
him  by  sir  John  Trevor,  a  great  discemer  of  abilities,  in 
1698,  when  he  resigned  Bridewell,  which  he  bftd  obtained 
in  1693.  Upon  the  accession  of  queen  Anne,  in  1702^ 
Dr.  Atterbury  was  appointed  one  of  her  majesty's  chaplains 
-in  ordinary  ;  and,  in  July  1704,  was  advanced  to  the  dean- 
-eiy  of  Carlisle ;  but,  owing  to  the  obstacles  thrown  in  h!s 
way  by  bishop  Nicolson,  he  was  not  instituted  until  Octk 
12,  and  the  same  year  Sir  Jonathan  Trelawny  bestowed  on 
him  a  canonry  of  Es!eter.  About  two  years  after  this,  he 
was  engaged  in  a  dispute  with  Mr.  Hoadly,  concerning  thie 
advantages  of  virtue  with  regard  to  the  present  life,  occa^- 
sioned  by  his  sermon,  preached  August  SO,  1706,  at  the 
funeral  of  Mr.  Thomas  Bennet,  a  bookseller.  The  doc« 
trine  of  this  sermon  Mr.  Hoadly  examined,  in  '<  A  letter 
to  Dr.  Francis  Atterbury,  conoeming  Virtue  and  Vice,*^ 
published  in  1 706 ;  in  which  he  un&rtakes  to  shew,  that 
Dr.  Atterbury  has  extremely  mistaken  the  sense  of  bis  text. 
Dr.  Atterbury^  in  a  volume  of  Sermons  published  by  him- 
«elf,  prefisfced  a  long  preface  to  the  sermon  at  Mr.  Bennetts 
funeral ;  in  which  he  replies  to  Mr.  Hoadly^s  arguments, 
and  produces  the  concurrent  testimonies  of  expositors,  and 
the  authorities  of  the  best  writers,  especially  our  English 
divines,  in  confirmation  of  the  doctrine  he  had  advanced. 
In  answer  to  this  *'  Pre&ce,*^  Mr.  Hoadly  published  in  1709, 
"  Aaecond  letter^'*  kc. ;  and  in  the  Preface  to  his  *«  Tracts,'* 
tells  us,  these  two  letters  against  Dr.  Atterbury  were  de- 
stgnefd  to  vindicate  and  establish  the  tendeticy  of  virtue  and 
nmality  to  the  pres^itt  happiness  of  such  a  creature  as 
man  is ;  which  he  esteems  a  p<»ht  bf  the  utmost  importance 
to  the  Goi^l  itself.  In  Jan.  1 707-8  he  published  a  volume 
of  Sermons,  8vo,  and  in  the  same  year  *•  Reflections  on  a 
late  scandalous  report  about  the  repeal  of  the  Test  Act.'* 
In  1709,  he  was  engaged  in  a  fresh  dilpute  m^  Mr. 

I  2 

[  . 

IW  Al' T  E  RB  U  R  Y. 

HoadijT)  concerning  Passive^  Obedience,  occasioned  by  bk 
Latin  sermon,  entitled  ^^  Concio  ad  Clerum  Londinensem^ 
habita  in  Ecclesia  S.  Elphegi.''  Atterbury,  in  his  pamphlet 
entitled  "  Some  proceedings  in  Convocation,  A>  D.  1705, 
faithfully  represented,^'  had  charged  Mr.  Hoadiy  (whom 
he  sneeringly  calls  *Hhe  modest  and  moderate  Mr.Hoadly'') 
with  treating  the  body  of  the  established  clergy  with  lan- 
guage more  disdainful  and  reviling  than  it  would  hav^  be« 
Come  him  to  have  used  towards  his  Presbyterian  antagoniiM;, 
upon  any  provocation,  charging  them  with  rebellion  in  the 
church,  whilst  he  himself  was  preaching  it  up  in  the  state.^' 
This  induced  Mr.  Hoadiy  to  set  about  a  particular  examina- 
tion of  Dr.  Atterbury's  Latin  Sermon ;  which  he  did  in  a 
,  piece^  entitled . "  A  large  Answer  to  Dr.  Atterbury's  Charge 
of  Rebellion,  &c.  London,  1710,''  wherein  he  endeavours 
to  lay  open  the  doctor's  artful  management  of  the  contro- 
versy, and  to  let  the  reader  into  his  true  meaning  and  de- 
sign ;  which,  in  an  "  Appendix"  tq  the  "  Answer,"  he 
represents  to  be  "  The  carrying  on  two  different  causes, 
upon  two  sets  of  contradictory  principles ;"  in  order  to 
*^  gain  himself  applause  amongst  the  same  persons  at  the 
same  time,  by  standing  up  for  and  against  liberty ;  by  4e-' 
pressing  the  prerogative,  and  exalting  it ;  by  lessening  the 
executive  power,  and  magnifying  it;  by  loading  some 
with  all  infamy,  for  pleading  for  submission  to  it  in  one 
particular  which  he  supposeth  ,an  incroachment,  and  by 
loading  others  with  the  same  infamy  for  pleading  against 
submission  to  it,  in  cases  that  touch  the  happiness  of  the 
.whole  community."  "  This,"  he  tells  us,  **  is  a  method 
of  controversy  so  peculiar  to  one  person  (Dr.  Atterbury)  as 
that  he  knows  not  that  it  hath  ever  heed  prac^sed,  or  at- 
tempted by  any  other  writer."  Mr.  Hoadiy  has  likewise 
transcribed,  in  this  Appendix,  some  remarkable  passages 
out  of  our  author's  "  Rights,  Powers,  and  Privileges,  &c." 
which  he  confronts  with  others,  from  his  Latin  Sermon. 

In  17  lO  came  on  the  celebrated  trial  of  Dr.  Sacheverell, 
whose  remarkable  speech  on  that  occasion  was  generally 
supposed  to  have  been  drawn  up  by  our  author,  to  whom 
Sacheverell,  in  his  last  will,  bequeathed  500/.  in  conjunction 
with  Smalridge  and  Freind«  The  same  year  Dr.  Atterbury 
was  unanimously  chosen  prolocutor  of  the  lower  bouse  of 
convocation,  and  had  the  chief  management  of  affairs  in 
that  house.  This  we  learn  from  bishop  Burnet.  In  his 
account  of  this  convocation,   having  observe^,  that;  the 

A  T  T  E  R  B  U  R  Y.  117 

queen,  in  appointing  a  committee  of  bishops  to  be  present^ 
and  consenting  to  their  resolutions,  not  only  passed  over  all 
the  bishops  made  in  king  William's  reign,  but  a  great  many 
of  those  named  by  herself,  and  set  the  bishops  of  Bristol 
and  St.  David's,  then  newly  consecrated,  in  a  distinction 
above  all  their  brethren,  by  adding  them  to  the  committee^ 
upon  the  indisposition  of  the  archbishop  and  others,  he  adds  : 
"  All  this  was  directed  by  Dr.  Atferbury,  who  had  the  con- 
fidence of  the  chief  minister ;  and  because  the  other  bishops 
had  maintained  a  good  correspondence  with  the  fortner 
ministry,  it  was  thought  fit  to  put  the  marks  of  the  queen's 
distrust  upon  them,  that  it  might  appear  with  whom  her 
royal  favour  and  trust  was  lodged."  May  11,  171 1,  be  was 
appointed,  by  the  convocation,  one  of  the  committee  for 
comparing  Mr.  WbistQu's  doctrines  with  those  of  the 
church  of  England ;  and,  in  June  following,  he  had  the. 
chief  hand  in  drawing  up  "  A  Representation  of  the  pre- 
sent State  of  Religion."  In  1 7 1 2,  Dr.  Atterbury  was  made 
dean  of  Christ  Church,  notwithstanding  the  strong  interest 
and  warm  apphcations'of  several  great  men  in  behalf  of  his 
competitor  Dr.  Smalridge  :  but,  *^  no  sooner  was  he  settled 
there,"  says  Stackhouse, "  than  all  ran  into  disorder  and  con- 
fusion. The  canons  bad  been  long  accustomed  to  the  mild  and 
gentle  government  of  a  dean,  who  had  every  thing  in  him 
that  was  endearing  to  mankind,  and  could  not  therefore 
brook  the  wide  difference  that  they  perceived  in  Dr.  Atter- 
bury. That  imperious  and  despotic  manner,  in  which  he 
seemed  resolved  to  carry  every  thing,  made  them  more 
tenacious  of  their  rights,  and  inclinable  to  make  fewer 
concessions,  the  more  he  endeavoured  to  grasp  at  pow;er9 
and  tyrannize.  This  opposition  raised  the  ferment,  and, 
in  a  short  time,  there  ensued  such  strife  and  contention, 
such  bitter  words  and  scandalous  quarrels  among  them,  that 
it  was  thought  adviseable  to  remove  him,  on  purpose  to 
restore  peace  and  tranquillity  to  that  learned  body,  and  that 
other  colleges  might  not  take  the  infection ;  a  new  method 
of  obtaining  preferment,  by  indulging  such  a  temper,  and 
pursuing  such  practices,  as  least  of  all  deserve  it !  In  a 
word,"  adds  this  writer,  "  wherever  he  came,  under  one  pre-t 
tence  or  other,  but  chiefly  under  the  notion  of  asserting  his 
rights  and  privileges^  he  had  a  rare  talent  of  fomenting 
discord,  and  blowing  the  coals  of  contention  ;  which  madie 
a  Ifsarned  successor  (Dr.  Smalridge)  in  two  of  his  prefer- 
inent;s  complain  of  bis  hard  fate,  in  being  forced  tp  carry 


water  after  him,  to  extinguish  the  flames,  which  his  liti«i^ 
giousness  had  every  where  occasioned.''  The  next  year 
saw  him  at  the  top  of  his  preferment,  aa  well  as  of  his  re-** 
putation;  for,  in  the  beginning  of  June  1713,  the  queen,* 
at  tile  recommendation  of  lord  chancellor  Harcourt,  ad** 
Yanced  him  to  the  bishopric  of  Rochester,  with  the  deanery 
of  Westnunster  in  commendam ;  he  was  confirmed  July  4^ 
and  consecrated  at  Lambeth  next  day. 

At  the  beginning  of  the  succeeding  reign,  his  tide  of 
proisperity  began  to  turn  ;  and  he  received  a  sensible  mor* 
tification  presently  after  the  coronation  of  king  George  I* 
Oct.  20,-1714,  when,  upon  his  offering  to  present  his  ma- 
jesty (with  a  view,  no  doubt,  of  standing  better  in  his  fa- 
vour) with  the  chair  of  state  and  royal  canopy,  his  own 
perquisites  as  dean  of  Westminster,  the  offer  was  rejected^ 
not  without  some  evident  marks  of  dislike  to  his  person^ 
At  the  close  of  this  year  be  is  supposed  to  have  written  » 
pamphlet,  deemed  a  libel  by  goveriiment,  ^^  English  Advice 
to  the  Freeholders  of  England.^'  Bohngbroke  and  Swift 
were  also  supposed  to  have  had  a  hand  in  it.  During  the 
rebdlion  in  Scotland,  which  broke  out  in  the  first  year  of 
this  reign,  Atterbury  gave  an  instance  of  his  growing  disv 
affection  to  the  established  government,  in  refusing  to  sign 
the  ^*  Declaration"  of  the  bishops.  In  that  juncture  of 
aiflhirs,  when  the  Pretender^s  declaration  was  posted  up  in 
most  market  towns,  and,  in  some  places,  his  title  pro- 
otaimed,  it^was  thought  proper,  by  most  bodies  of  men,  to 
give  the  government  all  possible  assurance  of  their  fidelity 
ahd  allegiance ;  and  accordingly  there  waa  pubil^ed  ^'  A . 
Declaration  of  the  archbishop  of  Canterbury,  and  the 
bishops  in  and  near  London,  testifying  their  abhorrence  of 
the  present  rebellion ;  and  an  exhortation  to  the  clergy, 
and  people  under  their  care,  to  be  ^ealons  in  the  discharge 
of  their  duties  to  his  majesty  king  George."  This  papev 
both  Atterbury  and  Smalridge  refused  to  sign,  on  pretence 
of  a  just  offence  taken  at  some  unbecoming  reflections  cast 
on  a  party,  not  inferior  to  any,  they  said,  in  point  of  ioy* 
Alty.  But  Atterbury's  refusal  of  signing  the  declaration  of 
his  episcopal  brethren,  during  the  rebellion  ip  Scotland]^ 
was  not  the  only  testimony  he  at  that  time  afforded  of  hi9 
disaffection  to  government  Anotber  remarkable  proof  of 
it  was  his  conduct  to  an  ingenious  and  learned  clergyman, 
Mr.  Gibbin,  curate  of  Gravesend.  When  the  Dutch  troops, 
which  came  over  to  assist  in  subduing  the  rebellion,  werf 


A  T  T  E  R  B  U  R  Y.  il» 

quartered  at  that  place>  the  officers  requested  of  Mr.  Gibbia 
the  use  of  bis  church  one  Sunday  morning  for  their  chap- 
lain to  preach  to  their  soldiers,  alleging  that  the  like  favour 
bad  been  granted  them  in  other  parishes,  and  promising 
that  the  service  should  begin  at  six  in  the  morning,  that  it 
might  not  interfere  with  that  of  the  town.  The  request  was 
granted,  the  chapUin  preached,  and  his  congregation  was 
dismissed  by  nine  o'clock.  But  Dr.  Atterbury  was  so  in« 
censed  at  this  transaction,  that  he  suspended  Mr.  Gibbiu 
for  three  years.  The  suspension,  however,  was  deemed 
so  injurious  by  the  inhabitants  of  Gravesend,  that  they 
subscribed  a  sum  to  Mr.  Gibbin  more  than  double  the 
income  of  his  diurch ;  and  the  afiair  being  represented 
to  the  king,  his  majesty  gave  him  the  rectory  of  Norths- 
Fleet  in  Kent,  which  living  he  afterwards  exchanged  for' 
Birch,  near  Colohester  in  Essex,  where  he  died  July  29, 
1752.  He  was  a  very  ingenious,  learned,  and  worthy 
clergyman,  who  had  greatly  improved  and  enlarged  his 
mind,  by  his  travels  intp  France,  Italy,  and  other  coun- 
tries, with  Mt.  Addison. — ^A  farther  striking  instance  (if 
true)  of  bishop  Atterbury's  attachment  to  the  Pretender^ 
is  related,  by  tlie  author  of  the  "  Memoirs  of  lord  Ches- 
terfield,''  from  Dr.  Birch's  manuscript  papers,  and  was 
often  mentioned  by  the  late  bishop  Pearce  (who  appears 
to  have  been  always  severe  on  the  memory  of  Atterbury) : 
*^  LcHrd  HaroQurt  leaving  the  old  ministry,  provoked  At- 
terbury's  abusive  tongue.  He,  in  return,  declared,  that 
on  the  queen's  death,  the  bishop  came  to  him  and  to  lord 
Bolingbrobe,  and  said,  nothing  ^remained  but  immediately 
to  proclaim  king  James.  He  further  offered,  if  they  would 
give  him  a  guard,  to  put  on  his  lawn  sleeves,  and  head 
the  procession/'  Whatever  may  be  in  this,  it  is  certain 
that  from  the  time  he  perceived  himself  slighted  by  the 
king  he  constantly  opposed,  the  measures  of  the  court  in 
the  House  of  Lords,  and  drew  up  some  of  the  most  violent 
protests  with  bis  own  band.  In  17 }6,  we  find  bim  ad- 
vising dean  Swift  in  the  management  of  a  refractory 

April  26,  1722,  he  sustained  a  severe  trial  in  the  loss  of 
his  lady,  by  whom  he  had  four  children ;  Francis,  who  died 
an  infant ;  Osborn  ^,  student  of  Christ-church ;  Elizabeth, 

*  Bishop  Atierbnry's  son  was  elected  college  till  1*725  $  when  be  went  to  t^ 
from  Westminster  to  Christ-church  in  East  Indies,  and  continued  there  tUl 
nit2,  and  continued  a  student  of  that     th«  death  oH  his  uude  (who  Vsk  hisa 

1^0  A  T  T  E  R  B  U  R  Y. 

iirho  died  Sept.  29,  1716,  aged  seventeen ;  and  Mary,  who 
had  been  then  seven  years  married  to  Mr.  Morice. 

In  this  memorable  year,  the  government,  on  a  suspicion 
of  his  being  concerned  in  a  plot  in  favour  of  the  Pretender, 
had  him  apprehended  August  24,  and  committed  prisoner 
to  the  Tower.  Two  officers,  the  under-secretary,  and  a 
messenger,  went  about  two  o^clock  in  the  afternoon  to  the 
bishop^s  house  at  Westminster,  with  orders  to  bring  him 
and  bis  papers  before  the  council.  He  happened  to  be  in 
his  night-gown  when  they  came  in,  and  being  made  ac- 
quainted with  their  business,  he  desired  time  to  dress  him- 
self. In  the  mean  time  his  secretary  came  in,  and  the 
officers  went  to  search  for  his  papers ;  in  the  sealing  of 
which  the  messenger  brought  a  paper,  w)iich  he  pretended 
to  have  found  in  his  close-stool,  and  desired  it  might  be 
sealed  up  with  the  rest.  His  lordship  observing  it,  and 
believing  it  to  be  a  forged  one,  desired  the  officers  not  to 
do  it,  and  to  bear  witness  that  the  paper  was  not  found 
with  him.  Nevertheless  they  did  it ;  and,  though  they  be- 
haved themselves  with  some  respect  to  him,  they  suffered 
the  messengers  to  treat  him  in  a  very  rough  manner, 
threatening  him,  if  he  did  not  make  haste  to  dress  himself, 
they  would  carry  him  away  -  undrest  as  he  was.  Upoa 
which  he  ordered  his  secretary  to  see  his  papers  all  sealed 
tip,  and  went  himself  directly  to  the  Cockpit,  where  the 
council  waited  for  him.  The  behaviour  of  the  messengers 
upon  this  occasion  seems  to  have  been  very  unwarrantable, 
if  what  the  author  of  ^^  A  letter  to  the  Clergy  of  the  Church 
of  England,^'  &c.  tells  us,  be  true,  that  the  persons  directed 
by  order  of  the  king  and  council  to  seize  his  lordship  and 
his  papers,  received  a  strict  command  to  treat  him  with  great 
respect  and  reverence.  However  this  was,  when  he  came- 
before  the  council,  he  behaved  with  a  great  deal  of  calm- 
ness, and  they  with  much  civility  towards  him.  He  had 
liberty  to  speak  for  himself  as  much  as  he  pleased,  and 
they  listened  to  his  defence  with  a  great  deal  of  attention ; 

tlie  reversion  of  his  fortune),  and  of  his  tion  of  Westminster,  elected  student  of 

lather,  who  took  no  notice  of  him  in  his  Christ- church,    Oxford,  in   1755;    in 

will,  which  bears  date  Dec.  31,  1725.  176S  was  appointed,  by  the  b'isbop  of 

In  1744  he  was  ordaiued  by  his  father's  Cloyne,   his  domestic    chaplain;    m 

great  rival,  bishep   Hoadly;    and  io  1770  was  collated  by  him  to  the  dig- 

Jnne  1746,  obtained  the  rectory  of  Ox-  nity  of  precentor  in  the  cathedra)  of 

hill,  Warwickshire.     He  left  a  widow  Gloyne;  and  in  1776  was  presented  to 

and  five  children  behind  bim,  two  sons  the  valuable  living  of  Cloumel,  or  th^ 

and  three  daughters :  Francis,  the  el-  Great  Islands,  in  tlie  same  dioeesc. 
dest  SCO,  was  educated  on  the  founda- 


atid,  what  is  more  unusual^  after  he  was  withdrawn,  he  ha4 
twice  liberty  to  re-enter  the  council-chamber^  to  make  for 
himself  such  representations  and  requests  as  he  thought 
proper.     It  is  said,  that  while  he  was  under  examination^ 
he  made  use  of  our  Saviour's  answer  to  the  Jewish  council, 
while  he  stood  before  them :  "  If  I  tell  you^^  ye  will  not 
believe  me ;  and  if  I  also  ask  you,  ye  will  not  answer  me, 
nor  let  me  go,"     After  three  quarters  of  an  hour's  stay  at 
the  Cockpit,  he  was  sent  to  the  Tower,  privately,  in  his  own 
coach,  without  any  noise  or  observation. 
^  This  commitment  of  a  bishop  upon  the  suspicion  of  high'* 
treason,  as  it  was  a  thing  rarely  practised  since  the  Refor<> 
mation,  occasioned  various  speculations  among  the  people. 
March  23,  1723,  a  bill  was  brought  into  the  House  of  Com- 
mons, for  *^  inflicting  certain  pains  and  penalties  on  Fran- 
cis lord  bishop  of  Rochester ;"  a  copy  of  which  was  sent  to 
him,  with  notice  that  he  had  liberty  of  counsel  and  soUci« 
tors  for  making  his  defence.     Under  these  circumstances, 
the  bishop  applied,  by  petition,  to  the  House  of  Lords,  for 
their  direction  and  advice,  as  to  his  conduct  in  this  con- 
juncture ;  and  April  4,  he  acquainted  the  Speaker  of  the 
House  of  Commons,  by  a  letter,  that  he  was  determined  to 
give  that  house  no  trouble,  in  relation  to  the  bill  xlepending 
therein ;  but  should  be  ready  to  make  his  defence  against 
it,  when  it  should  be  argued  in  another  house,  of  which  he 
had  the  honour  to  be  a  member.     On  the  Otb,  the  bill 
passed  the  House  of  Commons,  and  was  the  same  day  sent 
up  to  the  House  of  Lords  for  their  concurrence.     May  6, 
being  the  day  appointed  by  the>  lords  for  the  first  reding 
of  the  bill,  bishop  Atterbury  was  brought  to  Westminster, 
to  make  his  defence.     The  counsel  for  the  bishop  were,  sir 
Constantine  Phipps  and  William  Wynne,  esq. ;   for  the 
king,  Mr.  Reeve  and  Mr.  Weftrg.     The  proceedings  con- 
tinued above  a  week ;  and  on  Saturday,  May  11,  the  bishop 
was  permitted  to  plead  for  himself^  which  he  did  in  a  very 
eloquent  speech.     On  Monday  the  1 3th  he  was  carried,  for 
the  last  time,  from  the  Tower,  to  hear  the  reply  of  the 
king's  counsel  to  his  defence.     On  the  15th,  the  bill  wa» 
lead  the  third  time,  and,  after  a  long  and  warm  debate, 
passed  on  the  16th,  by  a  majority  of  83  to  43.     On  the 
27th,  the  king  came  to  the  house,  and  confirmed  it  by  his 
royal  assent.     June  18,  1723,  this  eminent  prelate,  having 
the  day  before  taken  leave  of  his  friends,  who,  from  the 
time  of  passing  the  bill  against  him^  to  the  day  of  his  de- 

134  A  T  T  E  R  B  U  R  Y. 

parture/  bad  free  access  to  him  in  the  Tower»  embariied  im 
board  the  Aldborough  man  of  war,  and  landed  the  Friday 
following  at  Calais.  When  he  went  on  diore,  having  been 
informed  that  lord  BoUngbroke,  who  bad,  after  the  rising 
of  the  parliament,  received  the  king^s  pardon,  was  arrived 
at  the  same  place  on  his  return  to  England,  he  said,  with 
an  air  of  pleasantry,  '^  Then  I  am  exchanged  !**  and  it  wa8» 
in  the  opinion  of  Mr.  Pope  on  the  same  occasion,  ^'  a  sign 
of  the  nation's  being  afraid  of  being  over-run  with  too 
much  politeness,  when  it  could  not  regain  one  great  man^ 
but  at  the  expence  of  another.''  But  the  severity  of  his 
treatment  did  not  cease  even  with  his  banishment.  The 
same  vindictive  spirit  pursued  him  in  foreign  climes.  No 
British  subject  was  even  permitted  to  visit  him  without  the 
king's  sign  manual,  which  Mr.  Morice  was  always  obliged 
to  solicit,  not  only  for  himself,  but  for  every  one  of  his 
family  whom  he  carried  abroad  with  him,  for  which  the  fees 
of  office  were  very  high. 

'  When  bishop  Atterbury  first  entered  upon  his  banish^ 
ment,  Brussels  was  the  place  destined  for  his  residence ; 
but,  by  the  arts  and  instigations  of  the  British  ministers,  he 
was  compelled  to  leave  that  place,  and  retire  to  ParisL 
There,  being  solicited  by  the  friends  of  the  Pretender  to 
enter  into  their  negociations,  he  too  readily  complied,  as 
appears  by  his  correspondence  published  at  Edinburgh  in 
176S,  4to;  but,  that  he  might  appear  to  avoid  them,  he 
changed  his  abode  for  Montpelier  in  1728,  and  after  resid*- 
ing  there  about  two  years,  returned  to  Paris,  where  he  died 
February  15,  1731-2.  The  affliction  which  he  sustained 
by  the  death  of  his  daughter,  in  1729,  was  thought  to  have 
hastened  his  own  dissolution. 

How  far  the  bishop  was  attached  in  his  inclinations  to 
the  Stuart  family,  to  which  he  might  be  led  by  early  pre* 
judices  of  education,  and  the  divided  opinions  of  the  ttme&y 
is  now  teo  obvious  to  admit  of  controversy.  But  that  he 
should  have  been  weak  enough  to  engage  in  a  plot  so  in- 
consistent with  his  station,  and  so  clumsily  devi^d  (to  say 
the  least  of  it,  and  without  entering  into  his  solemn  asseve*> 
rations  of  innocenc'e),  is  utterly  inconsistent  with  that 
cunning  which  his  enemies  allowed  him.  The  duke  of 
Wharton,  it  is  well  known,  was  violent  against  him,  till 
cotivinced  by  his  unanswerable  reasoning. 

It  has  hebn  said  that  Atterbury's  wishes  reached  to  the 
biiihopric  of  London,  or  even  to  York  or  Canterbury.     But 

A  T  T  E  R  B  U  R  Y.  129 

tliose  uAo  were  better  acquainted  wkh  hit  views,  kn9m  tha^ 
Wincbestf  r  would  have  been  much  more  deninJile  tp  biiB 
than  either  of  the  others.  And  it  has  been  asserted,  from, 
respectable  authority,  that  that  bishopric  was  o^ed  to 
Ima  whenever  it  should  become  vacant  (and  till  tl^at  event 
should  happ^i,  a  pension  of  5000/.  a^year,  besides  aa 
ample  jMrovision  for  Mr.  Morice)  if  he  would  cease  to  give 
the  oppositi(Hi  he  did  to  sir  Robert  Walpole's  administra- 
tioDy  by  bis  speeches  and  protests  in  the  House  of  Lords. 
Wbea  that  offer  was  rejected  by  the  bishop,  then  the  con- 
Invance  for  his  ruin  was  d^ermined  on;  but  surely  no 
contrivance  could  have  been  successful,  bad  he  been  inno«* 
cent  of  the  treason  laid  to  his  charge. 

In  his  speech  in  the  House  of  Lords,  the  bishop  mentions 
his  briag  **  engaged  in  a  correspondence  with  two  learned 
men  (Bp.  Potter  and  Dr.  Wall)  on  settling  the  times  of 
writing  the  four  Gospels.''  Part  of  this  correspondence  14 
now  published.  The  same  subject  the  bishop  pursued 
during  his  exile,  having  consulted  the  learned  of  .all  nations, 
and  had  nearly  iMrought  the  whole  to  a  conclusion  when  he 
died.  These  laudable  labours  are  an  ample  confutation  of 
bishop  Newton's  assertion,  that  Atterbury  '^  wrote  little 
whilst  in  exile,  but  a  few  criticisms  on  French  authors." 

His  body  was  brought  over  to  England,  accompanied  /  y 
by  his  manuscripts,  which  underwent  a  strict  examination ;  ! ; 
but  as  nothing  of  his  is  now  to  be  found  in  the  State-paper 
office,  it  is  probable  that  the  whole  was  lost  by  neglect,  <Hr 
wilfuUy  destroyed.  He  was  interred  on  the  12th  of  May 
followiag,  in  Westminster  abbey,  in  a  vault  which,  in  1722, 
had  been  prepared  by  his  directions.  There  is  no  memo* 
fM  over  his  grave;  nor  could  there  well  be  any,  unless 
his  frieikds  would  have  consented  (which  it  is  most  pro- 
bable they  refused  to  do)  that  the  words  implying  him  to 
have  died  bishop  of  Rochester  should  have  been  omitted 
on  his.  tomb.  The  funeral  was  performed  in  a  very  private 
liaiiaer,  attended  only  by  his  son*in-law  Mr.  Morice,  and 
his  two  chaplains,  Dr.  Savage  and  Mr.  Moore.  Upon  the 
Wi  which  contained  his  bowels  was  inscribed, 

"  In  hkc  utnk  deposit!  sunt  cineres 
FfiANCisci  Attekbury^  Episcopi  Rolfensis. 

Some  time  before  his  death,  he  published  a  Vindicatloii 
foi  himself  bishop  Smalridge,  and  Dr.  Aldrich,  from  a 
charge  bfiQught  against  them  by  Mr.  Oldmixon,  of  having 


X24  A  T  T  E  R  B  U  R  Y- 

altered  and  interpolated  the  copy  of  lord  Clarendon** 
*•  History  of  the  Rebellion."  Bishop  Attetbury's  Sermons 
are  extant  in  four  volumes  in  8vo;  those  contained  in  the 
two  first  were  published  by  himself,  and  dedicated  to  his 
great  patron  sir  Jonathan  Trelawny,  bishop  of  Winchester; 
those  in  the  two  last  were  published  after  bis  death,  by 
Dr.  Thomas  Moore,  his  lordship's  chaplain.  Four  admi* 
Table  Visitation  charges  accompany  his  Epistolary  Corre- 
spondence, which  was  completed  in  1798,  by  Mr.  Nichols, 
in  5  vols.  8vo ;  containing  also  all  his  tracts,  and  a  vast 
mass  of  curious  and  interesting  ecclesiastical  history.  To 
the  last  irolume  is  prefixed  a  life,  written  with  great  care 
and  accuracy,  and  correctn)g  the  many  mistakes  of  pre-t 
ceding  biographers*  It  is  needless  to  add  how  much  the 
present  article  stands  indebted  to  Mr.  Nichols's  labours. 

As  to  bishop  Atterbury's  character,  however  the  moral 
and  political  part  of  it  may  have  been  differently  repre- 
sented by  the  opposite  parties,  it  is  universally  agreed, 
that  he  was  a  man  of  great  learning  and  uncommon  abili- 
ties, a  fine  writer,  and  a  most  excellent  preacher.  His 
learned  friend  Smalridge,  in  the  speech  he  made,  when  he 
presented  him  to  the  upper  house  of  convocation,  as  pro- 
locutor, styles  him  *^  Vir  in  nullo  literarum  genere  hospes, 
in  plerisque  artibus  et  studiis  diu  et  feliciter  exercitatus, 
in  maxim^  perfectis  literarum  disciplinis  perfectissimus.'' 
In  his  controversial  writings,  he  was  sometimes  too  severe 
upon  his  adversary,  and  dealt  rather  too  much  in  satire 
and  invective ;  but  this  his  panegyrist  imputes  more  to  the 
natural  fervour  of  his  wit,  than  to  any  bitterness  of  temper, 
er  prepense  malice.  In  his  sermons,  however,  he  is  not 
only  every  way  ifnexceptionable,  but  highly  to  be  coni- 
mended.  The  truth  is,  his.talent  as  a  preacher  was  so  ex- 
cellent and  remarkable,  that  it  may  not  improperly  he  said, 
that  he  owed  his  preferment  to  the  pulpit,  nor  any  hard  mat- 
ter to  trace  him,  through  his  writings,  to  his  several  promo- 
tions in  the  chi^rch.  We  shall  conclude  bishop  Atterbury's 
character,  as  a  preacher,  with  the  encomium  bestowed  on 
him  by  the  author  of  *^  The  Tatler  ;^^  who,  having  observed 
that  the  English  clergy  too  much  neglect  the  art  of  speak- 
ing, makes  a  particular  exception  with  regard  to  our  pre- 
late; who,  says  he,  ^^  has  so  particular  a  regard  to  his 
Congregation,  that  he  commits  to  his  memory  what  he  has 
to  say  to  them,  and  has  so  soft  and  graceful  a  behaviour, 
that  it  must  attract  your  attention.     His  person,'^   conti« 



Hues  this  author,  '^  it  is  to  be  confessed,  is  no  small  re* 
commendation ;  but  be  is  to  be  highly  commended  for  not 
losing  that  advantage,  and  adding  to  a  propriety  of  speech 
(which  might  pass  the  criticism  of  Longinus)  an  action 
which  would  have  been  approved  by  Demosthenes.  He 
has  a  peculiar  fcNTce  in  his  way,  and  has  many  of  his  audi- 
eace,  who  could  not  be  intelligeQt  hearers  of  his  discourse, 
w^re  there  no  explanation  as  well  as  grace  in  his  action. 
This  art  of  his  is  used  with  the  most  exact  and  honest  skill. 
He  never,  attempts  your  passions  till  he  has  convinced  your 
reason.  All  the  objections  Vhich  you  can  form  are  laid 
open  and  dispersed,  before  he  uses  the  least  vehemence  in 
his  sermon ;  but  when  he  thinks  he  has  your  head,  he  very 
soon  wins  your  heart,  and  never  pretends  to  shew  the 
beauty  of  holiness,  till  he  has  convinced  you  of  the  truth 
of  it." — ^In  his  letters  to  Pope,  &c.  bishop  Atterbury  ap- 
pears in  a  pleasing  light,  both  as  a  writer  and  as  a  man. 
In  ease  and  elegance  they  are  superior'  to  those  of  Pope, 
which  are  more  studied.  There  are  in  them  several  beau- 
tiful references  to  the  classics.  The  bishop  excelled  in  his 
allusions  to  sacred  as  well  as  profane  authors. 

The  following  anecdote  was  first  communicated  to  the 
public  by  the  late  Dr.  Maty,  on  the  credit  of  lord  Ches- 
terfield: "  I  went,"  said  lord  Chesterfield,  "  to  Mr.  Pope, 
one  morning,  at  Twickenham,  and  found  a  large  folio 
Bible,  with' gilt  clasps,  lying  before  him  upon  his  table; 
and,  as  I  knew  his  way  pf  thinking  upon  that  book,  I  asked 
him  jocosely,  if  he  was  going  to  write  an  answer  to  it  ?  It 
is  a  present,  said  he,  or  rather  a  legacy,  from  my  old 
friend  the  bishop  of  Rochester.  I  went  to  take  my  leave 
of  him  yesterday  in  the  Tower,  where  1  saw  this  Bible 
upon  his  table.  After  the  first  compliments,  the  bishop 
said  to  me,  "  My  friend  Pope,  considering  your  infirmi- 
ties, and  my  age  and  exile,  it  is  not  likely  that  we  should 
ever  meet  again  ;  and  therefore  I  give  you  this  legacy  to 
remember  me  by  it.  Take  it  home  with  you,  and  let  me 
advise  you  to  abide  by  it." — ^^  Does  your  lordship  abide 
by  it  yourself?"—"  I  do." — "  If  you  do,  my  lord,  it  is  but 
lately.  May  I  beg  to  know  what  new  light  or  arguments 
have  prevailed  with  you  now,  to  entertain  an  opinion  so 
contrary  to  that  which  you  entertained  of  that  book  all  the 
former  part  of  your  life  ?": — The  bishop  replied,  "  We 
have  not  time  to  talk  of  these  things,  but  take  home  the 
book;  I  will  abide  by  it,  and  I  recommend  you  to  do  so 

126  A  T  r  £  ft  B  0  R  V. 

too,  and  so  God  bless  yoti.^*  It  has  been  justly  remarireif^ 
that  whatever  were  the  bishop^s  faults,  we  do  not  rec<rflect 
any  thing  that  indicates  a  disbelief  or  a  doubt  of  the  truth 
of  Christianity.  His  actions  and  writings  rather  display 
him  in  the  light  of  a  zealous  supporter  of  religion  than  ia 
that  of  an  infidel.  His  sermons  on  the  miraculous  propa- 
gation of  the  Gospel,  and  on  a  standing  revelation's  beings 
the  best  means  of  conviction,  not  to  mention  others  of  his 
discourses,  are  important  evidences  of  his  attachment  to 
the  Christian  religion.  It  is  observable,  that  he  generally 
treats  unbelievers  with  contempt,  as  an  ignorant,  superfi- 
cial, and  conceited  set  of  men,  which  he  would  scarcely 
have  done  had  he  been  of  the  same  sentiments:  for^ 
though  a  man  may  conceal,  or  deny,  or  even  persecute  the 
opinions  "which  he  himself  holds,  it  is  not  very  likely  that 
be  should  appear  to  despise  the  retainers  of  them.  With 
respect  to  the  above  anecdote  related  by  Dr.  Maty,  the  late 
Mr.  Badcock,  from  a  zeal  to  vindicate  thie^  bishop's  cha- 
racter, as  if  it  were  insinuated  that  he  had  once  been  an 
unbeliever,  wrote  a  letter  in  which  he  endeavoured  to  deny 
the  authenticity  of  the  anecdote ;  but,  in  our  opinion,  with- 
out  arriving  at  that  conclusion.  * 


ATTICU8  (Titus  Pomponius),  was  a  celebrated  Ro- 
man knight,  to  whom  Cicero  wrote  a  great  number  of  let- 
ters, which  contain  the  general  history  of  the  times.  These 
are  still  extant,  divided  into  seventeen  books ;  but  it  is  the 
excellence  of  Atticus's  private  character  which  has  pro- 
cured him  a  place  in  most  collections  of  this  description. 
He  was  a  man  of  such  prudence,  that,  without  departingr« 
from  his  neutrality,  he  preserved  the  esteem  and  affection 
of  all  parties.  He  sent  money  to  the  younger  Marins,  who 
had  been  declared  an  eriemy  to  the  commonwealth ;  yet 
was  so  much  in  favour  with  Sylla,  that  this  Roman  general 
would  always  have  had  6im  with  him.  He  kept  himself 
quiet  at  Rome  during  the  war  between  CsBsar  and  Pompey, 
without  giving  offence  to  the  one  or  the  other,  and  he  sent ' 
money  to  Brutus,  while  he  was  doing  kind  offices  to  An- 

1  life  in  ▼«!.  V.  of  Nichdlft^t  edition  of  Atterbnry's  Caneltpaoifiooej^ljh  of 
Att^bury  by  Stackbou8e.-~Oen.  Diet. — Biog.  Britaonica,  voL  I.  and  additions 
in  subsequent  volumes.— Pope's  Works  by  Bowles.— ;Burnet's  Own  Times.— 
Malone's  Life  of  Drydon,  vol.  I.  p.  803. — Ath.  On.  vol.  If.<»i*Dr.  Jobason^ 
Works. — ^Blair's  Lectures.— Swia's  Works.— Bishop  Nicolson't  Letters,  S  V4il« 
1809>  by  >fr.  Nichols.— Hurd  and  Warburton's  Letters,  4to»  p.  328,  231,  fcc. 

A  T  T  I  C  U  S.  12? 

tony.  Afterwards,  in  the  cruel  divisions  which  arose  be- 
tnreen  Antony  and  Augustus,  he  contrived  to  preserve  the 
friendship  of  both,  difficult  as  it  must  have  been  in  the  case 
of  two  such  antagonists.  The  strict  friendship  he  had  with 
Cicero,  did  not  hinder  him  from  being  intimate  with  Hor- 
tensius ;  and  he  was  the  cause  (as  Nepos,  his  biographer, 
tells  us)  that  these  two  rivals  not  only  ceased  from  mutual 
reproaches,  but  even  lived  together  upon  very  good  terms. 
The  contests  between  the  parties  of  Cinna  and  Marius  in« 
duced  him  to  go  to  Athens  young,  where  he  continued  a 
long  time,  and  became  such  a  favourite  with  the  Athenians^ 
Uiat  the  day  he  left  them  was  a  day  of  mourning.  He 
never  attempted  to  raise  himself  above  the  rank  of  life  in 
which  he  was  born,  which  was  that  of  knight,  although,  he 
might  have  obtained  the  highest  posts  in  the  republic ;  but 
be  chose  to  renounce  all  pretensions  to  them,  because,  in 
the  then  prevailing  corruption,  he  could  neither  gain  nor 
discharge  them  according  to  the  laws,  and  as  a  man  of  in-^ 
tegrity;  no  inconsiderable  proof  of  his  virtue,  notwith* 
standing  he  has  been  charged  with  avarice  and  political 
duplicity.  He  did  not  marry  till  he  was  fifty-three,  and 
had  only  a  daughter,  who  was  married  to  Agrippa ;  fromi 
which  marriage  came  a  daughter,  whom  Augustus  be* 
trothed  to  Tiberius  almost  as  soon  as  she  was  born.  He 
leached  the  age  of  seventy-seven  years,  almost  withouc 
knowing  bodily  illness ;  but  when  his  last  sickness,  which 
was  slight  for  three  months,  at  length  became  painful,  he 
sent  for  Agrippa,  his  son-in-law,  and  two  other  persons, 
and  declared  to  them  a  resolution  to  put  an  end  to  his  life, 
by  abstinence  from  food.  Agrippa  remonstrated  with  tears, 
bftt  all  ill  vain.  After  two  days  abstinence,  the  fever  left 
him,  and  the  disease  abated ;  but  Atticus  persisted,  and 
died  three  days  after.  This  happened  in  the  year  of 
Rome  721. 

Atticus  was  extremely  fond  of  polite  literature,  and  was 
ranked  among  authors  of  reputation,  for  he  wrote  Annals, 
which  Cicero  declares  to  have  been  of  great  use  to  him. 
He  was  of  the  sect  of  Epicurus ;  and,  ^oush  many  have 
^ught  it  impossible  for  a  denier  of  a  Providence  to  equal 
m  morality  an  acknowledger  of  the  Gods,  yet  Bayle  defies 
any  one  to  shew  a  person  of  greater  integrity  than  Atticus 
among  the  most  bigoted  of  the  Pagans.  Much,  however,  it 
not  gained  by  exalting  the  characters  of  the  most  eminent 

128  A  T  T  I  C  U  S. 



of  the  Pagan  heroes,  and  it  is  generally  done  with  an  kisi' 
dious  purpose.  ^ 

ATTIC  US,  patriarch  of  Constantinople  in  the  begiii-* 
ning  of  the  fifth  centuiy,  was  born  at  Sebastia,  ^low  Soustia^ 
a  city  of  Armenia.  He  was  first  educated  by  the  Macedo- 
nian monks  in  the  principles  of  their  sect,  but  when  arrived 
at  riper  years,  he  embraced  the  faith  of  the  Catholic  church. 
In  the  year  406,  being  then  a  priest,  he  was  chosen  to 
succeed  St.  Chrysostom,  who  had  been  deprived  of  the  see 
of  Constantinople,  but  met  with  much  obstruction  from  the 
friends  of  Chrysostom,  and  from  all  the  bishops  of  the  East^ 
who  considered  Chrysostom  as  unjustly  deprived,  and  re- 
fused to  communicate  with  the  new  patriarch.  Atticos^ 
upon  this,  procured  an  edict  from  the  emperor  to  compel 
them,  but  finding  this  produced  no  otlier  effect  than  schism 
aud  confusion,  after  the  death  of  Chrysostom;  be  ordered 
bis  name  to  be  put  in  the  Diptychs,  or  ecclesiastical  tabtes^ 
in  which  were  inserted  the  names  of  persons  who  had  died 
in  the  peace  and  communion  of  the  church,  and  those 
names  were  read  at  the  altar  during  divine  service.  He 
also  wrote  to  St.  Cyril,  bishop  of  Alexandria,  earnestly  in-- 
treating  him  to  do  the  same,  but  Cyril  answered  that  he 
should  by  that  step  appear  to  condemn  tliose  who  had  de>- 
posed  Chrysostom.  Both  these  letters  are  extant  in  Nice^ 
phorus  Calixtus's  Ecclesiastical  History.  There  is  another 
letter  of  his  extant  to  Calliopius,  by  which  he  appears  to 
have  been  a  man  of  moderate  principles  towards  those  who 
differed  from  him  in  opinion.  There  are  likewise  some 
fragments  of  a  homily  on  the  birth  of  Christ,  in  the  general 
collection  of  the  Councils,  ahd  a  fragment  of  a  letter  of  hi» 
to  Eupsychius,  quoted  by  Theodoret.  Writers  differ  mucb 
in  their  estimate  of  his  general  character  and  learning.  * 
.  ATTIBET  (John  Denis),  a  French  Jesuit  and  painter^ 
attached  to  the  mission  to  Pekin,  was  born  at  Dole,  in 
Franche-Comte,  July  31,  1702,  and  at  first  took  lessons  ia 
painting,  and  made  considerable  proficiency  under  bis  fa-- 
ther,  who  was  an  artist.  He  then  !^ent  to  Rome,*  under 
the  patrohage  of  the  marquis  de  Brossa,  and  on  his  return^ 
painted  some  pictures  at  Lyons,  which  procured  him  great 
reputation.  In  his  thirtieth  year  he  entered  among  the 
Jesuits,  in  the  humble  character  of  a  lay- brother,  and  ^oooie 
years  afterwards,  when  the  missionaries  of  Pekin  demanded 

^  1  Gen.  Diet.- — Cornelius  Nepos. 
•  Gen,  Piqt. — X>opin,-»Cave,  vol.  I. 

A  T  T  1  H  K  t.  ^       l2i 

to  ft6r«loii9  6f  a  painier,  he  obtained  the  appointmetit^ 
and  went  to  China  about  the  end  of  1737.  He  had  no 
ieoner  anived  at  Pekia  than  he  offered  the  emperor  a 
painting  of  the  Adoration  of  the  Kings^  with  which  tfie 
empei'or  wHs  so  much  pleased  that  he  ordered  it  to  be 
placed  in  bis  interior  apartment.  Notwithstanding  this 
promising  outset,  he  underwent  many  mortifications,  in 
being  obliged  to  comply  with  the  bad  taste  of  the  Chinesis 
HI  what  paintings  he  execidied  for  them,  and  was  so  tesized 
by  the  emperor  himself,  that,  in  order  to  please  him,  he  was 
dbliged  to  take  lessons  from  the  Chinese  artists;  but  find- 
ing that  a  compliance  with  their  instructions  must  spoil  his 
perfoiinances,  and  injure  his  reputation,  he  declined  pkint- 
lag  for  bis  majesty.  During  the  years,  however,  ftom 
1753  to  1760,  distinguished  by  many  rictories  gained  by 
die  emperor  Kien  Long,  he  had  frequent  orders  for  battle- 
pieces,  &c.  which  he  executed  so  much  to  the  satisfaction 
ef  that  monarch,  that  he  created  him  a  mandarin,  and 
Wh^n  Attiret  refused  to  accept  it,  the  minister  of  state 
told  him  he  should  have  the  revenues,  although  he  de- 
^Hned  the  honour.  The  missionaries  speak  in  the  highest 
t^rms  of  his  talents,  modesty,  and  piety.  He  died  at 
P^ih,  Dec.  8,  1T68,  and  the  emperor  defrayed  the  ex* 
j^nces  of  his  funeral ;  the  large  pictures  he  painted  for 
Ae  emperor  are  in  the  palace,  but  never  shown ;'  the  mis- 
mnaries  can  e:£hibit  only  one  picture,  ^^  The  Guardian 
Angel,''  which  is  in  the  chapel  6i  the  Neophites,  in  the 
#rdnch  missionary  church  at  Pekin.  There  is  nothing  of 
Atiiret^s  in  print,  except  a  letter  in  the  ^'  Recueil  des  Let^ 
ires  Edifiahtes,"  vol.  XXYH.  which  was  translated  by  di^ 
llfle  Rev.  Joseph  Spence,  under  his  assumed  name  of  sit 
Harry  Beaumont,  entitled  ^<  A  particular  account  of  the 
emperor  of  China's  gardens  near  Pekin,  in. a  letter  from  fa- 
dier  Attiret,  a  French  missionary,  now  employed  by  that 
emperor  to  paint  the  apartments  in  those  gardens,  to  hi$ 
iirieiid  at  Paris,''  London,  1752,  8vt>.^ 

ATTO.     SeeHATTO. 
'  ATWOOD  (GeorqjK),  F.  R.  ^.  an  eminent  mathema- 
tician, was  bom  ip  1746,  and  admitted  of  Westminster 
school  in  17^9^  from  whence  he  was  elected  to  Trinity 
doUege,  Cambridge,  in  1765,  where  he  took  his  bachelor's 

^  Biog.  Uaivenelle. — Jottnwl  de  SaTants,  for  June  i771««<»MonUi.  Rer.  toL 
VII.  where  tiiere  is  s  loDg  extract  from  Attiref  •  letter. 

Vol.  Ill,  K 

IS^  A  T  W  O  O  Di 

degree  in  1769  and  his  masters  in  1772«  He  was  fer  son^ 
time  a  tutor,  and  for  many  years  a  fellow:  of  that  coUegi?^ 
and  read  to  the  whole  university  lectui'es  upon  several, 
branches  of  experimental  philosophy j,  part   of  which  he 

^  published  under  the  title  of  ^^  An  Analysis  of  a  course  of 
Lectures  on  the  principles  of  Natural  Philosophy!  read  ia 
the  university  of  Cambridge,  by  G.  A.  &c."  17M,  8«q* 
These  lectures  were  much  attended  and  justly  admired^ 
7he  right  hon.  Wm.  Pitt  having  been  one  of  his  auditors, 
was  induced  to  form  a  more  intimate  acquaintance  with 
him ;  and  discovering  that  his  talents  might  be  eminently 
pseful  in  the  public  service,  bestowed  upon  him,  in  1784^ 
the  place  of  patent  searcher  of  the  customs,  London,  that 
he  might  be  enabled  to  devote  a  larger  portion  of  his  time 
^o  financial  calculations,  in  which  Mr.  Pitt  employed  him^ 
jxot  more  to  his  own  satisfaction  than  to  the  advantage  o€ 
the  revenue.  He  contin^ued  in  this  employment  under 
that  eminent  statesman,  until  his  dedining  health  rendered 
him  incapable  of  intense  application.  In  1784,  he  aUq^ 
published  ^*  A  treatise  on  the  rectilinear  Motion  and  Ro« 
tation  of  Bodies,  with  a  description  of  original  EKperimentg 
relative  to  the  subject,"  8vo.  He  contributed,  several  pa* 
pers  to  the  Philosophical  Transactions,  and  was  honourec^ 
on  one  occasion,  with  the  Copleian  medal*  He  died  at 
his  house  in  Westminster,  July  1807,  and  was  interred  i^ 
St.  Margaret's  church,  justly  esteemed  by  a  uumerous  list 
of  friends,  and  by  the  friends  of  science.  ^  r. 

.  AVANTIO  (John  Maria,)  or  Avanzi  Giammarie^  t 
celebrated  Italian  lawyer,  was  born  Aug.  23,  1564.  Hit 
w^  educated  with  great  care,  and  discovered  so  mnch  tasift 
for  polite  literature,  that  Riccoboui,  his  mastier,  said,  .Jb#^ 
jvas  the  only  youth  he  had  ever  known  who  seemed  to  hft 
born  a  poet  apd  orator.  His.  father  wished  hun  to  studjT 
medicine,  but  his  own  inclination  led  him  to.  study  law^  iot 

<  which  he  soon  became  distinguished.  At  ferrava.^ 
quired  an  intimacy  with  Tasso,  Guarini,  Gremonini,  an^ 
other  eminent  characters  of  that  time.  He  afterwards  TCr 
tired  ^  Rovigo,  *  and  praetisi^d^as  a  lawyer^  b^  jwaD  sing4t^ 
,  (arly  unfortunate  in  his  personal  af&irs,.  npt  Qnly  Jlosii;^  ar 
considerable:  part  of  his  property  by  b?ing  security  for 
^  some  persons*  who  violated  their^  engagements,  bjut^fuying 
iiis  life  attempted  by  assassids  who  attacked  him  one  day 

I  Geat.  Mftff.^^^'^v 





A.VANTIO.  131. 

vmi  l^ft'hitxr  for  dead  with,  eighteen  wounds.     He  recover- 
edy  however,  but  his  brother  being  soon  after  assassinated, , 
and  having  lost  his  wife,  he  retired,  in    1606,  to  Padua,, 
where  he  died,  March  2,  1622,  leaving  several  children, 
ojf  whom  Charles,  his  second  son,  became  a  learned  phy^* 
sioiao  kad  botanist.     Avanzi  wrote  a  poem  (^^  II  Satiro  Fa* 
vola  Pastorale,**  Venice,  15^7),  and  dedicated  it  to  the  em« 
p^ror  Ferdinand,  who  rewarded  him  amply,  and  wished  to 
bring  hior  to  his  court,  by  the  offer  of  the  place  of  counsellor 
of  stsAe*     H^  left  in  manuscript,  a  church  history,  ^'  His- 
toria  £cclesiastica  si  Lutheri  apostasia;"  and  '^  Concilia- 
de  rebus  criminalibus."'  ^ 

AUBAIS  (Charles  D^  Baschi),.  marquis  of,  one  of  the 
cincoiiragers  of  useful  learning  in  France,  was  born  at  Nis- 
aaes,  in  16S6,  and  became  a  member  of  the  academies  of. 
Marseilles  and  Nismes*  ;  He  was  of  a  very  distinguished 
fiuaily,  whose  £aoie.  he  peirpetuated  by  the  probitj^  of 
his  character,  his  love  of  science,  and  the  patronage  he 
extended  to  learning  and  learned  men.  He  formed  also. 
one  of  the  most,  complete  libraries  in  his  time.  Among 
6tber  contributions  to  literary  undertakings,  he  gave  Me-*. 
Bard  the  materials  of  his  collection,  entitled  *^  pieces  fu« 
gitives  pour  Thistoire  de  France,''  published  in  1759^ 
3  vols.  4to,  and  himself  published  an  '^  Historical  Geo* 
graphy,''  8vo,  which  was  not  much  esteemed.  He  had, 
however,  a  perfect  acquaintance  with  history  and  genealo* 
gies*  He  died  at  his  chateaii  d'Aubaiis,  near  Nismes^ 
Maroh  5,  1777,  at  the  advanced  age  of  92. ' 

AUBERT,  or  ALBERT  (James),  a  learned  physician 
i»f  the  sixteenth  century,:  was  born  at  Vendome,  and  be-* 
came  a  doctor  of  medicine  and  philosophy.  He  died  at 
Lausa&ne  in  1 586.  His  principal  woriks  are>  1.  ^'  De  Me- 
lallorum  ortu  ^  ^ausis,  contra  Cbymistas,  brevis  explica- 
lio,"  Leyden,  1575,  8vo.  2.  ".Du»  Apologetica)  Re- 
tiporisiones  ad*  Josephum  Quercetanum,"  ibid.  1576. 
^.  **  Progymnasqaata  in  Joban.  Fenielii  librum  de  fbditis 
reriHn  naturalium  et  medicamentorum  causis,*'  Basil,  1579, 
8vo.  4»  ^*  Semeiotica,  sive  ratio  dignoscendarum  sedium 
4nl^)e  affectarum,  et  affectuum  preter  naturam/'  Lausanne,. 
1*87,  and  Leyden,  1596,  Svo.  ,  5.  ^  Libdlus  de  PeSste," 
Lausanne,.  1571,  8vo.     6.  *^  D^s natures  et  complexions 

1  Mc^ri.—- HMttMioi  m  Slog.  doct.  Tir.— >Th»  DiaU  Hist,  attributes  «U|ir 
pnoted  works  to  bim,  but  th«  poem  is  the  only  mm  we  oao  ateertaia. 
s  Qiet.  ttiit 

K  2 

1S2  A  U  B  fi  ft  T. 

des  hommesy  &e/'  Lausanne,  1571,  Paris,  1572.  Thk  we 
suspect  is  a  French  translation.  The  original  is  not  men* 
tioned  by  Mangel  or  Haller.  * 

AUBERT  (Peter),  a  French  lawyer,  was  born  in  1643 
and  died  in  1733,  lea^ng  his  library  to  the  city  of  Lyotis, 
on  conditidn  that  it  should  be  open  for  the  use  of  the  pub« 
lie.  He  published  a  new  edition  of  the  ^^Dictionnaire  de 
Richelef'  in  3  vols.  1728,  fol.  which  has  been  superseded 
by  more  recent  editions.  He  was  ako  the  editor  of  '^  Un 
recaeil  de  Factums,^'  2  vols.  Lyons,  1710,  4to,  and  the 
author  of  a  little  romance,  entitled  ^  Retour  de  Pisle  d^  A:* 
mour,*'  which  he  published  at  his  father's  request^  whei» 
he  was  only  sixteen  years  of  age.  * 

AUBERT  (William),  sieur  de  Massouignes,  was  born 
ih  1534,  at  Poitiers,  and  became  an  advocate  of  parlia- 
ment at  Paris,  where  he  died  in  1601.  He  pubUshed^ 
1 .  *^  Histoire  des  ^erres  de  Chretiens  contre  les  Turcs,\80us 
Godefroy  de  BouiHoti,*'^  Paris,  1 559, 4to.  2.  "Vers  au  chan- 
Celier  de  L^Hopital,**  Svo.  Scevola  de  St.  Marthe  has- 
translated  these  poems  into  Latin  verse.  5.  ^  Le  Re- 
tranchemens,'*  1585,  8vo.  This  is  a  eoliection  of  such  of 
bis  pieces  as  he  thought  worthy  of  being  handed  down  to 
posterity ;  among  them  is  ifc»  ^  Essay  on  Self-knowlec^e,'* 
and  a  eulogium  on  the  president  Thuanus.  ^ 

AUBERTIN  (EdmunH),  in  Latin  Edmukdus  AlberTI^ 
I7US),  a  minister  of  the  reformed  church  of  Paris  in  the 
seventeenth  century,  was  bom  ait  Chalons  sm*  Marne  id; 
1595.  He  was  admitted  a  mihistet  at  the  synod  of  Cba-^ 
i^ntot^  in  1618,  and  promoted  to  the  church  of  Cikrtres, 
from  whence  he  was  remowd  to  Paris  in  1631.  He  wrota^ 
a  very  celebrated  work,  erkitled  "  L'Eucharistie  dd  I'an-> 
cienne  Eglise,'*  1633,  fol.  proving  from  history  and  ai:gu--> 
ment,.  t6e  opinions  of  the  Protestants  on  the  subject  of 
transubstantiation  and  the  real  presence.  This  excited 
much  controversy,  and  was  attempted  to  be  confuted  by 
Arnauld  and  other  divines  in  the  work  entitled  *^  La  P'er<^ 
petuit6  de  la  Foi.**  M.  Aubertin  died  at  Paris,  April  5^ 
1652.  His  last  moments  were  disturbed  by  the  harsh  con- 
duct of  the  rector  of  St.  Sulpice,  who  endeavoured  to  ob*^ 
tjun  from  him  an  acknowledgment  of  error,  but  M.  Auber-t 
)Cin  declared  that  he  persevered  iff  the  reformed  religion.  1  - 

»  Dhst.  Hitt.  «  Morefi.--.Dkt.  Hist;— «aiiiiOaKm«tstie©n. 

>  Moreri.**-Chtiifeple.*— Diet.  Hift. 

•  Gen,  Dlct4— Mof«ri.«^Dict.  Hiit.  •     •     •  r    ■ 

A  U  B  E  E  Y.  13S 


AUBERY  (Anthony)/ a  lawyer  of  Parisy  bom  in  16 IT, 
became  an  indefatigable  student^  it  being  bis  practice  tp 
rise  at  JBve  o'clock  every  morning,  and  study  without  in^ 
termis&ion  till  six  in  tbe  evening.  He  scarcely  made  any 
TisitSy  and  received  still  fewer,  and  though  he  had  taken 
his  oath  -as  avocat  au  conseil^  he  preferred  the  silent  com*- 
merce  of  his  books  to  the  tumult  of  a£Eairs.  The  '*  Re- 
marques  -de  Vaugelas'*  was  his  only  book  of  recreation.  He 
died  of  a  fall  in  i€95y  at  upwards  of  78.  Several  works  of 
bis  are  ta  be  met  with,  very  inferior  in  respect  of  stylq, 
but  they  sure  not  deficient  in  historical  anecdotes  and  use-^ 
ful  remarks.  The  chief  of  them  are,  1.  ^'  Histoire  gene- 
rale  des  Cardinaux,^'  5  vols.  1642,  4to,  composed  from  the 
memoirs  of  Naud6  and  of  du  Puy.  2.  "  Memoire  pour 
l*bistoire  du  Cardioal  de  Richelieu,*'  1660,  2  vols,  folio, 
and  1667,  5  vols,  in  12mo.  3.  ^^  Histoire  de  meme  minis^ 
tre,"  1660,  folio.  The  materials  here  are  good,  but  the 
best  use  has  not  been  made  of  them.  The  cardinal,  whom 
ihe  author  praises  without  restriction,  is  not  painted  in  his 
proper  colours,  and  the  author  has  obviously  laid  himself 
open  to  the  charge  of  flattery.  Nor  ha^  he  discovered 
much  judgment,  for,  in  striving  to  make  too  honest  a  man 
of  die  cardinal,  he  has  not  made  him  a  politician,  which 
was  his  distinguishing  characteristic.  Guy  Patin,  in  hia 
czxxvith  letter  to  Charles  Spon,  speaks  in  a  very  contempt' 
tuous  manner  of  this  history :  ^^  The  duchess  pf  Aiguil- 
lon/*  says  he,  '*  has  just  had  the  history  of  her  uncle  the 
cardinal  de  Richelieu  printed^  composed  from  the  me- 
moirs she  has  furnished  herself,  by  M.  Aubery ;  but  it  is 
already  fallen  into  contem^pt,  being  too  much  suspected 
from  the  quarter  from  whence  it  originates^  and  on  ac- 
count of  tbe  bad  style  of  the  wretched  writer,  who,  lucro 
addictus  K  adductus,  will  not  fail  to  play  the  mercenary,  and 
to  prostitute  his  pen  to  the  direction  of  that  lady.^'  It  is 
said  that  tbe  queen-mother  answered  the  bookseller  Ber- 
thier,  who  expressed  his  fear  that  certain  persons  of  the 
court,  of  whom  the  historian  spoke  by  no  means  advanta- 
geously, would  bring  him  into  trouble:  ^^  Go,  pursue  your' 
Dusiness  in  peace;,  and  put  vice  so  much  to  shame,  that 
' nothing  but  virtue  shall  dare  to  be  seen  in  France.^'*— » 
Aubery  i»  one  of  those  who  doubt  whether  the  Testament 
published  under  the  name  of  the  cardinal  de  Richelieu  be 
really  by  him.  4.  "  Histoire  du  cardin^tl  Mazarin,"  1751, 
4  vols.  1 2mo,  a  work  in  still  less  credit  than  the  foregoing  i 

'lU  A  U  B  iE  R  Y. 

*bnt,  as  it  was  composed  from  the  registers  of  the  parlia^* 
menty  many  of  which  have  since  disappeared,  it  contains 
several  particulars  not  to  be  found  any  where  else.  Car- 
dinal Mazarin,  whose  portrait  is  much  over*charged/and 
but  a  very  faint  likeness^  is  very  often  lost  among  the 
great  number  of  facts  heaped  together,  and  in  which  he 
sometimes  plays  but  a  very  inferior  part.  5.  "  Traitd  his- 
torique  de  la  pri-6minence  des  Rois  de  France,"  1641>,4ta. 
6.  **  Trait6  des  justes  pretensions  du  Roi  de  France  s\ir 
TEmpire,"  1667,  4to,  which  caused  him  to  be  thrown  into 
the  Bastille,  because  the  princes  of  Germany  thought  the 
ideas  of  Aubery'  to  be  the  same  with  those  of  Louis  XIV. 
He  was,  however,  soon  set  at  liberty,  and  even  his  con- 
finement was  made  easy.  * 

AUBERY  (Louis),  sieur  du  Maurier,  accompanied 
his  father  on  his  embassy  into  Holland,  from  whence  he 
proceeded  to  Berlin,  to  Poland,  and  to  Rome.  •  On  his  re- 
turn to  Paris,  he  acquired  the  favour  of  the  queen-mother  ; 
but  this  hot  being  followed  by  promotion,  he  relinquished 
his  attendance  at  court,  and  retired  to  his  estate  to  pass 
the  remainder  of  his  days  in  reading  and  compilation,  and 
there  he  died  in  1687.  His  **Memoires  pour  servir  4 
Fhistoire  de  Hollande,'*  2  vols.  1 2mo,  have  been  and  are 
•till  quoted  by  all  historians,  though  the  facts  related  in 
them  greatly  displeased  the  Dutch,  His  grandson  pub- 
lished in  1737,  "  Memoirs  of  Hamburgh,*'  in  12mo,  also 
by  him.  We  are  likewise  indebted  to  him  for  a.  relation 
of  the  execution  of  Cabri6res  and  M^rindol,  Paris,  1645, 
in  4to. « 

AtJBESPlNE  (Gabriel  de  l'),  the  son  of  William  Au- 
bespise,  who  was  ambassador  from  the  French  court  in 
England,  became  bishop  .of  Orleans  in  1604.  He  was 
remarkable  for  his  zeal  as  a  divine,  and  his  great  applica- 
tion as  a  student,  and  was  employed,  as  his  father  had  been^ 
in  many  public  transactions.  He  died  at  Grenoble,  Aug. 
15,  1630,  in  the  5  2d  year  of  his  age.  His  writings  are, 
'*  De  veteribus  ecelesiae  ritibus,"  J622,  4to,  a  work  which 
idiscovers  mu^h  knowledge  of  ecclesiastical  antiquities; 
^*  Un  trait6  de  Tancienne  police  de  l*Eglise,''  respecting 
the  administration  of  the  eui:harist.  He  published  alsd 
notes  on  the  Councils,  and  on  TertuUian.     His  brother 


I  Moreru-vifGeD*  DicW  *  Kor^ri^ 


Chadea  became  marquis  de  Chateau-Neuf,  and  an  emi- 
nent statesman  in  the  seventeenth  century.  ^ 

AUBESPINE  (Magdalene  d'),  daughter  of  Claude 
d*Aubespine,  baron  of  Chateauneuf,  and  wife  of  Nicolas 
de  Neu^riUe  de  Villeroi,  secretary  of  state,  was  a  French 
lady  whose  beauty  and  talents  rendered  her  one  of  the^ 
ornaments  of  the  courts  of  Charles  IX.  Henry  III.  and 
Henry  IV.  Ronsard  has  celebrated  her  in  a  sonnet,  in 
which  he  quaintly  advises  her  to  substitute  the  laurels 
she  had  merited  for  the  hawthorn  {aubespine)  which  com- 
posed her  name.  She  died  at  Villeroi  in  1506,  and  Ber^ 
taud,  bishop  of  Seez,  wrote  an  epitaph  on  her.  She  is  said 
to  have  translated  Ovid's  epistles,  and  to  have  written  seve*^ 
ral  original  works  in  verse  and  prose,  none  of  which,  how* 
ever,  we  find  specified  in  our  authorities.  Her  statue,  in 
white  marble,  is  in  the  present  French  museum.  * 

AUBIGNE  (THEonoRE  Agrippa  d'),  a  very  celebrated 
French  Protestant,  was  son  to  John  D'Aubigne,  lord  of 
Brie,  in  Saintonge,  and  born  in  1550  at  St.  Maury,  He 
inade  such  proficiency  under  his  preceptors,  that  at  eight 
years  old  he  was  able  to  translate  the  Crito  of  Plato.  Hav-* 
ing  lost  his  father,  who  left  him  only  his  name  and  hiS' 
debts,  at  the  age  of  thirteen,  he  betook  himself  to  the 
profession  of  arms,  for  which  a  spirit  and  zeal  particularly 
ardent  and  persevering  seemed  to  have  qualified  him.  He 
accordingly  attached  himself  to  Henry  then  king  of  Na^* 
varre,  who  made  him  successively  gentleman  of  his  bed^ 
chamber,  marshal  of  the  camp,  governor  of  the  island  ilnd 
castle  of  Maillezais,  vice-admiral  of  Guienne  and  Bretagne,i 
and  what  D'Aubigne  valued  most,  his  favourite.  But  he 
lost  this  last  honour  by  a  want  of  subserviency  to  his  plea* 
sure,  and  a  stern  and  uncourtly  infle^^ibilit^  It  is  welt 
known  that  ingratitude  was  not  the  failing  of  Henry  IV; 
yet  he  expended  so  much  in  conciliating  the  catholic  lords^ 
that  he  was  often  incapable  of  rewarding  his  old  servants 
as  they  deserved,  and  with  the  utmost  esteem  for  D^Au-*^ 
bigne,  he  had  bestowed  little  else  upon  him,  and  was  pro- 
bably not  sorry  for  any  pretence  to  get  rid  of  him.  D^Au* 
bigne,  displeased  with  his  conduct,  left  the  court,  and 
although  Henry  intreated  and  demanded  his  return,  con^ 
,  tinued  inexorable,  until  he  accidentally  learnt  that  uppn  il 

^  MareBi,*-»Dupi%  ^  Monri.-i-Pict*  Ut«t. 

13«  A  U  B  I  6  N  E. 

£al$e  report  of  his  being  made  i  prisoner  at  the  siege  of 
Limoges,  the  king  had  ordered  him  to  be  ransomed  at^ 
great  expence.  Penetrated  by  this  mark  of  rejtumipg 
kindness,  he  again  came  to  court,  but  persisted  in  giving 
the  king  both  advice  and  reproaches,  in  a  blunt  and  some«> 
times  satirical  manner^  which  the  king  scarcely  knew  how 
to  tolerate,  while  he  felt  conscious  of  the  vahie  of  so  sinr 
cere  a  friend  aad  counsellor. 

Many  curious  anecdotes  are  reported  of  his  freedoms 
with  the  kipg.  Before,  he  returned  to  the  court,  he  sentt 
one  of  his  pages  to  announce  to  the  soyereigu  that  he  wa« 
upon  the  road.  The  king  asked  him  from  whence  ha 
came?  The  page  said,  "Yes,  yes;"  and  to  every  ques- 
tipu  that  w?k9  put  to  him^  still  returned  "Yes«  yes."  On 
the  king's  asking  him  why  he.  continued  to  answer  bia 
questions  in  that  manner,  be  replied,  "  Sire,  I  said  ye% 
yes,  because  kings  drive  away  from  their  presence  all  per** 
sons  who  will  not  make  use  of  those  words  to  every  thing  . 
which  their  sovereigns  require  of  them."  While  equeiry 
to  the  king,  and  lying  one  night  with  the  Sieur  de  la  Focc^ 
in  the  guard  chamber,  he  whispered  in .  his  companion'o 
ear,  ^^  Certainly  our  master  is  tk^  most  covetous,  aud  most 
ungrateful  mortal  upon  earth."  Receiving  no  answer*  he 
repeated  the  accusation,  but  la  Force,  being  scarcely 
awake,  did  not  hear  him  distinctly,  and  asked,  ^^  What  do 
you  say,  D*Aubigne,?"  "  Cannot  you  hear  him?"  said  the 
king,  who  was  awake,  "  he  tells  you  I  am  the  most  covet? 
ous  ^nd  most  nnsrateful  mortal  on.  earth."  ^^  Sleep  on^ 
sire,"  replied  D'Aubigne,  "  I  have  a  good  deal  more  to 
^y  y^t."  The  next  day,  Aubigne  tells  us  in  his  memoirs, 
the  king  did  not  look  unkindly  on  hm,  but  still  gave  him 
nothing.  After^  however,  sometimes  plea^iig  and  some-* 
times  displeasing  the  king  and  court  by  these  free^oms^  be 
^gain  found  it  necessary  to  retire,  and  passed  the  rest  of  bis 
days  at  Geneva,  where  he  died  in  1630,  in  tbe  SOth  year 
df  his  age.  It  was  here  probabty,  where  be  was  received 
with  great  respect  and  honour,  that  he  empiloyed  his  pent 
on  those  vatipus  works  which  entitle  him  to  a  distinguished, 
place  in  the  republic  of  letters.  These  were  his  universal 
history,^  entitled  ^*  Histoire  Universelle  depuis  1550 
jnsq^n  leoi^.avec  un  histoire  abreg^e  d^  la.i^ort  4)9 
Henry  IV."  3  vols,  folio,  printed  at  St.  Jean  d'Angeli,  al- 
though the  title  page  says  Mwlle,  1616— IS — 20,  and  re-p 
printed  in  1626,  with  additions  and  corrections.  .  The  first 


edition*  is  in-  most  request  by  the  curious^  as  having  some 
sti'okes  of  satire  in  it  which  are  omitted  in  the  other.  His 
style  is  not  uniform,  and  he  often  departs  from  the  dignity 
of  history  to  indulge  in  a  jocose  garrulity,  accompanied 
with  impassioned  coarse  passages,,  which  are,  however, 
highly  characteristic  of  the  writer.  The  first  volume  waf 
burnt  by  order  of  the  parliament  of  Paris,  on  account  of 
the  freedoms  he  had  taken  with  the  royal  personi^es,  par- 
ticularly Henry  III.  The  first  and  second  parts  of  this 
history,  which  contain  the  wars  of  the  prince  of  Cond£ 
and  of  the  admiral  Coligny,  the  massacre  of  St  Barllio-' 
lomew,  and  the  first  transactions  of  the  League,  are  given 
rather  in  a  succinct  form,  but  the  third,  which  continues  the 
detail,  until  the  peace  of  Henry  the  Great,  is  the  most  full 
and  most  correct.  He  wrote  also  some  ^^  Tragedies,^* 
1616,  4to  and  8vo;  ."A  collection  of  Poetical  pieces,** 
printed  at  Geneva,  1630,  8vo;  a  very  satirical  piece  en* 
titled  *^  La  Confession  de  Sancy ;"  and  in  1731,  was  print- 
ed /'  Baron  de  Fqeneste,''  12mo,  said  to  be  his,  which  is 
a  more  gross  composition.  In  the  same  year  his  Memoirs, 
written  by  himself,  were  printed,  and  have  been  translated 
into  English.  His  son.  Constant  D'Aubigne,  a  most  pro*- 
fligate  character,  was  the  father  of  madame  de  Main^ 
tenon.  * 

AUBREY  (John),  an  eminent  English  antiquary,  de- 
scended from  an  ancient  family  in  Wiltshire,  was  born  at 
Easton-Piers  in  that  county/Nov.  3%  1625  or  1626.  He^ 
received  the  first  rudiments  of  his  education  in  the  gram«- 
mar-scbooi  at  Malmesbury,  under  .  Mr.  Robert  Latimer ; 
who  bad  also  been  preceptor  to  the  famous  Thomas 
Hobbes,  with  whom  Mr*  Aubrey  commenced  an  early  friend-' 
ship,  which  lasted  as  long  as  Mr.  Hobbes  lived.  In  1642^ 
Mr.  Aubrey  was  entered  a  gentleman- commoner  of  Trinity 
college  at  Oxford,  where  he  pursued  his  studies  with  great 
diligence;,  making  the  history  and  antiquities  of  England 
his  peculiar  object.  About  this  time  the  famous  ^^  Monas- 
ticon  Anglicanum^'  was  talked  of  in  the  university,  to 
which  Mr«  Aubrey  contributed  considerable  assistance,  and 
procured,  at  his  own  expence,  a  curious  draught  of  the 
remains  of  Osney  abbey  near  Oxford,  which  were  entirely 
destroyed  m  the  civil  w^urs.    This  was  afterwards  engraved 

^  Diet.  Hist.-v-Moreri.-iwMarchaiid  Diet.  Hist,  a  most  prolix  article.— The 
life  of  JyAvlbipnit,  London,  1772,  compiled  from  hU  Alemolrs  and  history. «-» 
llk^s^ift -QsBiaty  volf  L^H^3a3Mi  O09iaM 


by  Hollar,  and  inserted  in  the  Monasticon  with  an  inscrip- 
tion by  Aubrey.  In  1646  he  was  admitted  of  the  Middles 
Temple,  but  the  death  of  his  father  hindiered  him  from 
pursuing  the  law.  He  succeeded  to  several  estates  in  tl^e 
45ounties  of  Wilts,  Surrey,  Hereford,  Brecknock,  and  Mon- 
mouth, but  they  were  involved  in  many  law-suits.  These 
suits,  together  with  other  misfortunes,  by  degrees  con- 
sumed all  his  estates,  and  forced  him  to  lead  a  more  active 
life  than  be  was  otherv^ise  inclined  to.  He  did  not,  how- 
ever, break  off  bis  acquaintance  with  the  learned  at  Ox* 
ford  or  at  Loudon,  but  kept  up  a  close  correspondence 
with  the  lovers  of  antiquity  and  natural  philosophy  in  the 
university,  and  furnished  Anthony  Wood  with  a  consider- 
able part  of  the  materials  for  bis  two  large  works.  Wood, 
however,  in  his  own  life,  does  not  speak  very  respectfully 
of  his  assistant.  He  calls  him  a  pretender  to  antiquities, 
Bnd  after  giving  an  account  of  the  origin  of  their  acquaint- 
ance, of  the  gay  appearance  which  Aubrey  made  at  Ox- 
ford, and  of  his  subsequent  poverty,  Wood  adds,  "  He 
•was  a  shiftless  person,  roving, and  magotie-headed,  and 
sometimes  little  better  than  erased.  And  being  exceed- 
ingly credulous,  would  stuif  his  many  letters  sent  to  A.  W. 
with  folliries  and  mis-informations,  which  sometimes  would 
guide  him  into  the  paths  of  error."  :   • 

Aubrey  preserved  an  intimacy  with  those  great  persons, 
who  then  met  privately,  and  were  afterwards  formed  into 
the  Royal  Society.  Soon  after  the  restoration,  he  went 
into  Ireland,  and  returning  from  thence,  in  the  autumn  of 
1660,.  narrowly  escaped  shipwreck  near  Holyhead.  On 
the  1st  of  Nov.  1661,  he  was  so  unfortunate  as  to  suffer 
^mother  shipwreck.  In  1662,  he  was  admitted  a  fellow  oi 
^the  Royal  Society.  In  June  1664,  he  travelled  through 
France  into  Orleans,  and  returned  in  the  month  of  Octo- 
ber. In  1666,  he  sold  his  estate  in  Wiltshire;  and  was 
at  length  obliged  to  dispose  of  all  he  had  left,  so  that,  in 
the  space  of  four  years,  he  was  reduced  even  to  want ;.  yet 
bis  spirit  remained  unbroken.  His  chief  benefactress  was 
the  lady  Long  of  Draycot  in  Wilts,  who  gave  him  an  apart- 
ment in  her  house,  and  supported  him  as  long  as  he  lived* 
When-Jiis  death  happened  is  uncertain :  we  are  only  told 
in  general  that  he  died  suddenly  on  «  journey  tq  Oxford 
in  bis  way  to  Draycot ;  and  he  was  there  buried,  as  near 
S.s.i:an  be  conjectured,  in  1700.  He  was  a  man  of  an  ex-* 
>  cellent  capacity,   and  -indefatigable  application  s   sl  dili* 


gent  searcher  into  antiquities,  a  good  Latin  poet,  an  ex*» 
cellent  naturalist^  but  somewhat  credulous,  and  tinctured 
with  superstition. 

The  character  Mr.  Malone  has  given  him,  in  his  ^*'  His- 
torical account  of  the  English  Stage,"  is  worthy  of  tran- 
scription, as  the  opinion  of  one  who  has  had  every  opjK)r- 
tunity  to  investigate  his  merits.  **  That,"  says  Mr.  Ma- 
lone, "  the  greater  part  of  his  life  was  devoted  to  literary 
pursuits,  is  ascertained  by  the  works  which  he  has  pub- 
lished, the  correspondence  which  he  held  with  many  emi<- 
nent  men,  and  the  collections  which  he  left  in  manusoript, 
and  which  are  now  reposited  in  the  Ashmolean  jVtuseum. 
Among  these  collections  is  a  curious  account  of  our  Eng- 
lish poets  and  many  other  writers/  While  Wood  was  pre- 
•paring  his  Athenae  Oxonienses,  this  manuscript  was  lent  to 
him,  as  appears  from  many  queries  in  his  hand-writing  in 
•the  margin ;  and  his  account  of  Milton,  with  whom  Au- 
brey was  intimately  acquainted,  is  (as  has  been  observed 
by  Mr.  Warton)  literally  transcribed  from  thence.  Wood 
afterwatds  quarreled  with  Mr.  Aubrey,  whom  in  the  second 
volume  of  his  Fasti,  p.  262,  he  calls  his  ynendy  and  on 
whom,  in  his  History  of  the  University  of  Oxford  he  be- 
stows the  highest  encomium ;  and,  after  their  quarrel ^  with 
his  usual  warmth3  and,  in  his  loose  diction,  he  represented 
Aubrey  as  a  pretender,  &c.  But  whatever  Wood  in  a 
peevish  humour  may  have  thought  or  said  of  Mr.  Aubrey, 
by  whose  labours  he  highly  profited,  or  however  fantasti- 
cal Aubrey  may  have  been  on  the  subject  of  chemistry  and 
gho9ts,  his  character  for  veracity  has  never  been  im* 
peached ;  and  as  a  very  diligent  antiquary,  his  testimony 
is  worthy  of  attention.  Mr.  Toland,  who  was  well  ac- 
quainted with  him,  and  certainly  a  better  judge  of  men 
than  Wood,  gives  this  character  of  him :  "  Though  he  was 
extremely  superstitious,  or  seemed  to  be  so,  yet  he  was  a 
very  honest  man,  and  most  accurate  in  his  account  of  mat- 
ters of  hjct.  But  the  facts  he  knew,  not  the  reflections  he 
made,  were  what  I  wanted.'* 

The  manuscripts  mentioned  by  Mr.  Malone,  now  in  the 
Museum  at  Oxford,  are,  **  An  Apparatus  for  the  Lives  of 
our  English  mathematical  and  other  writers  :  an  Interpre- 
tation* of  Villare  Anglicanum  :  Designatio  de  Easton-Piers 
Ml  com.  Wilts  :  A  volume  of  Letters  and  other  papers  of 
E.  Ashmole's,  relating  chiefly  to  Dr.  Dee  and  sir  Edward 
Kelly :  two  volumes  of  Letters  from  eminent  persons  to 


140  AUBREY. 

John  Aubrey,  esq.^'  His  priucipal  works  besides  are, 
1..  "  Tlie  Life  of  Thomas  Hobbes  of  Malmesbury,"  a  ma'r 
nuscript  written  in  English,  but  never  published ;  the  prin^ 
cipal  part  has  been  used  by  Dr.  Blackbourne,  in  his  Vita^ 
Hobbianae  auctarium/'  published  in  1681. — 2.  "  Miscel- 
lanies on  the  following  subjects :  U  Day-fatality.  2.  Local 
fatality.  3.  Osteuta.  4.  Omens.  5.  Dreams.  6.  Appa- 
ritions. 7.  Voices.  8.  Impulses.  9.  Knockings.  10.  Blows 
invisible.  11.  Prophecies.  12.  Marvels.  13.  Magic.  14. 
Transportation  in  the  air.  1 5.  Visions  in  a  beril  or  specu- 
lum. 16.  Converse  with  angels  and  spirits.  17.  Corpse 
candles  in  Wales.  1 8.  Oracles.  1 9.  Extasies.  20.  Glancefi 
of  love  and  envy.  21.  Second-sighted  persons.  22.  The 
discovery  of  two  murders  by  apparitions,^*  often  reprinted. 
— 3.  ^'APerambulationofthecounty  of  Surry,  befi;un  1673^ 
ended  1692."  This  work  the  author  left  behind  him  in 
manuscript;  it  was  published,  1719,  in  five  volumes  Svq, 
i^ttd  is  now  scarce.  4.  ^^  Monumenta  Britannica,  or  a  di$<- 
course  concerning. Stone-henge  and  Rollich*-stones  in  Ox- 
fordshire;^' a  manuscript.  This  is  said  to  have  been  writr 
ten  at  the  command  of  Charles  II.  who  meeting  Mr.  Au- 
brey at  Stone-henge,  as  his  majesty  was  returning  froni 
Bath,  conversed  with  him  in  relation  to  that  celebrated 
monument  of  antiquity ;  and  also  approved  of  his  notioii 
concerning  it,  which  was  this,  that  both  it  and  the  stones 
in  Oxfordshire  were  the  remains  of  places  dedicated  to 
sacred  uses  by  the  Druids,  long  before  the  time  of  the  Ro- 
man invasion.  See  a  letter  from  Mr.  Paschal  to  Mr.  Aut 
brey,  prefixed  to  his  Memoirs,  i.  *^  Architectonica  sacra,'* 
a  Dissertation  concerning  the  manner  of  our  Churdi-build- 
ing  in  England,'*  a  manuscript  in 'the  Museum  at  Ox- 
ford. 6.  "  The  Idea  of  universal  Education."  There  ar^ 
besides  many  letters  of  our  author  relating  to  natural  phi^ 
losophy,  and  other  curious  subjects,  published  in  several 

AUBREY,  or  AWBREY  (William),  an  eminent  civir 
lian  in  queen  Elizabeth's  reign,  is  said  to  have  been  a  na^ 
tive  of  Cantre  in  Brecknockshire.  He  was  educated  at 
Oxford,  where  he  took  his  bachelor's  degree  in  law,  an4 
was  elected  fellow  of  AH  Souls  college  in  1547.  He  was 
made  regius  professor  of  civil  law,  Oct.  7,  1553,  and 
proceeded  D«  C.  L.  in  1554.    He  was  also  principal  of 

'  Bio(.  BriUnnica.-»Gough>  To|H>|rraphy.«>-Ant.  Wood'g  Life»  p.  208« 

AUBREY.  i4t 

Mew  Inn  hall,  Oxford,  firom  1550,  probably  to  1560,  but 
the  exact  year  has  not  been  ascertained.  He  executed 
the  office  by  deputies,  as  he  was  about  that  time  judge 
adyocate  of  the  queen's  army  at  St.  Quintin  in  France, 
He  also  was  successively,  advocate  in  the  court  of  at ches, 
master  in  Chancery,  chancellor  to  archbishop  Whitgift, 
and  lastly,  by  the  special  favour  of  queen  Elizabeth,  he 
was  made  one  of  the  masters  of  requests  in  ordinary.  He 
died  July  23,  1595,  aged  €6^  and  was  buried  in  St.  PauPs' 
cathedral  under  a  monument  which  perished  in  the  de»* 
struction  of  that  church  in  1666.  Dr.  Aubrey  was  a  man 
of  high  character  in  his  time,  and  is  mentioned  with  great 
respect  by  Thuanus.  His  only  writings  remain  in  manu«» 
script,  except  a  few  letters  published  in  Strype's  Life  of 
Grindal.  He  wrote  some  letters  to  Dr.  Dee  respecting 
the  dominion  of  the  seas ;  and  something  respecting  the 
reformation  of  the  court  of  Arches  in  1576.  * 

AUBRIET  (Claude),  a  celebrated  painter  of  flowers, 
plants,  birds,  fish,  &c.  was  born  at  Chalons  sur  Marne, 
about  the  middle  of  the  seventeenth  .century.  He  was 
first  employed  to  make  drawings  in  the  king's  garden,  and 
discovered  such  accuracy,  that  Tournefort  engaged  him 
to  go  with  him  to  the  Levant  in  that  voyage  which  he  took 
in  1700.  On  his  return  he  succeeded  Joubert  as  kingV 
painter  in  the  royal  garden,  where  he  continued  the  fin^ 
€oUection  of  natural  history  begun  at  Blois  by  the  famous 
Nicholas  Robert,  by  order  of  Gaston  of  Orleans.  Aubriet's 
most  celebrated  work,  is  a  volume^  of  paintings  of 
sea-fish  which  Louis  XtV.  kept  alive  in  his  managerie, 
and  which  are  admirably  exeMted.  The  plates  of  Vail-^' 
lant^s  **  BotanicoQ  Parisiense,^*  1727,  were  also  done  front 
his  designs ;  and  the  imperial  library  is  enriched  by  three, 
$uperb  volumes  of  fish,  butterflies,  birds,  &c.  The  col- 
lection^ above-4nentioned,  begui^  by  Nicholas  Robert,  and 
continued  by  Joubert  and  Aubriet,  forms  sixty-six  folia 
volumes,  which  are  now  deposited  in  the  library  belonging 
to  the  botanical  garden,  Paris.  Aubriet  died  at  Paris  in 
1740,  upwards  of  eighty-nine  years  of  age.  • 

AUBRIOT  (HtTGO),  a  native  of  Burgdndy,  was  made 
trtasurer  of  the  finances,  and  provost  of  the  merchants  of 
the  city  of  Paris.  He  buik  the  Bastille  by  order  of  Charles 
V,  lung  of  Frtoce,  in  136^,  as  a  fortress  agunst -die Eifg* 

1  Wood's  Ath.  Tol.  l.-^tr? »^  CflBinen  R*  40f .-<-Strype'8  Grindat,  p.  207, 
299,  849,  867.-iTaiu»r;  !  Diet.  HkU 

M»    .  A  U  B  R  t  O  T; 

lish-;  but  being  accused  of  heresy  by  the'cltfi^,  he-wiST 
condemned  to  be  ioimured  between  two  walls,  where  he  ^ 
doubtless  would  have  ended  his  days,  had  be  not  have  been  - 
set  at  liberty  by  the  Maillotins,  who  wanted  to  make  him. 
their  captain  in  their  insurrection  upon  account  of  the 
taxes.  But  that  night  he  made  his  escape  from  them  into 
ifturguady,  where  he  soon  after  died  in  1382.  From  this, 
penson  the  Hugonots  are  said  to  have  derived  their  name,. 
which  seems  not  very  consistent  with  the  conjectureii  of 
most  historians.  ^ 

.  AUBRY  (John  Baptist),  a  French  Benedictine  of  the . 
congregation  of  St.  Vannes,  was  born  at  Deyyillier,  near 
Spinal,  in  1736,  and  became  prior  of  the  house  of  Com* 
mercy,  in  which  he  continued  to  live  after  the  suppression 
of  the  monastic  orders.  He  was  a  man  in  very  generals 
esteem  for  abilities  and  amiable  manners,  both  among  Ms 
fellow  ecclesiastics^  and  with  the  public  at  large.  He  is 
likewise  praised  for  his  humility,  of  which  the  following 
instance  is  given.  Haviiig  written  his  "  Questions  Philo-^ 
scfphiques  sur  la  religion  naturelle,"  he  solicited  -permis-^ 
sion  from  the  keeper  of  the  seals  to  publish  it,  without 
living  first  consulted  the  superiors  of  his.  order,  and  for 
this  he  was  condemned  to  dine  in  the  refectory,  upon 
bread  and  water,  and  on  his  knees,  to  which  he  submitted^ 
^mong  other  literary  works,  he  was  employed  to  continue 
*^  L'Histoire  des  auteurs  sacres  et  ecclesiastiques,**  beguiv 
by  Flavigny,  which  was  submitted  to  the  revisal  and  highly; 
approved  by  the  congregation  of  St.  Maur;  but  as  that, 
ancient  order,  once  so  celebrated  in  the  republic  of  lettars^ 
began  to  be  remiss  in  their  exertions^  this  work  nevet 
appeared.  In  1775,  he  published  his  ^VAmi  philoso^ 
phique,"  a  performance  well  received  by  the  public,  nHd 
which  procured  him  a  very  flattering  letter  from  prince 
Charles  of  Loiraine.  D'Alembert  also  bestowed  higK 
praises  on  it,  a  circumstance  we  should  have  thought  ra** 
ther  suspicious,  if  we  were  not  assured  that  Aubry,  in  all 
his  writings,  was  a  zealous  defender  of  religion.  Besides 
this  and  the  **  Questions  philosophiques*'  above  nientionedy* 
he  published :  l.  >^  Theorie  de  Tame  des  bites  et  de  eelle 
qu'on  attribue  i  la  matieie  organis6e.'*  2.  '*  Questions 
metaphysiques  sur  Texistence  -et  la  i>ature  de  Dteu;"-^  S« 
'VQuestioi^s  aux  philosopbes  du  jour."    4^  <f  L'Ajitt  CSon? 

A  U  B  R  Y.  1« 

diUac,  ou  harangues  aux  ideologaes  modernea.'*  5.  *^  La 
nouvelle  theorie  des  €;tres/'  6.  *^  Aabade,  ou  lettres 
apologetiques^  &c."  Aubry  died  about  ibe  eud  of  the  year 
i809. * 

AUBRY  (John  Francis),  a  French  physician,  and  su- 
perintendant  of  the  mineral  waters  of  Luxeil,  where  he 
aied  in  1795,  pubUabed  a  much  esteemed  work,  under  the 
title  x>f  "  Les  Oracles  de  Cos,"  Paris,  1775;  of  which  a 
second  edition  was  published  by  Didot  in  1781,  with  an. 
"introduction  a  la  tberapeutique  de  Cos."  This  work  %» 
intended  to  connect  the  observations  of  Hippocrates  with 
his  maximsy  as  the  best  commentary  on  that  ancient  au-. 
thor.  It  contains  likewise  a  curious  dissertation  on  the. 
ancient  history  of  the  medical  science.  He  ia^  particularly, 
praised  by  his  countrymen  for  his  happy  talent  in  compress-^, 
ing  much  valuable  matter  in  a  small  compass,  and  thus  af- 
fording a  convenient  and  useful  manual  to  students.  * 

AUD£B£RT  (Germain),  president  in  the  election,  or 
court  of  assessors  of  Oileans,  was  a  learned  lawyer,  and. 
esteemed  an  excellent  Latin  poet  in  the  sixteenth  century.. 
He  studied  at  Bologna  under  Alciat,  and  on  his  return  to 
France^  wrote  the  greater  part  of  his  poems.  The  elogium: 
on  Venice  induced  that  republic  to  bestpw.upon  him  the 

Jrder  of  St.  Mark,  with  the  .chain  of  gold  of  the  order, 
tenry  III.  of  France  also  granted  him  letters  of  nobility^' 
and  permitted  •  him  to  add  to  bis  arois  two  fleur-de-lis  of 
|roId.  Notwithstanding  these  honours,  he  continued  to 
act  as  assessor  at  Orleans  for  the  space  of  fifty  years.  He 
die<i  Dec.  24,  1598,  aged  about  eighty  years.  He  wrote 
'\Boma,  poema^"  Paris,  1555,.4t9. ,  2,  "  Venetia,  poema, 
Venice,  1583,  4to.  3.  **  Part^nope,"  Paris,  1585.  These 
^ee  were  published  together  at. Hanau,  according  to 
Bayle;  or  Hanover,  according  to  Moreri,  in  1603.  .He 
wrote  other  poems  which  would  have  probably  been  pub-' 
fished  by  his  ^on,  had  he  lived  longer.;  but  he  died  &ve 
days  after. his  father. ' 

[,  AUDIFFREDI  (John  B^tist),  ^n  able  astronomer  and 
mat^einatician,  was  bom  at  JS^J^gio,  near  Nice^  in  .Fro* 
^Bcey  in  .17 14..  At  the  age  jof  sixteeen .  he , entered  the 
<n;4er  of  St.  Dominic,  and  ipade  r^kd  .progress  in.  his  stu-^ 
Sags,  not  Qn]y  in  tiacred  Ut«rature$  but  in  matbema^csj 
i^d^tbe  languages.    Ia  hi^  thir^-fiftb  year  he^waa.ap* 

I  Dy^mtU  t  i^i^  .       :  ,.  9  Qen.  Diet,— Moreri. 

i44  A  U  D  I  F  P  R  fe  D  I. 

pointed  second  librarian  bf  the  Casanata,  and  t^n  jretn 
afterwards  first  librarian,  which  office  he  held  until  his 
death.  His  studies  were  extended  to  mathematics,  astro- 
•nomy,  antiquities,  natural  history,  criticism,  and  biblio- 
graphy ;  but  astronomy  was  his  favourite  pursuit,  on  which 
he  published  many  pieces.  He  was  appointed  by  the  late 
jK>pe  Pius  VI.  to  make  mineralogical  observations  on  thff 
new  mines  of  Tolfa.  He  died  Jaly  3,  1794.  Hi9  pub^ 
lished  works  are,  1.  ^*  Mercurius  in  sole  visus,  observatio 
babita  Ronm,  &c.*'  Rome,  1753,  4to.  2.  "  Phenomena 
ecriestia  observata,"  Rome,  1754,  8yo.  3.  ^' Otia  astro* 
nomica,*'  Rome,  J755,  4to.  4.  "Novissimus  Mercurii 
transhus,"  Rome^  1756,  8ro.  5.  "  Passaggia  di  Venere, 
&c.*'  4to,  without  place  or  date,  but  most  probably  1761.. 
6.  "  Transitus  Veneris,  &c."  1762.  This  appears  to  b© 
either-the  same  work  as  the  preceding,  or  a  Latin  transla- 
tion. 7.  **  Investigatio  Parallaxis  Solaris,  &e.'*  Rome,^ 
1765,  8vo,  published  under  the  anagrammatical  nam^  of 
Dadeus  Ruffus.  8.  <<  De  SoHs  Parailaxi  comtneptarius,^^ 
Rome,  1766,  Svo.  9.  "  Dimostrazione  della  theoria,  &c.'* 
of  the  Comet  of  the  year  1769,  published  in  a  literary 
journal  at  Rome,  1770.  10.  "  Letere  typografiche,"  un-« 
der  the  name  of  the  abb€  Nicolas  Ugolini  de  Foligno,  ad<^ 
dressed  to  Xavier  Laire,  author  of  the  historical  essay  ou 
the  Roman  typography  of  the  15th  century,  Mentz,  1778,^ 
8vo,  a  satirical  attack  on  father  Laire.  11.  ''Catalogue 
historico-criticus  Romanarum  editionum  ss&culi  15,^*  Rome^ 
1783,  4to.  12.  '*  Catalogns  librorum  typis  impressoranif 
bibliothecae  Casanatensis,  prsBstantioribus  notis  et  obser-' 
vationibus  illustratus,"  4  vols.  fol.  1762,1768,  1775,  1788,^ 
13.  '^  Specimen  historico-criticum  edltionum  Italicafuiii 
aeeculi  15,'*  Rome,  1794,  4to.  In  some  of  the  foi^gn 
iournals,  are  other  essays  by  him  on  astronomical  subjects.  \ 
AUDIFFRET  (John  Baptist),  a  French  geographer^ 
was  a  native  of  Draguignan  in  Provepce,  or  according  to* 
other  accounts,  of  Marseilles,  and  flourished  about  the 
beginning  of  the  18th  century.  In  1698,  he  was  appointed 
envoy  extraordinary  to  the  courts  of  Mantua,  Parma,  imd 
Modena.  His  work  entitled  <^  Geographie  Ancienne,  Mo-, 
derne,  &  Historique,''  Paris,  S  vols.  4to,  1689,  1691,  and 
3  vols.  12mo.  Paris,  1694,  has  been  much  esteemed^  as[. 
luitting  verjr  skilfully  details  of  history  with  geognipfa::^^    It. 

»  Diet  Hist'  ..        •     .  * 

AVDtFPlltiT*  t«r 

•onpidiieiiiia  bbwev^r  only  a  p4rt  of  Eqi^p^u  l>9t  A^  49 
well  executedly  that  it  b  to  be  regretted  be  4i4  m>%  f^mk 
k:    He  died  et  Nancy,  17S9»  ag^  76.  V 

AUDIGUIER  {YiTAh  Ds),  «  French  nobl^miQi  iv# 
bem  at  Ctermont  10  15^S,    Hia  li(fe  wa9  a  continued  ieriei  > 
of  miflfisrtunes  and  eicapeB,    He  waa  one  ef  the  king's  ma* 
gbtiatet  in  1590,  when  be  wat  attacked  and  dangereiis]]^ 
vM&ded  by  efoven  of  tboae  men  who  were  endeavouring 
to  raise  the  eeuaitry  i^aiast  Henry  IV*  •  and  in  favour  of 
the  le^pnew    He  bad  scarcely .  fe<^veredf .  wben^  in  eeni# 
paoy  with  his  father^  be  was  a^abi  attacked  and  wounded 
by  ^e  same  men.    He  determined  new  to  quit  GMtk^imf^ 
and  pass  into  Hangsgry ;  but  his  servant  with  wbett  he  set 
out  mbbed  him  «ad  left  him  destitttle;  with  some  difficulty^ 
however,  be  reaebed  Paris,  where  he  feand  firiends ;  was- 
introduced  to  court,  plunged  into  all  aaamer  of  pleaanre% 
end  fergot  his  former  lowes  and  bis  former  ve^otationsb 
But  here  be  fell  sick,  and  bad  aoarcdy  pacpvered,  when 
be  wounded  a  false  friend  in  a;  duel,  and  was  obliged  to 
make  his  escape.    He  wandered  for  a  considereble  time 
horn  pbee  to  place,  spent  much  money,  contm^ted  debts, 
became  poor,  and  lost  his  friends*    Again  he  gurmounted 
his  difficulties,  when  for  some  crime  be  waa  thrown  into 
prison ;  he  vindicated  his  inoocenoe,  plunged  agajn  into  a 
set  of  adventnrous  troubles,  and  at  last  was  asaajisinated  in 
16S0.    He  was  a  volnminous  writer  both  in  verso  and 
prose,  published  Romances  and  books  of  Devotion ;  trans^ 
iated  CervaiitesVnovels,  and  a  work  entitled  '^  Usage  dos 
Duels,^  1617,  8to.    His  w<Hrka  shew  some  marks  of  ge«* 
nins,  but  partook  too  much  of  the  irieguUriiiea  of  their 
author  to  enjoy  long  reputation*  ^ 

AUDLEY  (EoMiiifD),  an  English  paelate,  waa  the  sonn 
of  JFauses,  lord  :4«dley,  by  El^or  his  wife,  but  in  wbalt 
year  be  was  born  does  not  appear.  He  was  educated  in 
iincdn  cidlege  in  Oxford,  and  in  the  yeer  l^&%  took  the 
degree  of  bachelor  of  arts  in  tbnt  uaiveraity,  and  il  ia 
presnmed,  that  oi  «iasfeer  of  arts  also,  but  the  register*  at 
that  period  is  impetfea.  In  149 1 » be  becmne  prebendary 
of  Fareoden  in  tJse  cbareb  of  {i^coln,.Md  in  Oetobei^ 
1475,  attained  the  like  prefersaent  in  «^e  ebareh  of  WeUib 
On  Chriitmaa  day  the  same  yeai^  he  became  archdei^reii 
of  the  £Mit  riding  of  Yiatlitk$im^  and  bed  otb^  cM«ideir« 

%  Diet*  HIH.— Honrk  ^  0eiu  Diet.^XQreri. 

Vol.  ni.  t 

L  . 

A  U  D  L  E  Y. 

Me  preferments,  which  he  quitted,  on  his  being  prcM 

inoted  to  the  bishopric  of  Rochester,  in  1480.     In  1492^ 

he  was  translated  to  Hereford,  a,nd  thence  in  '  1 502,  to ' 

%alisbury^  and  about  that  tim'e  wa^  made  cfhancellor  of  the 

toost  noble  order  of  the  Garter.     He  Was  a  man  of  learning/ 

and  of  a  generous  spirit.     In  1518,  he  gave  four  hundred 

founds  t6  Lincoln  college  to  purchase  lands,  and  bestowed 

upon  the  same  house  the  patronage  of  a  chantry,  which  he 

had  founded  in  the  cathedral  church  of.. Salisbury.     H6 

ifTas  ia  benefactor  likewise  to  St  Mary's  church  in  Oxford; 

and  contributed  towards  erecting  the  curibiis  stone  pulfut 

Ihei^.     Bishop  Godwin  likewise  tells  us,  that  he  gave 

the  organs ;  but  Anthony  Wockl  s^ys,  that  does  not  ftp* 

.  pear.     He  gave,  however,  200/.  to  Chichele^s  chest,  which 

had  been  robbed;  a  very  considerable  ben^ction  at  that 

lime«    He  died  Aug.  23,  1524,  at  Ramsbury  iii  the  couilty 

of  Wilts,  tod  Was  buried  in  a  chapel  which  he  erected  to 

the  honour  of  the  Assumption  of  the  Virgin  Mary^  in  the 

tathedral  of  Salisbury,  being  then,  doubtless,  a  very  old 

man,  as  he  bad  sat  forty-four  y^rs  a  bishop.  *■ 

AUDLEY,  or  AWDELY  (Thomas),  descended  of  an 
hncient  and  honourable  family,  of  the  county  of  Essex, 
Was  born  in  1488.     He  was  by  nature  endowed  with  great 
ttbilities,  from  his  ancestors  inherited  an  ample  fortune; 
Imd  was  happy  in  a  regular  education,  but  whether  at 
Oxford  or  Cambridge' is  not  certain.    At  what  time  be  was 
entered  of  the  Inner-Temple,  "does  not  appear,  but  iii 
1526  he  wa^  autumn  teader  of  that  house,  and  is  thought 
to  have  read  on  the  statute  of  privileges,  which  he  handled 
With  so  much  learning  and  eloquence,  as  to  acquire  great 
reputation.    This,  with  the  duke  of  Suffolk's  recommend 
llaiion,  to  whom  h^  was  chancellor,  brought  him  to  the 
knowledge  of  his  sovereign,  'who  at  that  iinnte  wanted  men 
^f  learning  and  sotne  pliability ;  he  was,  accordingly,  by 
the  king's  influence,  chosen  •  speaker  of  that  parliament, 
vwbich  sat  first  on  the  third  of  November,  152i9,  and  is  by 
4iome  styted  the  Black  Parliament,  and  by  others,  on  ac- 
\;ount  of  its' duration,  the<iLong  Parliament.     Great  com^^ 
plaints  Yrete  made  in  the  house  of  commons  .against  the 
clergy,  knd  the  proceedings  in' ecclesiastical  courts,  and 
Several  bills  were  ordered  to  be.  brought  in,  which  alarmed 
Home  of' the  prelates.    Fisher, -bishop  of-Rochesteiti  iti'' 

A  U  D  fc  E  Y.  ,  i47 

i^eigted  boldly  ^gkiofst  fbesi!  transactioosf  in  the  house  of 
lords,  witbr  ^bieh  the  house  of  commons  were  so  much 
oiFen<ledj  tbiit  they  thought  proper  to  conplain  of  it,  bv 
&eir  speaker,  to  the  king^  and  Fish^  bad  some  difficult 
III  excusing  himself.  The  best  historians  agree^  that  great 
care  was  taken  by  the  king^  or.  at  least  by  his  ministry^  to 
have  such  persons  chosen  into  this  house  of  commons  as 
would  prooeed  therein  readily  aiid  effectualiy,  and  with 
this  Tiew  Audley  was  choseii  to  supply  the  place  of  sir 
Thomas  More,  now  speaker  of  the  londs'  bouse,  and  chan<f 
cellor  of  England.  The  new  hoiise  and  its  speaker  justified 
his  majesty's  expectations,  by  the  whole  tenor  of  their- be- 
haviour, but  especially  by  the  passing  of  a  law,  not  now 
found  among  our  statutes.  The  king,  having  borrowed 
very  large  sums  of  money  of  particular  subjects,  and  en- 
tered into  obligations  for  the  repayment  of  the  said  sums^ 
the  house  brought  in,  and  parsed  a  bill,  in  the  preamble  of 
which  they  declared,  that  inasmuch  as  those  sums  had  b^eii 
Applied  by  his  majesty  to  public  uses,  therefoi*e  they  can- 
celled and  discharged  the  said  obligations,  &c.  and  the 
king,  finding  the  convenience  of  such  a  parliamefnt,  it  sat 
agaiii  in -the  month  of  January,  1530*1.-  In  this,  sessiod 
also  many  extraordinary  things  were  done;  amongst  the 
rest,'  there  was  a  law  introduced  in  the  house  of  lords,  by 
which  the  clergy  were  exempted  from  the  penalties  they 
had  incurred,  by  submitting  to  the  legatine  power  of 
Wolsey.  On  this  occasrioii  the  oommons  moved  a  clause'  ii4 
favour  of  the  laity,  many  of  themselves  having  also  in- 
curred the  pORalties  of  the  statute.  But  the  king  insisted 
that  acts  of  grace  ought  to  flow  spontaneously,  and  that  this 
Was  not  the  method  of  obtaining  what  they  wanted;  audih6 
house,  notwithstanding  the  intercession  of  its  speaker,  and 
several,  of  iits  meflsbers,  who  were  the  king's  servants^  was 
obliged  td  pass  the  bill  without  the  clause,  and  immediately 
the  king  granted  them  likewise  a  pardon;  which  reconciled 
all  pjArties.  In  the  recess;  the  king  thought  it  necessary 
to  have  a  leiter  written  to  the  pope  by  the  lords  and  com-  ^, 
mons, , or  rather  by  the  three  estates  in  parliament,  which 
letter  ^as  drawn  up  and  signed  by  cardinal  Wolsey,  the  ' 
archbishop  of  Canterbury,  four  bishops^-  two -dukes,  two 
marquissesi;  .thiiteen-  earls,  two  viscounts,  twenty-three 
bifaron^,  twenty-two  abbots,  and  eleven  members  of  the 
house  ,of  cctmmons;  The  purport  of  this  letter,  dated 
July  J3j  above  three  weeks  after  the  parliament  rose,  was 


I4«  A  U  D*  L  E  Yi 

to  engage  tbe  pope  to  gmnt  the  king's  dei^re  in  the  dirorce. 
btiBHiess^  for  the  sake  of  preventing  a  civil  war^  on^ac<^ 
eount  of  the  succedsiony  and  to  threaten  him  jf  he  did  not, 
to  mke  settle  other  way.  To  gratify  the  speaker  for  th^ 
»teat  pa^fis  he  bad  already  taken,  and  to  eneourage  him  to 
proceed  in  the  same  way,  the  king  made  him  this  year 
attorney  tot  the  dudiy  of  Lancaster,  advancied  him  in 
Michaelmas  term  to  the  state  and  degree  of  a  seijeant  at 
}aw,  and  on  the  1 4th  of  November  following,  to  that  of 
his  own  Serjeant.'  In  January,  1531-2,  tbe  parliament  had 
its  third  session,  whereih  the  grievances  occasioned  by  the 
excessive  power  of  the  ecclesiastics  and  their  courts,  were 
reglilariy  digested  into  a  book,  which  was  presented  by 
the  speaker,  Audley,  to  the  king.  The  king^s  answer  was^ 
He  would  take  advice,  bear  the  parties  accused  speak,  and 
then  proceed  to  reformation.  In  thb  session,  a  bill  wa^ 
brought  into  die  house  of  lords,  for  the  better  securing  the 
tights  of  bis  majesty,  and  other  persotis  interested  in  the 
care  of  wards,  which  rights,  it  was  alleged,  were  injured 
by  fraudulent  wills  and  contracts.  This  bill,  when  it  came 
into  the  house  of  commons,  was  violently  opposed,  and  the 
thembers  expresses  a  desire  of  being  dissolved,  which  the 
kin^  would  not  permit:  but  after  they  had  done  some 
business,  they  had  a  recess  to  the  moftth  of  April.  When 
they  next  met,  the  king  sent  for  the  speaker,  and  delivered 
to  bim'  the  answer  which  bad  been  made  to  the  roll  of 
grievances,  presifnted  at  their  last  sitting,  which  afforded 
very  little  satisfaction,  and  they  seemed  now  less  subser« 
vierit.  Towards  the  close  of  th#  month,  one  Mr.  Themse 
.  mo^ed.  That  tbe  house  would  intercede  with  the  king,  to 
take  back  bis  queeit  again.  The  kin^,  extremely  alarmed 
at  this,  on  the  BOth  of  April,  1 5S2,  sent  for  the  speaker,  to 
whom  he  repeated  the  plea  of  cotiscienee,  which  had  iti« 
dut^ed  him  to  repudiate  the  queen,  and  urged  that  the 
opinion  of  the  learned  doctors,  &e.  was  oft  his  side.  OtI 
the  I  ith  of  May  the  king  sent  for  the  speaker  again,  und 
told  himi  that  hie  had  found  that  the  clergy  of  his  realm 
^,^re'^  b4it  half  Uis  subjects,  or  scarcely  ^o  much,  every 
bisbop  and  abbot  at  the  entering  into  i^is  <ygnky,  taking^ 
an  ^>ath  to  the  pope, .  derogatory  to  that  of  their  fidelity 
to  the  king,  vfhAch  contradiction  he  desired  bis  parlift'^ 
nn^t  to  take  aw^.  Upon  this  motion  of  the  kitig*S|  thft 
two  oaths  he  mentioned  were  read  in  the  hoiisfc  of  eom^ 
l^ons,  and  they  would  probably  have  complied^  if  the  plague 

A  U  D  L  E  Y*  14* 

\mA  not  put  an  end  to  the  senion  abruptly,  an  the  Mtk 
of  May ;  and  two  daya  aftert  air  Thomas  More,  knt.  tbeq^ 
lord  cbancaHor  of  England,  went  suddenly,  without  ac* 
quainting  auy  body  with  his  intention,  to  court,  his  ina« 
jesty  being  then  at  York  Place,  and  surrendered  up  the 
seals  to  the  king.  The  king  going,  out  of  town  to  JEast>« 
Greenwich,  carried  the  seals  with  him,  and  on  Monday, 
May  20,  delivered  them  lo  Thonms  Audley,  esq.  with  the^ 
title  of  lord  keeper,  and  at  the  same  time  conferred  on  him 
the  honour  of  knighthood*  September  6,  sir  Thomas  de- 
livered the  old  seal,  which  was  mw^h  worn,  and  received  a 
new  one  in  its  ftead,  yet  with  no  bi^ier  title :  but  on 
January  26,  1533,  he  again  delivered  the  jeal  to  the  king, 
who  k^t  it  a  quarter  of  an  hour,  and  then  returned  it  with 
tb^  title  of  lord  chancellor.  A  little  after,  the  king 
granted  to  him  the  site  of  the  priory  of  Chiist  Churchy 
Aldgate,  together  with  all  the  church  plate,  and  lands  be« 
longing  tp  that  house.  When  chancellor  he  complied  with 
the  king's  pleasure  as  effectually  as  when  speaker  of  the 
house  of  .commons.  For  in  July  1535,  he  sat  in  judgment 
ojx  sir  Thomas  More,  his'  predecessor,  (as  he  had  before  on 
b^hop  Fisher,)  who  was  now  indicted  of  high-treason ;  upon 
urhich  indictment  the  jury  found  him  guilty,,  and  the  lord 
chancellor,  Audley,  pronounced  judgment  of  death  upoA 
him..  This  done,  we  are  told,  that  sir  Thomas  More  satd^ 
that  he  had  £br  seven  years  bent  bis  mind  and  study  upon 
this  cause,  bolt  as  yet  be  found  it  no  where  writ  by  any 
approved  doctor  of  the  chureb,  that  a  layman  could  he 
bmi  of  the  eoclesiastical  state.  To  this  Audley  returned, 
**  Sir^  will  yon  be  reefcoaed  wiser,  or  of  #  better  conscience^ 
4faaa  ail  the  bidx^s,  the  nobility,  and  the  wh<de  kingf 
dom  V'  Sir  Thomas  rejoined,  ^  My  lord  chancellor,  for 
«ne  bishop  that  yau  have  of  your  opinion,  I  have  a  hundred 
of  mine,  and  ihat  among  those  that  have  been  saints ;  and 
for  your  one  councU,  which,  what  it  is,  God  kkiows,  I  have 
on  my  side  all  the  general  coonoils  for  a  thousand  years 
|iast$  and  ^^  one  kingdom,  I  have  France  and  ail  the 
4^ar  Jdngdoms  of  the  Christian  worid.**  As  our  cbaucellor 
was  very  \actaire  in  the  business  of  the  divorce,  he  was  tio 
less  so  ill  the  business  of  abbies,.  ^nd  bad  particulaily  a 
hrge  hand  in  the  dissolution  ci  such  reUgieus  houses  as 
l)ad  not  (Nfo  hnodred  pounds  by  the  year.  This  was  in  the 
tweiMj^^eventb  of  Henry  VIII,  and  the  bill  being  delayed* 
hi^m  lhe:h0««e  of  <»NnmQP%  Jhia  majesty  seiit  for  iba 

150  A  U  n  L  E  Y. 

members  of  that  hous^  to  attend  him  in  his  gallery,  where 
be  passed  through  them  with  a  stern  countenance,  without 
speaking  a  word :  the  members  not  having  received  the 
king's  command  to  depart  to  their  house,  durst  not  return 
till  they  knew  the  king's  pleasure ;  so  they  stood  waiting  iit 
the  gallery.     In  the  mean  time  the  king  went  a  bmitingp 
|tnd  his  ministers,  who  seem  to  have  had  better  manners 
than  their  master,  .went  to  confer  with  the  members ;  to 
some  they  spoke  of  the  king's  steadiness  and  severity ;  to 
others,  of  his 'magnificence  and  generosity.     At  last  the 
king  came  back,  and  passing '  through  them  again,  said, 
with  an  air  of  fierceiiess  peculiar  to  himself.  That  if  bis 
bill  did  not  pass,  it  should  cost  many  of  them  their  heads. 
Between  the  ministers*  persuasions  and  the  king's  threats, 
the  matter  was  brought  to  an  issue  :  the  king's  bill,  as  be 
palled  it,  passed  ;  and  by  it^  he  had  not  only  the  lands  of 
the  small  n^onasteries  given  him,  but  also  their  jewels,  plate, 
and  rich  moveables.     This  being  accomplished,  methods 
were  used  to  prevail  with  the  abbots  of  larger  foundations 
to  surrender.     To  this  end,  the  chancellor  sent  a  specia) 
^gent  to  treat  with  the  abbot  of  Athelny,  to  offer  him  an 
hundred  marks  per  annum  pension ;  which  he  refused,  in-* 
sisting  on  a  greater  sum.     The  chancellor  was  more  sue* 
ces^ful  with  the  abbot  of  St.  Osithes  in  Essex,  with  whom 
lie  dealt  personalty;  and,  as  he  expresses  it  in  a  letter  to 
Cromwell,  the  visitor-geaeralj  by  great  solicitation  pre-* 
vailed  with  him;  but  then  he  insinuates,  that  his  place  of 
lord  chancellor  being  very  chargeable,  he  'desired  the  kin^ 
inight  be  moved  for  addition  of  some  m(Mre  profitable  oiBces 
unto  him.     In  suing  for,  the  great  abbey  of  Walden,  in  the 
same  county,  which  he  obtained,  besides  extenuatiivg  its 
worth,   he  alleged '  mydei  bis  hand,  that  he  had  in  this 
9vorld  sustained  great  damage  and  in&my  in  serving  the 
kintg^  which  the  grant  of  that  should  veeompense.     But  tf 
the  year  lS9t6  was  agreelibie  to  bim  in*  one  respect,  it  was 
far  from  being  so  in  another;  since,  notwithstanding  the 
j)blig^ions  he  was  nnder  to  queen  Anne  Bullen^  he  wa^ 
obliged,  by  the  king^s  command,  to  be  present  at  her  ap* 
prehension  and  commitment  to  the  Tower«     He  sat  after^ 
wards  with  Cranmer  archbishop  of  Canterburyi  when  he 
gave  sentence  of  divorce  on  the  pre-oon tract  between  the 
queen  and  the  lord  Piercy ;  and  on  the  1 5th  of  May,  in  the 
«ame  year,  he  sat  in  judgment  on  the  said  queen,  notwidi^ 
standiog  we  are  told  b^  Upyd,  that  with  -great  addfea»  b^ 

A  U  D  L  E  Yv  Ml 

avoided  it.  The  lengths  he  liadl  gone  in  serving  th^  l^ingj^^ 
and  his  known  dislike  to  pop^y>  induced  the  northerly 
rebels  in  the  same  year,  to .  name  him  as  one  of  the  evil 
counsellors,,  whom  they  desired  to  see  removed  from  abou^. 
t^e  king's  person ;  which  charge,  however,  his  majesty^^' 
as  far  as  in  him  l^y,  wiped  off,  by  his  well- penned  answer 
to  the  complaint^  of  those  rebels,  wherein  an  excellent 
character  isgiv^n  of  the  chancellor.  When  the  authors  of 
this  rebellion  came  to  b^  tried,  the  chancellor  declined 
sitting  as  lord  high  steward,  vvbicl|  high  office  was  executed[ 
by  the  marquis  of  Exeter,  ^n  whom  shortly  after,  viz.  io^ 
1538,  Audley  sat  &^  highrsteward,  and  condemned  him^ 
his  brother,  and  si^veral  other  perspns,  to  sniffer  death  aa 
traitors.  In  the  latter  end  of  tbe  same  year,  viz,  on  ther 
29th  of  Noveml^r,  30  Hen.yiII.  the  chancellor  was  created* 
a  baron,  by  the  style  of  lord  Audley  pf  Walden  in  th^ 
founty  of  Ess^,  ^d  was  likewise  installed  knight;  of  the 
garter.  In  the  session  of  parliament  in  1539,  there  .^ere 
Hiany  severe  aQts.made,^  and  the  p^erogauve  carried  to  ai) 
^ces^ve  height,  particularly  by  ^be  six  bloody  articlesj 
^nd  the  giving  the  king^s  prpclamation  thf  forceof  a  law. 
It  does  not  very  clearly  appear  who  were,  the  king^s  prin<^ 
(;ipal  co^ns^llprs  in  t^e^e  matters  i  but  it  is  admitted  by 
tJ2e  besi^  historians,  that  the  rigorous  f xecutioi>  of  these 
j[aws,  ^hich  the  king  first  designed,  was  prevented  by  the 
interpos^ion  qf  the  lord  Audley,  in  conjunQtiqn  with  Crom^i 
Keli,  who  wafs  |hen  prinae  minister,  ,^ud  the  duke  pf  Sufipolk, 
|he  kiiifg'^; favourite  tbro^gho^t  bis  whple  reign.  .  In  the 
beginning  pf  1540,  the  cou^t  was  excessively  embarrassed^ 
What  share  Audley  had  in  the  fall  qf  Cromwell  afterwards 
is  not  clear,  but  immediately  aft^r  a.  new  question  was 
furred  k^  parl^aqti^iit,  viz.  How  far  the  ki^g'^  marriage  with 
Anne  of  CleK^es,  was  l<»wfu|[?  This  wa^  referred  to  the 
ju<%mentrOf  ^  i^iritual  cpuii't ;  and  there  are  yet.  extant  the 
deposition^  of  Jhomas  \qx^  Avidley^r  lard  chaq^eUor^  Tho- 
xpas,  archbishop  of  Cant^rhijry,  Jhomas,  (^ukf^  of  Norfolk 
Cb^rl^s^  d|ik^  of  Suffolk,  and  Cuthbert,  lord  bisbop  c^ 
|}urhai|i»  .vhejrein  th^y  jointly  swear,  that  the  Pftjjers  pro^^ 
.di^c^d  ta  prove,  the  retraction  of  the  lady  A^^^'s  contract 
with  the  duke  of  Lqrraip,  ^ere  incon<ciusive  and  unsatis^ 
factory.  Qth^r  lords  and  ladies  deposed  to  other  point% 
aiKl  the  issue  of  the  business  was,  that  the  marriage  waii 
de^l^red  Yoi4,  by  tiiis  court,  which  sentence  ivas  supported 
by  an.^  a«t  of  parUament|  affirming  the  same  thing,  and 

1«»  A  U  D  t  E  Y. 

eMbl^Ag^  Tbut  H  shMld  W  lilj^^rdAttmi  to  judge  or  ti^^ 
lleve  othefwii»e*  This^  obstt^l^  removed,  the  king  married'. 
tile  lady  Ctthttittt  Howard,  niece  to  the  duke  of  NorMk, 
and  eotiditi-gei'mati  to  Aiine  Bulleh.  Nothh^g  is  clearee* 
from  history^  tlian  that  the  chancellor  Was  closely  attached' 
to  the  houii»e  of  Norfolk ;  and  yet  in  the  latter  end  of  the 
^ear  } 541 /he  was  constrained  to  be  an  instrument  b%  the 
YHin  of  th^  unfortunate  queen  ;  ilkfOrmation  of;  her  bad  life, 
before  her  marriage,  being  laid  finst  before  the  archbishops 
of  Catiterbury^  and  by  him  communicated  to  the  chan**' 
eellor.  'The  king  then  appointed  tord  Audley  one  of  th« 
commissiotien  to  eMmine  her,  which  tiiey  did,  and  thete 
H  yet  extant  a  letter  subscribed  by  him  and  the  other 
Iteds,  containing  an  €xaet  detail  of  this  affiar,  and  of  the 
evidettte  oft  which,  in  the  next  session  of  parliament,  the 
^ueeii  aod  others  were  attainted.  The  whole  of  this  liir« 
Mviess  was  managed  in  parliament  by  the  chancellor,  and 
there  la  reason  to  believe,  that  be  had  some  batid  m  anotlve^ 
buddess  transacted  in  that  session ;  which  was  the  openin|( 
ft  door  for  the  dissolution  of  hospitals,  Peking  having  ttovf 
wasted  all  that  bad  laccrued  tohim  by  the  adppression  <^ 
|J>bies.  Borne  other  things  of  the  like  kiature  were  the 
last  testhmnies  of  the  chancellors  conrcem  for  Us  tnasteifi 
toteresft ;  but  ne^t  year  a  mcfre  remarkable  case  occurred; 
In  the  S4th  of  Hefiry  VIII.  George  Ferrers,  esq.  tfurgesc 
for  Plymouth,  w^s  arrested,  and  carried  to  the  compter^ 
by  virtue  of  a  writ  from  the  court  of  kfeg'a  beneh.  Tbe 
liouse,  on  notice  thereof,  ^sent  their  setjeant  to  demand 
dieir  member ;  in  doing  wliich,  a  fray  eiii^^  at  the  comp^ 
ter,  fats  tnace  was  Woke,  his  servant  knocked  down,  and 
himself  obliged  to  make  his  escape  as  well  hs  he  ttMliL 
The  bmrntef,  iipoti  notice  of  this,  resolved  tl^ey  would  trit 
jeo  longer  without  their  tnember,  and  desired  a  cotifereftee 
"With  tbelordlB;  where,  after  hearing  the  twitter,  thelotd 
dmftcellor  Audley  dedjired  tfaeeoft  tempt  was  toost  flagrant; 
)ind  referred  the  punishment  ther^  to  die  heii$e  of  cmn^ 
mon^;  whereupon  Thomas  Moyle,  esq.  who  w|is  tbeA 
irpeaker,  issued  l^is  warrant,  and  die  sheriff  of  i^ondoii^, 
i^ud  aeveral  other  persons,  we^e  brought  to  the  bar  of  thi 
bouse,  aud  committed,  some  to  the  Tower,  imd  sqme  vb 
Ner^rgate.  Tl^is  precedent  was  gained  by  the  l^ing^s  wntnlt 
^f  all  aid,  who  at  that  tim<^  escpected  die  commpiis  wou^ 
foflbr  him  a  isubsidy ;  the  ministry,  and  the  house  of  W«d^ 
the  kitig*3  will^  ga*^  d^  cmiimona  the  com^ 

A  U  D  L  E  y.  1S$ 

flieni  of  punishing  those  who  had  imprisoned  one  of  their 

flDemben.    Dyer,  mentioning  this  case,  says,  ^^  The  sages 

of  the  law  held  the  commitment  of  Ferrers  l^al,  and 

ihottgh  the  pririlege  was  allowed  him,  yet  was  it  held  ua-» 

just**     As  the  chancellor  bad  led  a  Very  active  life,  he 

iprew  how  infirm,  though  he  was  not  much  above  fifty  years 

old,  and  tl^refore  began  to  think  of  settling  his  family  and 

afii^.     But,  previous  to  this,  he  obtained  from  the  king  a 

licence  to   change  the  name  of  Buckingham  college  in 

Cambridge,  into  that  of  Magdalen,  or  Maudlin  some  wiUl 

have  it,  because  in  the  latter  word  his  own  name  is  in* 

cittded.    To  this  college  he  was  a  great  bene&ctor,  be*» 

atowed  on  it  his.  own  arms,  and  is  generally  reputed  ita 

fiKinderj  or  restorer.    His  capital  seat  was  at  Chrtst*Chrirt. 

in  town,  and  atWalden  in  Essex;  and  to  preserve  some 

renieQri>rance  of  himself  and  fortunes,  he  caused  a  naag* 

Qificent  tomb  to  be  erected  in  his  new  chapel  at  Walden* 

About  the  beginning  of  April,  1 544,  he  was  attacked  bjr 

hit  last  illness,  which  induced  htm  to  resign  the  seak :  but 

he  was  too  weak  to  do  it  in  person,  and  dierefore  sent  them 

to  the  Mngy  who  <folivered  them  to  sir  Thomas  Wriothesley^ 

i|rith  tne  title  of  keeper,  dnring^  the  indisposition  of  the 

«haneeUor;  a  circumstance  not  remarked  by  any  of  our 

faistortans.    On  the  19tli  of  April,  lord  Audley  made  fai» 

will»  and,  amongst  other  things,  directed  that  his  executois 

should,  upon  the  next  New-year*  s  day  after  bis  decease* 

deliver  to  the  king  a  legacy  of  one  hundred  pounds,  from 

Irhbm,  aib  he  expresses  it,  <^^  he  had  received  all  his  repa« 

tations  and  bene^ts.'^     He  died  on  the  last  of  April,  1541^ 

Irhen  he  had  held  ^e  seats  upwards  of  twelve  years,  am| 

in  the  fi^y-sixth  of  his  life,  as  appears  by  the  inscriptioii 

on  hi$  tomb.     He  married  Elizabeth,  daughter  of  Thomas 

Grey,  marquis  of  Dorset,  by  whom  he  had  two  daughterSf 

Margaret  and  Mary;  Mary  died  unmarried,  and  Margaret 

1)ecame  his  sole  heir.  8be  married  first  lord  Henry  Dudley, 

p  younger  fon  of  John  duke  of  ^forthumberlalld,  and  he 

]being  slain  at  the  battle  of  St.  Quintin*s,  in  Ptcardy,  in 

15^7,  she  married  a  second  time,  Thomas  duke  of  Norr 

fdlk^  to  irhom  she  was  afeo  aisecond  wife,  and  had  by  him 

a^  son  Thomas^  who,  by  act  of  parliament,  in  the]  27th  of 

EBtabeth,  was  restored  in  bloodf  and  in  the  39th  of  tb^ 

tteie  veign^  vummoned  to  parliament  by  his  grandfather*a 

|itle>  as  baroa  of  Walden.     In  the  1st  of  James  I.  he  was 

^r^^fd  earl  of  Sufiblk^  and  being  afterwards  lord  high- 


»54  A  U  p  I.  E  Y. 

treasurer  of  England,  be  built  oa  the  rains  of  tbe^  abbey 43^ 
Walden,  that  once  noble  palace,  which,  ia  honour  of  our 
chancellor,  he  called  Audley- End.  ..* 

Ill  the  Parliamentary, History,  there  are  the  heads  of  sci^ 
veral  speechec^  delivered  by  sir  Thomas  Audley  Qu  different 
occasions,  chiefly  as  lord  chancellor.  But  theycont^ia 
ijiothing  in  them  peculiarly  renparkable ;  being  either  mere 
explanations  of  the  business  for  jwjiich  the  two  hoiise^  ^^^ 
-assembled,  or  fslse  eboufiding  with  the  praises .  of  king 
Henry  VUI.  In  an  age  of  th^  meanest  complianceii  with 
the  will  of  the  prin^^  lord  Audley  undoubtedly  equalled^ 
if  Jpie  did  not  exceed^  all  hi^  contemporaries  in  servility. 

The  case  of  George  Ferrers  is  a  very  remarkable  jone  iii 
tb^  history  of  parliamentary  privilege,  and  has  been  greatljf 
agitated  in  the  warm  debates  which  have  been  carried  on 
.upon  tbat  subject,  during  the  preseut  reigJi.  An  account 
of  it  may  be  seen  in  many  writers,  and  more  recently  in  a 
publication  of  M,r.  HatselPs, .  chief  clerk  of  the  bouse  of 
comnions.  Mr*  Hatsell  is  of  ^piniouj  from  the  many  new 
and  extraordinary  circumstances  attending  the  cas^  of 
Ferrers,  that  the  measures  which  were  adopted,  and  the 
doctrine  which  was  novy  first  laid  down  with  .respect  to  t^p 
extent  of  the  privileges  of  the  house  9f  cpmmons^  was 
more  owing  to  Ferrers's  being  a  servant  of  the  king,  than 
that  he  was  a  member  of  the  bouse  of  commons,  ^ 

AUDOUL  (Gaspard),^  a  native  of  Province,  went  to 
Paris  in  his  youth,  there  studied  law,  and  became  a  mem* 
ber  of  the  counsel  of  the  house  of  Orleans.  In  1708  h^ 
published  a  work  entitled  ^^  Trait6  de  l^origioe  de  la  Re^l^ 
et  des  causes  de  son  etablissement,*'  4to,  in  eight  book% 
in  which  he  bad  introduce^  a  dissertation  on  tbe  authei^* 
ticity  of  canon  22  distinct.  63  of  the  first  part  of  the  catio^ 
law,  which  had  been  rejected  by  Baronius  and  Bellaraxiix^ 
and  some  other  able  writers,  even  in  France,  The  cons^ 
quence  was,  that  his  work  was  condemned  in  a  brief  of 
pope  Clement  XI.  in  1710,  and  .this  censure  was  repeale4 
a  few  months  after  by  a  sentence  of  the  parliament  of  Pari§. 
These  circumstances  contributed  not  a  little  to  the  reputa-* 
tion  of  the  author,  who  is.  said  to  have  died  the.  year  foV* 
lowing.  ^ 

AUDRA  (Joseph),  a  French  philosopher,  was  born  at 
Lyons  in  1714,.  was  brought  up  to  the  church)  ^dJ>eoam.e 

1  Biographia  Britannict.— Uoyd'g  State  MTortkies,  Am.       *  Morei^K— Diet.  His^ 

A  U  D'R  A.  IS$ 

9  professor  of  phiFosophy  in  bis  native  country.  In  con-* 
junction  witb  the  intendant  Michaudiere,  be  drew  up  a 
state  of  the  population  of  the  district  of  Lyons^  which  was 
pnbii^hed  under  the  name  of  Mezence,  who  was  secretary 
to  the  intendant  In  1769,  the  abb6  Audra  was  appointed 
professor  of  history  in  the  college  of  Toulouse,  and,  we 
are  told,  filled  that  chair  with  distinction.  It  was  here  h« 
wrote  die  first  volume  of  fais  ^^  General  History,"  which 
proved  the  cause  of  his  death.  The  archbishop  of  Toulouse 
issued  a  mandate  in  which  he  condemned  the  work  as  being 
feplete  with  dangerous  principles;  and  the  author's  mor* 
tification  on  hearing  of  this  affected  his  brain  to  such  9, 
degree,  as  to  carry  him  off  in  twenty*  four  hours.  Sept* 
17,  1770.  Voltaire  and  D'Alembert  praise  this  history,  as 
likely  to  give  offence  only  to  bigots  and  fanatics,  from 
which  we  may  safely  infer  that  the  archbisbop-S  opinion  of 
it  was  not  ill  founded.  ^ 

AUDRANS,  a  very  celebrated  family  of  artists,  of  whom 
we  shall  give  some  account  in  the  order  of  chronology.  « 

AUDRAN  (Claude),'  the  first  of  this  family  who  is 
mentioned  as  an  artist,  was  born  in  1592,  and  died  in  1677; 
He  was  the  son  of  Louis  Audran,  an  officer  bdonging  to 
the  wolf-hunters,  in  the  reign  of  Henry  IV.  of  France, 
Claude  appears  to  have  become  an  engraver  rather  late  in 
life,  and  his  prints,  which  ai%  but  few,  are  not  held  in 
much  estimation.  Yet,  though  he  acquired  no  great  re- 
putation '  by  im  own  works,  it  was  no  sa»ll  honour  to  be 
father  to  three  great  artists,  Germain,  Claude,  and  Gerard^ 
the  last'  of  whom  has  immcHtalieed  the  name  of  the  family. 
'  AUDRAN  (Carl,  or  Karl),  is  generally  believed  to 
have,  heen^  brother  of  the  preceding  Claude,  but  otben 
have  asserted  that  he  was  cousin-german  to  him  only.  It 
is,  however^  universally,  screed  that  he  was  born  at  Paris 
in  1594.  In  his  infancy  he  discovered  much  taste,  and 
an  apt  disposition  for  the  arts;  and,  to  perfect  himself 
in  engraving,  of  whic^  he  appears  to  have  been  chiefly 
fond,  he  went  toRome^  where  he  produced  several  prints 
that  did  him  great  honour.  What  master  be  studied  under 
at  Rome  cannot  easily  be  determined.  The  style  he  adopted 
is  very  like  that  of  Cornelius  Bloemart,  but  still  neater  : 
Mr.  Strutt  thinks  that  the  prints  of  Lucas  Kilian  and  of  the 
Sadelers  may  have  lai4  the  first  foundation  on  which  he 

*  Diet.  UijiU 

156  A  U  D  R  A  N.     . 

built.  On  his  return  to  his  ovirn  country,  he  settled  at 
Paris,  where  he  died  in  1674,  without  having  ever  been 
married*  The  abb6  Maroiles,  who  always  speaks  of  this 
artist  with  great  praise,  attributes  one  hundred  and  thirty 
prints  to  him ;  amongst  which,  the  '^  Annunciation,^'  Aronoi 
Annibale  Caracci,  and  the  '^  Assumption,"  from  Domeoi^ 
chiho,  are  the  most  esteemed. 

AUDRAN  (Germain),  was  the  eldest  son  of  Claude, 
and  was  born  in  1631,  ^x,  Lyons,  where  his  parents  then 
resided*  Not  content  with  the  instructions  of  his  lather, 
be  went  to  Paris^  4ind  perfected  himself  under  his  uncle 
Carl;  and  upon  his  return  to  Lyons,  published  several 
prints  which  did  great  honour  to  his  graver*  His  merit  was 
in  Buch  estimation^  that  he  was  made  a  member  of  the 
academy  established  in  that  town,  and  chosen  a  professor. 
He  died  at  Lyons,  in  1710,  and  left  behind  him  four  sons^ 
all  artists,  namely,  Claude,  Benoist,  John,  and  Louis. 

AUDRAN  (Claude),  the  second  of  this  name,  and  se- 
cond son  to  Claude,  the  founder  of  the  family,  was  born  at 
Lyons  in  1639,  and  went  to  Rome  to  study  paintings  where* 
be  succeieded  so  well^  that,  at  his  returuy  he  was  enq)loye4 
by  Le  Brun,  to  assist  him  in  the  battles  of  Alexaadett* 
which  he  was  then  painting  for  the  king  of  France*  fist 
was  received  into  the  royal  academy  in  the  year  .1675^  anfi] 
died  unmarried  at  Paris  in  1684..  His  virtues,  saya  ab]i>4! 
Fontenai,  were  as  praiseworthy  as  his  talents  were  gr^t»: 
M,  Heineken  mentions  him  as  an  eQgvaver,  but  withpHtt, 
specifying  any  of  his  prints.  -...'. 

AUDRAN  (GisARD  or  Grrard),  the  most  ^lehratpd 
artist  of  the  &mily,  was  the  third  son  of  the  first-mentioned 
Claude  Audran,  and  bom  at  Lyons  in  1640.     He  le^m^ 
from  his  father  the  first  principles  of  desigaii^  and  ea*^ 
graving;  following  the  example  of  his  brotber,  he  wenttto; 
Paris,  where  bis  genioB  soon  began  to  manifest  itself :  and 
Ikis  reputation  brought  him  to  the  knowledge  of  Le  ^run^ 
who  employed  him  to  engrave  the  ^'  Battle  of  Constan- 
tine,''  and  the  ^  Triumph'*  of  that  emperor,  and  for  these- 
works  he  obtained  apartments  at  the  Gobelins.    At  Rome,, 
where  he  went  for  improvement,  he  is  said  to  have  studied 
under  Carlo  Maratti,  in  oinder  to  petlect  himself  in  diuwi^. 
ing:  and  in  that  city,  where  he  resided  three  years^  be. 
engcaved  several  fine  plates ;  among  the  rest  the  |K>rt«si^ 
of  pope  Clement  IX.     M.  Colbert,  a  great  encourager  of. 
the  arts,  >vas  so  struck  with  the  beauty  of  Audran^^  vorks^ 

~      A  U  D  K  A  N.  157 

whibthe  resided  at  Rome,  that  he  persiiaded  Louis  XI  V< 
to  recall  him,  Oa  his  return,  he  applied  himself  assi-» 
duously  to  engraviagi  and  was  appointed  engraver  to  the 
king,  from  whom  he  received  liberal  encouragement.  In 
168 1^  he  was  named  counsellor  of  the  royal  academy :  and 
died  at  Paris  in  1 703.  He  had  been  married,  but  left  no 
male  issue  behind  him. 

Mr.  Strutt  considers  Gerard  Audran  as  the  greatest  eiu 
graver,  without  any  exception,  that  ever  existed  in  the 
historical  line,  an  opinion,  which,  he  thinks,  a  careful 
examination  of  ^*  The  Battles  of  Alexander*'  alotte,  will 
justify.  His  great  excellency,  above  tliat  of  any  other 
engraver,  was,  that  though  he  drew  admirably  himself, 
yet  he  contracted  no  manner  of  his  own  ;  but  transcribed 
on  copper  simply,  with  great  truth  and  spirit,  the  style  of 
the  master,  whose  pictures  he  copied*  On  viewing  his 
prints,  we  lose  sight  of  the  engraver,  and  naturally  say,  it 
is  Le  Brun,  it  is  Poussin,  &c.  <<This  sublime  artist,'* 
says  the  Abbe  Fontenai,  borrowing  chiefly  from  M.  Basaa, 
''  far  from  conceiving  that  a  servile  arrangement  of  strokes^ 
and  the  loo  frequently  cold  and  affected  clearness  of  the 
graver,  were  the  great  essentials  of  historical  engraving, 
gave  worth  to  his  works  by  a  bold  mixture  of  free  hatch-* 
inga  and  dots,  placed  together  apparently  without  ordef^ 
hat  with,  an  inimitable  degree  of  taste ;  and  has  left  to  pos« 
terity  most  admirable  examples  of  the  style  in  which 
giaftd  craipotitions  ought  to  be  treated.  His  greatest 
works,  which  have  not  a  very  flattering  appearance  to  the 
ignbmnt  eye,  ire  the  admiration  of  true  connoisseur]^  and 
penons  of  reid  taste.  He  acquired  the  most  profound 
knowledge  of  the  art  by  the  constant  attention  and  study 
which  be  bestowed  upon  the  science  of  design,  and  the 
frequent  %ue  he  made  of  painting  from  nature.  He  always 
knew  how  to  peiietrate  into  the  genius  of  the  painter  he 
oopied  from :  and  often  improve^  upon,  and  sometimes 
even  surpassed  him.*^  Mr.  Strutt  has  given  a  list  of  hit 
principal  engravings,  divided  into  four  classes,  to  which 
we  refer  the  reader. 

AUDRAN  (Benoit  or  Bekoist)  was  the  second  son 
of  <3ermain  Audran,  and  was  bom  at  Lyons  in  1661,  where 
he  learned  the  first  principles  of  design  and  engraving, 
jioder  the  instruction  of  his  father.  But  soon  aftef  going 
to  Parts,  his  uncle  Gerard  took  him  under  bis  tuition,  and 
.ficaoit  so  greatly  profited  by  his  instructions,  that  thot^ 

15i  A  U  D  R  A  !t 

he  never  equalled  tbe  stibliiiie  style  of  his  tutor,  yet  he  sJc^ 
quired,  and  deservedly,  great  reputation.  His  maimer 
was  founded  upon  the  bold,  clear  style  of  bis  uncle*  His 
outlines  were  firm  and  determined;  bis  drawing  correct ; 
the  heads  of  his  figures  are  in  general  very  expressive^  and 
the  otber  extremities  well  marked. — He  was  honoured  with 
the  appellation  of  the  king's  engraver,  and  received  tb^ 
Toytl  pension.  He  was  made  an  aotdemician,  and  ad-- 
ypitted  into  the  council  in  1715.  He  died  Unmarried  at 
Louzouer,  .where  he  had  an  estate,  in  1721. 

AUDRAN  (John),  the  third  son  of  Germain  Audran^ 
was  also  born  at  Lyons,  in  1667,  and  after  having  received 
instructions  from  his  father,  went  to  Paris,  to  study  the 
art  of  engraving  under  his  uncle  Gerard.  At  tbe  age  of 
twenty  years,  the  genius  of  this  great  artist  began  to  dis- 
play itself  in  a  surprising  manner:  and  his  future  success 
was  such,  that  iii  1707,  he  obtained  the  title  of  engraver 
to  the  king,  and  had  a  pension  allowed  him  by  his  ma^ 
jesty,  with  apartments  in  the  Gobelins ;  and  tbe  following 
year  he  was  made  a  member  of  the  royal  academy.  He 
was  eighty  years  of  age  before  be  quitted  the  graver ;  and 
near  ninety  in  1756,  when  he  died  at  his  apartments^  as- 
signed him  by  the  king.  He  left  three  sons  behind  him^ 
one  of  wbom^  Benoit,  was  also  an  engraver,  and  died  id 
1735$  but  very  inferior  to  his  uncle  of  the  same  hamei  - 

The  most  masterly  and  best  prints  of  John  Auckan  ar^ 
those,  in  Mr.  Strutt^s  opinion,  which  are  not  to  pleasing 
to  the  eye  at  first  sight.  In  these  the  etching  bonstltutes 
a  greiit  part  ^  and  he  has  finished  them  in  a  bold,  rough 
ktyle.  The  scientifio  b^nd  of  the  master  appears  in  them 
on  examination.  The  drawing  of  the  human  figure,  where 
it  is  shewn,  is  correct.  The  heads  are  expressive,  and 
finely  finished;  the  other  extremities  well  marked.  Jle 
has  not,  however,  equalled  his  uncle.  He  wants  that  har<- 
moiiy  in  the  effect ;  his  lights  are  too  much  and  too  e<|ualljr 
covered ;  and  there  is  not  sufficient  difference  between  the 
style  in  which  he  has  engraved  his  back  gtounds  and  his 
draperies.  This  observation  refers  to  a  fine  print  by  him^ 
of  ^^  Athaliah,'^  and  to  such  as  he  engraved  in  that  style. 

AUDRAN  (Louis),  tbe  last  son  of  Germain  Audran^ 
was  born  at  Lyons  in  1670,  from  whence  he  went  to  Parisy 
-after  the  example  of  his  brothers,  to  complete  his  studies 
in  the  school  of  his  uncle  Gerard.  He  died  suddenly  at 
P^ris^  in  1712,  aged  42,  before  he  had  produced  any  great 

'    ACDftAN.  U9 

aumbei*  ot  prints  by  his  own  hand  ;  but,  it  is  presumed,  he 
assisted  bis  brothers  in  their  more  extensive  works.*- 
Benedict  Audran,  the  son  of  John,  was  also  an  engraver 
of  some  note,  and  died  in  1772.  * 

AVELLANEDA  (Alphonsus  Fernandes  db),  a  Spa-* 
nifth  writer,  and  a  native  of  Tocdesillas^  is  principally 
inown  as  the  author  of  the  ^'  Continuation,  or  second  part 
of  the  history  of  Don  Quixote,**  which  was  published  iinder 
the  title  '<  La  Segunda  Parte  del  Ingenioso  Hidalgo  D. 
Quixote  de  la  Mancha,'*  1614,  8vo.     This,  without  be-* 
ing  absolutely  contemptible,  is  still  very  inferior  to  Cer- 
fantes^s  admirable  production.     It  was  afterwards  trans- 
lated, or  rather  imitated  and  new-modelled  by  Le  Sage,- 
and  from  this  edition,  aii  English  translation  was  published 
ibout  fifty  or  sixty  years  ago,  in  2  vols.  8vo,  but  from  the 
English  work  no  proper  judgment  can  be  formed  of  the 
original.    A  more  recent  translation,  which  we  haiire  not 
seen,  appeared  in  1807.  -  Pope  has  versified  b.  tale  from  it 
in  his  Essay  on  Criticism.  * 

AVENPACE,  a  Spaniard  by  birth,  but  ranks  among 
tbe  Arabian  writers  and  philosophers  of  the  twelfth  cen- 
tury, wrote  a  commietitary  upon  Euclid,  and  philosophical 
ind  theological  epistles.  He  was  intimately  conversant 
widi  the  Peripatetic  philosophy,  and  applied  it  to  the 
illustration  of  the  Islamic  system  of  theology,  and  to  the 
explanation  of  the  Koran.  '  On  this  account,  he  was  sus- 
pected of  heresy,  and  thrown  into  prison  at  Corduba.  He 
is  said  to  have  been  poisoned  at  Fez,  in  the  year  i  137,  or 
according  to  others,  in  1129.  His  works  were  translated 
intd  Latin,  and  were  well  known  to  Thomas  Aquinas,  and 
tiie  old  schoolmen. ' 

AVENTIN  (John),  author  of  the  Annals  of  Bavaria, 
Wad  born  of  mean  parentage,  iii  1466,  at  Abensperg  in  the 
eoiintry  jbst  named.  He  studied  first  at  Ingolstadt,  and 
sfter^ards  iii  the  university  of  Paris.  In  1 503,  he  privately 
taught  eloquence  and  poetry  at  Vienna;  and  in  1507,* 
Jpublicly  taught  Greek  at  Cracow  in  Poland.  In  150^,  he 
rdad  lectures  on  some  of  Cicero's  pieces  at  Ingolstadt ;  and 
in  1512;  was  ippbitited  to  be  preceptor  to  prince  Lewis 
and  prince  Ernest,  sons  of  Albert  the  Wise,  duke  of  Ba- 
^  voriaU:  He  also  travelled  with  the  latter  of  those  two  princes. 

he  undertook  to  write  the  '^  Annals  of  Bavaria,^' 

1  Strutt*i  Dict.«A>AiIareri.— Diet.  Historique. 

•  Antonio  Bibl.  Hisp. — Warton's  Essay  on  P^pc— Gent  May.  1907,  p.  146. 

'  Gen.  Dift.«^Brttcker. 

160  A  VENT  IN, 

being  encouraged  by  the  dukes  of  that  namei  who  settled 
a  pension  upon  him,  and  g»ve  bim  hopes  that  they  wouU 
defray  the  charges  of  the  book.  This  work^  which  gained 
its  author  great  reputatioR,  was  first  pubKsbed  in  1$^,  by 
Jerome  Zieglerus,  professor  pf  poetry  in  the  university  o£ 
Ingolstadt;  but,  as  he  acknowledges  in  the  preiaee,  he 
retrenched  the  invectives  against  the  clergy,  and  several 
stories  which  had  no  relation  to  the  history  of  Bavaria^  Th^ 
Protestants,  however,  after  long  search,  found  an  uncas-* 
trated  manuscript  of  Aventin's  Annals,  which  was  piiiblished 
at  Basil  in  1580,  by  Nicholas  Cisner* 

In  1 52^,  he  was  forcibly  taken  out  of  his  sister's  bouse 
at  Abenspergy  and  hurried  to  &  gaol ;  the  true  eause  of 
which  violence  was  never  known :  but  it  would  probably 
have  been  carried  to  a  much  greater  length,  had  not  the 
duke  of  Bavaria  interposed,  and  taken  this  learned  man 
into  his  protection.  In  his  64th  year  he  made  an  impni<4 
dent  marriage,  which  disturbed  his  latter  days.  He  died 
in  1534,  aged  68,  leaving  one  daughter,  who  was  then  b«l 
two  months  old.  It  was  supposed,  from  the  inquiries  made 
by  the  Jesuits^  that  he  was  a  Lutheran  in  sentiment ;  and 
the  adherents  to  th0  church  of  Rome  make  use  of  this  ar-« 
gument  to  weaken  the  force  of  his  testimony  agauatst  tb« 
conduct  of  the  popes,  and  the  vicious  lives  oi  the  priests  ; 
for  the  Annals  of  Aventin  have  been  ofiten  quoted  by  Pro*^ 
testants,  to  prove  the  disordert  of  the  Romish  church. 

The  principal  editions  of  his  works  are,  1.  ^'  Anualtum 
libri  vii.  ad  annum  usque  1533,  cum  notis  Gnudlingii,^* 
Leipsic.  1710,  fol.  2.  "  Chronica  Bavarian,'*  Nuremberg^ 
1522,  fol.  3.  **  Henrici  IV.  vita,  epistol»,'*  &c.  Aug«-» 
burgh,  1518,  4to.  4.  **  Chronicpn,  sive  Annates  Schi^ 
tenses,''  Bipont.  1600,  4to.  5.  <<  Liber  de  causis  mise-i 
Tiarum,  cum  chronicis  Turcicis,''  Loniceri,  ISld,  4to. 
6.  f'  Antiquitates  Danicse,''  Hafniae,  1642,  4to.  An«* 
Other  work  is  attributed  to  him  by  Gesner,  relative  to  tht 
manner  of  counting  on  the  fingers,  under  the  title  ^*  Nn* 
merandi  per  digitos  manusque  veterum  consuetudinesy*' 

AVENZOAIi  (4bu  Merwan  ApnALMAus  Ebst  Zoar)^ 
an  eminent  Arajbian  physician,  floarished  about  the  end 
of  the  eleventh  or  the  beginning  of  the  twelfth  centoryv 
He  was  of  noble  deseent,  and  bom^  Seville,  tibe  eapttal 

^  Geo.  I>ict<-»3taarl««»SasiiOiioaui4icoa»., 

A  y  E  N  Z  O  A:R.  Ui 

«f  Andalusia,  where  he  exercised  h(a  profeasioJOL  with  gveii 
reputatioo.  His  graodfathet  and  father  were  b^th  pby^ 
^iciaos.  .  The  large  estate  be  ioherited  froin  his  aoceatom 
rendered  it  unnecessary  for  him  to  practise  for  gain,  atid 
he  therefore  took  no  fees  from  the  poor,  or  from  aiti^eertf^ 
though  he  refused  not  the  presents  of  .princes  and  great 
men.  His  liberality  extended  ereti  to  his  enemies;  for 
which  reason  he  used  to  say,  that  they  hated  l^im  not  ftir 
any  fault  of  ht^  but  ratheor  out  of  envy.  JQr.  Freind  thinks 
that  he  lived  to  the  age  of  13  5,  that  he  begaa  to  practise 
at  40  ;  or,  as  others  say,,  ot  20,  and  had  the  advantage  of 
a  longer  experience  than  almost  any  one  ever  had,  as  he 
enjoyed  perfect  health  to  his  last  hour..  He  left  a  son, 
known,  also  by  the  name  of  £bn  ^lohr,  who  followed  his 
father^s  profession,  waa  iu  great  favour  with  Al-Mansor 
emperor  of  Morocco,  and  wn>te  several  treatises  o£  physic. 
>  Avenzoar  was  contemporary  with  Averrocs,  who,  accord* 
log  to  Leo  Africaims,  beard  the  lectures  of  the  former,  and 
learned  physic  of  him.  Avenzoar,  however,  is  reckoned 
by  the  generality  of  writers  an  empiric,  although  Dr, 
1^'reind  observes  that  this  character  suits  him  less  than  any 
of  the  Arabians.  He  wrote  a.  book  on  the  .'^  Method  of 
preparing  Medicines,'^  which  is  much  esteemed.  .  It  was 
translated  into  Hebrew  in  the  year  1280,  and  thence  into 
Latin  by  Paravicius,  and  printed  at  Venice  in  1490,  foL 
and  again  in  1553.^ 

.  AVERANI  (Joseph)  was  born  at  Florence  the  19th  of 
March  1662,  the  youngest  of  the  three  sons  of  John  Fran«- 
cis  Areranu  Benedict,  the  eldest,  made  himself  famous 
for  his  eloquence  and  the  thorough  knowledge  he  had  of 
the  Greek  and  Roman  classics ;  while  Nicholas,  the  other 
brother,  so  greatly  excelled  in  jurisprudence  and  all  kinds 
of  mathematical  learning,  i|s  to  be .  reckoned  among  the 
foremost  in  those  studies,  y  Joseph  received  the  first  rudi«> 
menls  of  learning  from  his  father,  after  which  he  was  put  un« 
'der  the.  tuition  of  Vincent  Glarea,  a  Jesuit,  who  then  gave 
public  lectures  on  rhetoric  at  Florence,  with  whom  he  made 
uncommon  progress.  He  was  taught  Greek  by  Antonius 
Maria  Salvini,  and  advanced  so  rapidly  in  his  studies,  that^, 
in  a  short  time,,  whether  he  wrote  in  Italian,  or  Latin,  or 
Greek,  he  shewed  an  intimate  acquaintance  with  the  an« 
ciieht  writers*    Young  as  he  wa3,  however,  he  did  not  con- 

>  Qea.  Diet/— Frekd'iHiX.  of  Pbjvic.— Bailer  SibL  M«4.  [ 

Vol.  III.  "     M 

162  A  V  E  R  A.^  L 

fine  himself  to  oratorft:al  performances  alone,  but  exer^ 
.  eised  himself  in  poetry,  for  which  he  had  much  taste.    He 
nestt  applied  to  the  study  of  the  peripatetic  philosophy^ 
taking  tor  his' guide  John  Francis  Vannius,  the  Jesuit* 
After  pursuing  9»  variety  of  studies,  with  astonishing  suc- 
cess, be  at  length  attached  himself  to  mathematics  and 
natural  philosophy.    When  at  Pisa  he  applied  to  the  study 
of  the  law ;  and  at  bis  leisure  hours,  in  the  first  year  of  his 
residence  there,  he  translated  Archimedes  with  the  com- 
mentaries of  Eutocius  Ascalonita  out  of  Greek  into  Latiu^ 
adding  many  remarks  of  his  own  in  explanation,  and  illus* 
tration  of  those  books  which  treat  of  the  sphere  and  cylin- 
der, the  circles^  the  spheroids  and  conies^  and  tiie  quad^ 
,  rature  of  the  parabola.     He  shortly  after  wrote  a  treatise 
on  the  Momenta  of  heavy  bodies  on  inclined  planes,  in  cle^ 
fence  of  Galileo,  against  the  attacks  of  John  Francis  Van- 
nius,  but  did  not  ■  publish  it.     He  cleared  up  many  ob- 
scurities in  Apollonius  Pergaeus.  ^  Tliese  and  other  studies 
did  not  retard  the  wonderful  progress  he  made  in  juris** 
prudence,  which  induced  Cosmo  IILof  Medicis  to  appoint 
him  public  teacher  of  the  institutes  of  civil  law  in  the  aca- 
demy of  Pisa.     It  is  to  be  lamented  that  none  of.  the  ora« 
tions  which  he -made  in  this  capacity  have  reached   us^ 
except  one  on  the  principles  of  jurisprudence,  medicine^ 
and  theology.    .  He  published  two  books  of  the  interpreta- 
tions of  the  law.     The  applause  with  which  these  were  re- 
ceived, induced  him  to  join  to  them  three  more  books,  m 
the  composition  and  arrangement  of  which  he  passed  many 
years.     He  made  a  great  variety  of  discoveries  in  experi- 
mental philosophy.     He  applied  himself  earnestly  to  as- 
certain the  time  in  which  sound  is  propagated,  and,  to  dis- 
cover whether  its  velocity  ia  retarded  by  contrary  and  in-* 
creased  by  fair  winds.     These  and  other ,  experiments  he 
made  at  the  request  of  Laurentio  Magoloti,  who  commu-' 
iiicated  them  to  the  royal  society  of  London  ;  and  the  so- 
ciety in  return  .admitted  Averoni  as  an  honorary  member. 
Upon  the  death  of  his  brother  Benedict,  he  sought  for  con- 
solation in  composing  an  elegiac  poem  in  his  praise,  and 
jn  writing  his  life  in  Latin.     He  died  on. the  22d  of  Sep- 
tember 17S8,  lamented  as  one  of  the  ablest  aud  best  of 

His  works  are,  L  ^^  De  libertate  <civitaus  Florentis» 
ej usque  dominis,'^  Pisa,  1721,  4to.  2.  "  Esperienze  fatte 
coUo  3|)*ecchio'' ustorio  di  Firenze  sopra  le  gemme^  e  le 

A  V  E  R  A  N  L  16$ 

pxette  dure/'  printed  in  vol.  VT.  of  the  Galleiria  di  Minerva^ 
and  .the  same  appeared  in  vol.  VIII.  of  the  Italian  Literary 
Journal.-  3.  '^  Disputatib  de  jure  belli  et  pacis/'  Florence^ 
1703.  4.  ^*  Prefazione  alle  Poesie  Toscane  di  Ansaldo 
Ansaldi/'  ibid.  1704*  5.  **  Vita  Benedicti  Averianii,'*  pre- 
fixed to  his  works,  3  vols.  1717,  fol.  6.  "  Dissertatio 
de  Rapressaliis  habita  Pisis^  1713,  published  in  Mig*^ 
liorucci's  Institut.  Juris  Canon.  1732.  7.  **  Interpreta** 
tionum  Juris  libri  duo,"  Leyden,  1716,  8vo,  **  Libri  Tres 
posteriores'*  of  the  same,  ibid.  1746,  8vo.  8.  "Oratio 
de  juris  prudentia,  medicina,  theologia  per  sua  principia 
addiscendis,  Pisis  habita,''  Verona,  1723,  8vo,  published 
by  one  of  his  pupils  Bernard  Tanucci,  Under  the  fictitious 
name  of  Draunerus  Cibandtus.  9.  **  Lezioni  sopfala  Pas* 
sione  di  nostro  Signor,"  Urbino,  1738.  10.  **  Dissertatio 
de  Calculorum  seu  Latrunculorum  ludo,"  Venice,  1742, 
inyoL  VII.  of  "  Miscellanea  di  vari  opuscoli.**  11.**  Le- 
zioni Toscane,"  3  vols.  Florence,,  1^44,  1746,  1761,  4to. 
12.  **  Monumenta  Latina  Posthuma  Josephi  Averanii  Flo- 
rentini,"  Florence,  1763.  He  left  also  in  MS.  a  treatise  on 
the  sphere,  bis  defeuce  of  Galileo,  some  Latin  poems>  and 
other  woAs.> 

AVERANI  (Benedict),  elder  brother  to  Joseph,  was 
bom  at  Florence  in  1645.  His  preceptor  in  rhetoric  want 
Vincent  Glarea,  who  soon  confessed  that  his  pupil  went 
beyond  him.  He  read  almost  incessantly  the  best  Italian 
and  Latin  writers.  And  having  at  first  employed  a  con- 
siderable time  in  the  perusal  of  the  poets,  epecially  the 
epic,  he  afterwards  applied  hhnself  wholly  to  the  reading 
of  Cicero,  and  of  the  historians.  From  the  works  of  the 
rhetoricifins  he  proceeded  to  those  of  the  philosophers,  and 
particularly  admired  and  followed  Plato.  He  bestowed  ati 
indefatigable' attention  upon  those  parts  in  the  writings  of 
the  philosophers^  which  in  any  manner  related  to  elo- 
quence, the  attainment  of  which  he  sought  with  incredible 
ardour.  Amidst  these  occupations  he  sometimes  renewed 
his  poetical  exercises.  At  his  father's  request  he  com- 
posed a  Latin  poem  in  praise  of  St.  Thomas  Aquinas.  This, 
with  many  others  of  our  author's  poems',  is  lost.  Those  of 
his  poems  which-  are  extant,  most  of  which  he  composed 
in  his  youtb»  shew  that  if  he  had  chosen  to  addict  himself 
exclusively  to  this  study,  he  might  have  attained  a  very 

1  Fubroni  Vjt»  Italonnn^^Tol.  VII.— SaxiiOaomatticoD.— Diet.  HisU 

M  2 

164  AVE  RAN  I;. 

high  rank.  His  father  afterward*  sent  him  to  Pisa  to  study 
jurisprudence,  aad  he  exercised  himself  daily  tn  writing  to 
perfect  his  style.  Nor  did  he  write  in  Latin  only  ;  for  he 
translated  Sallust,  and  Celsus,  and  other  Latin  authors^ 
into  Greek :  and  some  Oreefc  elegies  of  his  are  extant. 
He  was  created  chief  of  the  academy  of  Apathisis.  On 
the  death  of  the  cardinal  Leopold  of  Medicts>  he  was  or-^ 
dered  to  composje  verses  in  his  praise,  which  were  so  much 
approved^  that  similar  tasks  were  imposed  upon  him  on  the 
deaths  of  o|her. princes.  In  the  year  1^76,  the  place  long 
vacant  of  teacher  of  Greek  in  the  Lyceum  of  Pisa  was  be** 
stowed  upon  \kim  by  the  archduke  Cosmo  IIL  After  fill* 
ing  this  office  s^jx  years,  be  was  advanced  to  the  dignity  of 
teacher  of  humanity.  In  this  he  succeeded  Gronoviusy 
who,  by  the  rudeness  and  asperity  of  his  maaoers,  had 
given  so  much  offei^ce  to  the  college,  thai  he  was  obliged 
to  quit  the  academy  inlets  than  a  year  after  his  entering 
on  his  office  in  it.  Benedict  wrote  well  in  Italian,  at  ap<* 
pears  by  the  Lezioni  which  be  recited  in  the  Tuscan  aca^ 
demy,  and  in  the  academy  of  the  Apathiats.  la  his  youth 
he  cultivated  Italian  poetry^  and  sevecal  of  his  Italian 
pqems  are  preserved  at  Rome.  He  was  invited  to  be  pro* 
fessor  of  han^miiy  in  the  adShdetny  of  Pavia  on  tlie  death 
of  the  former  professor  in  1682,.  and  the  sasie  ofler  was 
soon  after  made  to  him  by  pope  Innocent  XI.  who  was.  de«» 
sirousof  bringing  into  the  Roman  Arcbigymna^soBS  soeitii-^ 
nent  a  ii>an.  In  l&dS  he  was  induced  by  ehie  solicitations 
of  his  friends  to  publish  the  first  book  of  his  Ofatioiuu  H« 
died  ia  17Q7.  T<he  dissertations  he  made  in  the  academy 
at  Pisa,  a.  ppstbumous  work,  his  orations  and  poems  repots* 
lisbed,  and  his  letters  then  first  printed,  were  all  publish^ 
ed  together  at  Florence  in  3  vols.  1717,  folia  ^ 

AV&RDY  CClem£KT  CfiARi^ES  D6  l')^  a  French  states^^ 
man,  was  born  at  Paris  in  17^0.  He  was  counsellor  ia 
tbe  parliament  of  Paris,  and  so  distki^xdsbed  for  talent 
fnd  probity,  that  he  was  appoiisbted  minister  of  states,  and 
comptroller  of  tlie  finances,  by  Lewis  XY.  in  1763;  but 
wa3  unfortunate  in  his  admitiistration,  faaving  formed  some 
ii\judicipus  plans  respecting  grain,  which  evdbd  in  increas** 
ing  the  wantB  they  were  intended  to  alleviate.  He  after** 
^ards  retired  to  Gambais,  where  he  emfdoyed  hinsself  in 
rur^i  kn{H*oyements^  uouttt  the*  fiatal  period  of  the  yevoUi-* 

,i  Saxii  ODomast.— Diict.  Hut-^Movcri.-^FalwMi,  vol.  VUI» 

A  V  E  R  D  Y.  165 

tion,  when  he  was  arrested,  brought  to  Paris,  and  guillo- 
tined Oct.  1794,  on  an  accusation  of  having  monopolised 
eorn.  He  had  been  a  member  of  the  academy,  and  pub<- 
lished,  1.  "Code  penal,"  1752,  l2mo.  2.  *<  be  la  pleine 
$ouverainet£  du  roi  sur  la  province  de  Bretagne,**  1765, 
8vo.  3.  "  Memoire  sur  le  proces  criminel  de  Robert  d' Ar- 
tois,  pair  de  France,*'  inserted  in  the  account  of  the  M8S. 
'Of  the  national  library.  4.  "  Experiences  de  Gambais  sur 
les  hies  noirs  ou  caries,"   1788,  8vo.  * 

AVERROES,  a  very  celebrated  Arabian  philosopher, 
and  whom  Christians  as  well  as  Arabians  esteemed  equal, 
if  not  superior  to  Aristotle  himself,  was  born  about  the 
middle  of  the  12th  centurj^^,  of  a  noble  family  at  Corduba, 
the  capital  of  the  Saracen  dominions  in  Spain.  He  was 
early  instructed  in  the  Islamitic  law,  and,  after  the  usual 
tnanner  of  the  Arabian  schools,  united  with  the  study  of 
Mahometan  theology  that  of  the  Aristotelian  philosophy. 
These  studies  he  pursued  under  Thophail,  and  became  a 
follower  of  the  sect  of  the  Asharites.  Under  Av^nzoar  he 
studied  the  science  of  medicine,  and  under  Ibnu-Saig  he 
made  himself  master  of  the  mathematical  sciences.  Thus 
qualified,  be  was  chosen,  upon  his  father's  demise,  to  the 
chief  magistracy  of  Corduba.  The  fame  of  his  extraor- 
dinary erudition  and  talents  soon  afterwards  reached  the 
cahph  Jacob  Al-Mansor,  king  of  Mauritania,  the  third  of 
the  Almohadean  ^  dynasty,  who  had  built  a  magnificent 
school  at  Morocco ;  and  that  prince  appointed  him  supreme 
magistrate  and  priest  of  Morocco  and  all  Mauritania,  al- 
lowing him  still  to  retain  his  former  honours.  Having  left  a 
temporary  substitute  at  Corduba,  he  went  to  Morocco,  and 
remained  there  till  he  had  appointed,  through  the  king- 
dom, judges  well  skilled  in  the  Mahometan  law,  and  set-« 
tied  the  whole  plan  of  administration  ;  after  which  he  re- 
turned home,  and  resumed  his  offices. 

This  rapid  advancement  of  Averroes  brought  upon  him 
the  envy  of  his  rivals  at  Corduba;  who  conspired  to  lodge 
an  accusation  against  him,  for  an  heretical  desertion  of  the 
true  Mahometan  faith.  For  this  purpose,  they  engaged 
several  young  persons  among  their  dependants,  tp , apply 
to  liim  for  instruction  in  philosophy.  Averrpes,  who  was 
easy  of  access,  and  always  desirous  of  communicating 
knowledge,  complied  with  their  request,  and  thus  fell  into 

I  Diet.  Ili&t. 


the  snare  that  had  been  laid  for  him.     His  new  pupils  were 
very  industrious  in  taking  minutes  of  every  tenet  or  opi- 
nion  advanced   by   their  preceptor,    which  appeared  to 
contradict  the  established  system  of  Mahometan  theology. 
These  minutes  they  framed  into  a  charge  of  heresy,  and 
attested  upon  oath,  that  they  bad  been  fairly  taken  frona 
his  lips.     The  charge  was  signed  by  an  hundred  witnesses.. 
The  caliph  listened  to  the  accusation,  and  punished  Aver* 
roes,  by  declaring  him  heterodox,  confiscating  his  goods, 
and  cominanding  him  for  the  future  to  reside  among  the 
Jews,  who  inhabited  the  precincts  of  Corduba ;  where  be 
remained  an  object  of  general  persecution  and  obloquy. 
Even  the  boys  in  the  streets  pelted  him  with  stones,  when 
he  went  up  to  the  mosque  in  the  city  to  perform  hie  devo* 
tions.     His  pupil,  Maimonides,  that  he  might  not  be  un*  . 
der  the  necessity  of  violating  the  laws  of  friendship  and 
gratitude,,  by  joining  the  general  cry  against  Averroes,  left 
Corduba.     From  this  unpleasant  situation  Averroes  at  last 
found  means  to  escape.     He  fled  to  Fez,  but  bad  been 
there  only  a  few  days,  when  he  was. discovered  by  the  ma». 
gistrate,  and   committed  to  prison.      The  report  of  his 
flight  from  Corduba  was  soon  carried  to  the  king,  who  im- 
mediately called  a  council  of  divines  and  lawyers,  to  de- 
termine in  what  manner  this  heretic  should  be  treated. 
The  members  of  the  council  were  not  agreed  in  opinion. 
Some  strenuousl}'  maintained,  that  a  man  who  held  opini-* 
ons  so  contrary  to  the  law  of  the  prophet  deserved  death. 
Others  thought  that  much  mischief,  arising  from  the  di&- 
satisfaction  of  those  among  the  infidels  who  were  inclined 
to  favour  him,  might  be  avoided,  by  only  requiring  from 
the  culprit  a  public  penance,  and  recantation  of  his  errors. 
The  milder  opinion  prevailed ;  and  Averroes  was  brought 
out  of  prison  to  the  gate  of  the  mosque,  and  placed  upon 
the  upper  step,  with  his  head  bare,  at  ^e  time  of  public 
prayers ;  and  every  one,  as  he  passed  into  the  mosque,  was 
allowed  to  spit  upon  bis  face.     At  the  close  of  the  service, 
the  judge,  with  bis  attendants,  came  to  the  philosopher, 
and  asked  him  whether  he  repented  of  bis  heresies.     He 
acknowledged  his  penitence,  and  was  dismissed  without 
further  punishment,  with  the  permission  of  the  king.    Aver- 
roes returned  to  Corduba,  where  he  experienced  all  the 
miseries  of  poverty  and  contempt.     |n  process  of  time  the 
people  became  dissatisfied   with  the  regent  who  had  suc^ 
ceeded  Averroes,  and  petitioned  th?)  king  that  theiif  fq^^ 

A  V  E  R  R  O  £  SL  167 

mer  governor  might  be  restored.  Jiu:ob  Al-Mansor,  not 
daring  to  show  sacb  inddigence  to  one  who  had  beeh  in- 
famous for  heresy,  without  the  consent  of  tlie  priesthood^ 
called  a  general  assembly,  in  which  it  was  debated,  whe- 
ther it  would  be  consisteiu  with  the  safety  of  religion,  and 
the  honour  of  the  law,  that  Averroes  should  be  restorefd  to 
the  government  of  Corduba.  The  deliberation  terminated 
in  favour  of  the  penitent  heretic,  and  be  was  restored,  by 
the  royal  mandate,  to  all  his  former  honours:  Upon  this 
fortunate  chaiige  in  his  aiiairs,  Averroes  removed  to  Mo.- 
roccQ,  where  he  remained  till  his  death,  which  happened, 
as  s^Qfic  say,  in  1,195,  or  according  to  others  in  1206, 

Averroes  is  highly  celebrated  for  his  personal  virtues, 
tie  pr* . Used  the  most  rigid  temperance,  eating  only  once 
in  the  day  the  plainest  food.     So  indefatigable  was  his 
industry  in  the  pursuit  of  science,  that  he  often  passed 
.whole  nights  in  study.     In  his  judicial  capacity,  he  dis- 
<;barged  bis  duty  with  great  wisdom  and  integrity.     His 
iiumauity  would  not  permit  him  to  pass  tbe  sentence  of 
^eath  upon  any  criminal ;  he  left  this  4)ainful  office  to  his 
deputies.     He  possessed  so  great  a  degree  of  self-  command 
and  patient  lenity,  that,  when  one  of  hw  enemies,  in  the 
midst  of  a  public  discourse,  sent  a  servant  to  him  to  whis- 
per some  abusive  language  in  hb  ear,  he  took  no  other 
notice  of  what  passed,  than  if  it  had  been  a  secret  message 
of  business.     The  next   day,  the  servant  returned,  and 
•publicly  begged  pardon  of  Averroes  for  the  affroni:  he  had 
offered  him;    upon  which  Averroes  only  appeared  dis- 
pleased, ahat  his  patient  endurance  of  injuries  should  be 
brought  into  public  notice,  and  dismissed  the  servant  with 
a  gentle  caution,  never  to  offer  that  insult  to  another, 
which  had  in  the  present  instance  passed  unpunished. 
Averroes  spent  a  great  part  of  his  wealth  in  liberal  dona- 
tions to  learned  men,  without  making  any  distinction  be« 
tween  his  friends  aiid  his  enemies ;  for  which  bis  apology 
was,  that,  in  giving  to  his  friends  and  relations,  he  only 
followed  the  dictates  of  nature ;  but,  in  giving  to  his  ene- 
mies, he  obeyed  the  commands  of  virtue.     With  uncom«> 
^on  abilities  and  learning,  Averroes  united  great  affability 
and  urbanity  of  manners,  and  may,  in  fine,  be  justly  reck- 
oned one  ot  the  greatest  men  of  his  age. 

In  philosophy,  he  partook  of  the  enthusiasm  of  the 
^mes  with' respect  to- Aristotle,  and  paid  a  superstitious 
deference  to  his  authority  ;  but  extravagant  as  he  was  iu 

ITO  A  V  E  S  B  ir  R  Y. 

JQeame  has  preserved^  although  of  opinion  they  were  not 
%vritten  by  Avesbury.  * 

AUGE  (Danikl  d'),  in  Latin  Augf.ntius,  a  native  of 
ViUeneuve,  in  the  diocese  of  Sens  in  Champagne,  lived  in 
the  sixteenth  centur}',  arid  was  esteemed  on  account  of  his 
learning  and  writings.  The  office  of  the  king's  professor 
in  the  Greek  tongue  in  the  univerMty  of  Paris  was  designed 
for  him  in  1574,  and  he  took  possession  of  it  in  1578.  -  He 
was  also  preceptor  to  the  son  of  that  Francis  Olivier  who 
was  chancellor  of  France,  as  appears  from  the  preliminary 
epistle  of  a  book,  which  be  dedicated  to  Anthony  Olivier 
bishop  of  Lombes,  and  uncle  to  his  pupil,  dated  from  Paris 
the  1st  of  March  1555.  The  time  of  his  death  is  not  cer- 
tainly known;  but  Francis  Parent,  his  successor  in  the  pro- 
fessorship of  the  Greek  tongue,  entered  upon  it  in  1595, 
and  Moreri  gives  that  as  the  date  of  Auge's  death.  He 
\vrote,  1.  "A  consolatory  oration  upon  the  death  of  Mes- 
sire  Francis  Olivier,  chancellor  of  France,"  Paris,  1560. 
2.  "  Two  dialogues  concerning  Poetical  Invention,  the 
jtrije  knowledge  of  the  Art  of  Oratorj^  and  of  the  Fic- 
tion of  Fable,"  Paris,  1560.  3.  "  A  discourse  upon  the 
Decree  made  by  the  parliament  of  Ddle  in  Burgundy  with 
relation  to  a  man  accused  and  convicted  of  being  a  Were- 
wolf" 4.  "  The  institution  of  a  Christian  Prince,  trans- 
lated from  the  Greek  of  Synesius,  bishop  of  Syrene,  with  an 
oration  concerning  the  True  Nobility,  translated  from  the 
Greek  of  Philo  Juds^us,"  Paris,  1565.  5.  "  Four  homi- 
lies of  St.  Macarius  the  Egyptian,"  Paris,  and  Lyons  155S^. 
6.  "  A  letter  to  th^, noble  and  virtuous  youth  Anthony  The- 
}in,  son  of  the  noble  Thelin,  author  of  the  book  entitled 
*  Divine  Tracts,'  in  which  is  represented  the  true  Patri- 
mony and  Inheritance  which  fathers  ought  to  leave  to  their 
children."  This  letter  is  printed  in  the  beginning  of  the 
above-mentioned  "  Divine  Tracts,"  Paris,  1565.  He  re- 
vised and  corrected  them,  Paris,  1556.  6.  **  A  French 
translation  of  the  most  beautiful  Sentences  and  Forms  of 
Speaking  in  the  familiar  Epistles  of  Cicero,"  The  "  Dis- 
course upon  the  Decree,"  &c.  relates  to  a  man  convicted 
of  having  murdered  and  eat  one  or  two  persons,  for  which 
be  was  burnt  alive.' 

AUGER  (Athanasius),  a  distinguished  French  critic, 
was  born  at  Paris,  Dec.  12,  1724,  embraced  the  clerical 
profession,  and  obtained  the  chair  of  the  professorof  belles 

'  Biog.  Brit.  >  Gen.  Diet— MorerU     • 

A  U  G  E  R.  171 

lettres  in  the  college  of  Rouen.     The  bishop  of  Lescar  No6 
made  him  his  grand  vicar,  and  usually  called  him  his  grand 
vicar  in  pariibus  Atheniensiunif  in  allusion  to  his  intimate 
acquaintance  with  the  Gredk  language,  froQfi  which  he  had 
made  translations  of  the  greater  part  of  the  orators,  with 
much  purity.     He  was  received  into  the  academy  of  In-* 
scriptions,  where  he  was  much  esteemed  for  bis  learning 
and  personal  virtues.     He  lived,  it  is  said,  among  the  great, 
and  told  them  truth,  and  to  his  opponents  was  remarkable 
for  candour  and  urbanity.     In  his  private  character  he  ap- 
pears to  have  been  distinguished  for  a  love  of  letters,  and 
an  independent  and  philosophic  spirit  which  kept  him  from 
soliciting  patronage  or  preferment.     He  died  Feb.  7,  1791. 
His  principal  works  were,  "  The  Orations  of  Demosthenes 
and  Eschines  on  the  crown,'^  Rouen,   1768,  12mo;  "The 
whole  works  of  Demosthenes  and  Eschines,"  6  vols.  8 vo,  t7  77 
and  1788.     This  is  accompanied  with  remarks  upon  the  ge« 
nius  aiid  productions  of  these  two  great  orators,  with  critical 
notes  on  the  Greek  text,  a  preliminary  discourse  concerning 
eloquence ;  a  treatiseon  the  jurisdiction  and  laws  of  Athens  ; 
and  other  pieces,  relative  to  Grecian  laws  and  literature,  • 
which  have  great  merit.     His  countrymen,  however,  do  not* 
speak  highly  of  his  translations,  as  conveying  the  fire  and 
spirit  of  the  original.     They  say  he  is  exact  and  faithful, 
but  cold.     In   1781   he  published,  in  3  vols.  8vo,  **  The 
Works  of  Isocrates."     This  is  thought  preferable  to  the 
former,  yet  still  the  French  critics  ^nsidered  the  transla- 
tor as  better  acquainted  with  Greek  than   French ;    the 
truth  perhaps  is,  that  the  French  language  is  less  capable 
of  receiving  the  fire  ami  sublimity  of  the  great  orators  than 
those  critics  are  willing  to  suspect.     In  1783  he  published 
the  "Works  of  Lysias,"    8vo;   in   178<5  "The  homilies, 
discourses,  and  letters  of  S.  John  Chrysostom,'^  4  vols.  8vo; 
in  17S7,  "  Select  orations  of  Cicero,"  in  3  vols.  8vo;  in 
1788,   "  Orations   from  Herodotus,  Thucydides,  and  the 
works  of  Xenophon,''  2  vols.  8vo.     In  1789,  he  published 
"  Projetd' Education  Publique  ;''  at  least  such  is  the  title 
of  the  work,  but  we  suspect  it  to  be  a  re->publication  of  some 
"  Discourses  on  Education,  delivered  in  the  Royal  college 
at  Rouen,  to  which  are  sxHbjoined,  Reflections  upon  Friend* 
ship,"  which  appeared  first  in  1775,  and  were  commended 
for  their  spirit,  taste,  and  judgment.     Some  political  works 
were  published  in  his  name  after  his  death,  and  a  piece  en- 
titled  <^  De  la  Tragedie  Grecque,"    1792,   8vq.     To  his 
works  also  may  be  added  an  edition  of  "  Isocrates,  in  Gr. 

172  AUGER* 

and  Lat.'*  3  vols.  Svo,  and  4to,  a  very  beautiful  book.  As 
an  editor  and  critic,  be  discovers,  in  all  his  editions,  much 
taste  and  judgment;  but  perhaps  his  countrymen  do  bint 
no  injury  in  supposing  that  the  latter  in  general  predomi* 
,nated. ' 

AUGER  (Edmund),  a  French  Jesuit,  was  bom  in  1530, 
at  AUem^n,  a  village  in  the  diocese  of  Troyes,  and  became 
noted  for  his  eKtraordinary  skill  in  the.  conversion  of  here* 
tics,  that  is,  Hugonots,  or  Protestants,  of  whom  he  is  said 
to  have  recovered  many  thousands  to  the  church.  H^  was 
often  in  danger  from  his  unsought  services,  and  was  once 
narrowly  saved  from  the  gallows  by  a  minister  of  the  re* 
formed  church,  who  hoped  to  gain  hi^  over  to  his  party. 
This,  however,  only  served  to  excite  his  ardour  in  thcf  cause 
of  proselytism,  and  be  distinguished  himself  very  refhark- 
ably  at  Lyons  during  the  ravages  of  the  plague.  Henry 
III.  appointed  him  to  be  his  preacher  and  confessKSt^  the 
first  time  in  which  this  latter  honour  bad  been  conferred. 
He  was,  however,  either  so  conscientious  or  so  unfortunate 
as  neither  to  gain  the  affections  of  his  prince,  nor  to  pre* 
serve  the  good  opinion  and  confidence  of  the  Jesuits. 
After  the  death  of  Henry  III.  his  superiors  recalled  htm  to 
Italy,  and  sent  him  from  bouse  to  house,  where  he  was  con* 
sidered  as  an  excommunicated  person,  travelling  on  foot  iti 
the  depth  of  winter ;  and  of  such  fatigues  he  died  in  the 
sixty-first  year  of  his  age,  in  1591.  He  wrote  some 
controversial  works  in  a  very  intemperate  istyle.  One  of 
his  pieces  was  published  in  1568,  under  the  title  of  "  Pe- 
.dagogue  d^armes  a  un  Prince  Chretien,  pour  entreprendre 
et  achever  heureusement  une  bonne  guerre,  victorieuse  de 
tons  les  ennemis  de  son  etat  et  de  Peglise.^'  Father  Do- 
rigny  published  the  life  of  Auger  in  1716,  12aio.  ^ 

AUGURELLO  (John  Aureuo),  an  Italian,  highly 
praised  by  Paul  Jovius,  and  as  much  condemned  by  Scali- 
ger,  was  born  in  1441,  at  Rimini,  of  a  noble  family.  He 
iitudied  at  Padua,  and  was  professor  of  belles  lettres  in  se- 
veral universities,  particularly  Venice  and  Trevisa :  in  the 
latter  place  he  obtained  the  rank  of  citizen,  and  died  there 
in  1524.  His  principal  poem,  ^^  Chi^ysopceia,''  or  the  art 
of  making  gold,  occasioned  his  being  supposed  attached  to 
9.1chymy ;  but  there  is  no  foundation  for  this,  unless  his 
employing  the  technicals  of  the  art  in  the  manner  of  & 

}  Pict«  Hist.**-Saxu  OnoouaticoUi  voU  Y III»  t  Mc4ren««-DicU  HisU 

A  U  C  U  R  E  L  L  D.  tli 

didactic  poet,  who  studies  imagination  more  than  utility. 
Leo  X.  to  whom  he  dedicated  the  work,  is  said  to  have  re- 
warded him  by  an  empty  purse,  the  only  article  he  thought 
necessary  to  a  man  who  could  make  gold.  This  poem' 
was  first  printed  at  Venice,  with  another  on  old  age,  en« 
titled  ^<  Geronticon,'*  1515;  and  as  some  proof  that  it  was 
seriously  consulted  by  akhymists,  it  has  obtained  a  place 
in  Grattorolo's  collection  of  alchymical  authors.  Bale,  1561^ 
fol.  in  vol.  III.  of  the  ^  Theatrum  Chemicum,"  Stras- 
burgh,  1613,  and  in  Mangel's  ''  Bibl.  Cbemica.'*  His 
other  Latin  poems,  consisting  of  odes,  satires,  and  epi* 
grams,  were  published  under  the  title  ^*  Carmina,**  Ve- 
rona^ 1491,  4to,  and  at  Venice,  1505,  8vo.  They  are 
superior  to  most  of  the  poetry  of  his  age  in  elegance  and 
taste,*and  in  Ginguene's  opinion,  approach  nearly  to  the 
style  and  manner  of  the  ancients.  Auguretlo  was  also  an 
accomplished  Greek  scholar,  and  well  versed  in  antiquities,* 
history,  and  philosophy,  and  in  his  poetry,  without  any  ap- 
pearance of  pedantry,  he  frequently  draws  upon  his  stock 
of  learning.  * 

AUGU8TIN  (St.),  an  eminent  father  of  the  church, 
was  born  at  Tagasta,  Nov.  13,  in  the  year  354,  of  his  father 
Patricius,  a  citizen  of  that  place,  and  his  mother  Monica, 
a  lady  of  distinguished  piety.  He  first  applied  to  his 
studies  in  his  native  place,  and  afterwards  at  Madora  and 
Carthage.  In  this  latter  city  his  ihorals  became  corrupted,* 
and  he  had  a  son  born  to  him,  named  Adeodat,  th^  fruit  of 
a  criminal  connexion.  He  then  became  a  proselyte  to  the 
sect  of  the  Manichasans,  and  an  able  defender  of  their 
opinions.  The  perusal  of  some  part  of  Cicero's  philosophy 
is  said  first  to  have  detached  him  from  his  immoral  con^ 
duct;  but  one  thing,  Baillet  says,  gave  him  uneasiness  in 
this  work,  and  that  was  bis  not  finding  the  name  of  Jesus, 
which  had  l>een  familiar  to  him  from  his  infancy  in  thel 
writings  of  the  celebrated' Roman.  He  resolved,  there- 
fore, to  read  the  holy  scriptures,  but  the  pride  of  his  heart, 
and  his  incapacity  to  taste  the  simple  beauties  of  these, 
made  him  still  give  the  preference  to  Cicero.  In  the 
mean  time  he  acquired  considerable  fame  in  the  schools  of 
eloquence,  and  was  a  professor  of  it  successively  at  Ta- 
gasta, at  Carthage,  at  Kome,  and  at  Milan,  whither  he  had 
been  sent  by  the  prefect  Symmachus.     St.  Ambrose  was  at 

^  Ginguene  Hist.  d'lUHe,  vol.  IH.  p.  457.-->Ro8coe'«  Leo,  who  MMaki  kWy 

tf  Ai^^rttlo.— Mortri.— MazaucWli,— Tirtbgicbi,  rol.  VI. 


17*  A  tr  G  U  S  T  I  N". 

this  time  bisbop  of  Milaii,  and  Augustin,  affected  by  hiit 
sermons^  and  by  the  tears  of  his  mother  Monica,  began  tor 
think  seriously  of  forsaking  his  irregularities  and  bis  Mant« 
cbaeism.  He  was  accordingly  baptised  .at  Milan'  in  the  year 
387,  in  the  thirty -second  year  of  his  age,  and  renouncing 
bia  rhetorical  pursuits,  studied  only  the  gospel.  On  bi» 
return  to  Tagasta,  he  betook  himself  to  fasting  and  prayier, 
gave  his  property  to  the  poor,  and  formed  a  society  among 
some  of  bis  friends.  Some  time  after,  being  at  -Hippo, 
Valerius,  then  bishop  of  that  diocese,  ordained  him  a  priest 
about  the  commencement  of  the  year  391.  Next  year  we 
find  him  disputing  with  great  success  against  the  Mani« 
chees,  and  in  the  year  392  he  gave  so  learned  an  exposi-^ 
tion  of  the  symbol  of  faith,  in  the  council  of  Hippo,  that  the 
bishops  were  unanimously  of  opinion  he  ought  to  be  chosen- 
one  of  their  number.  In  the  year  395,  another  council 
appointed  him  coadjutor  to  Valerius,  in  the  see  of  Hippo, 
and  it  was  in  this  situation  that  the  spirit  and  virtues  of  . 
Augustin  began  to  display  themselves.  He  established  iti: 
the  espiscopal  mansion  a  society  of  clerks,  with  whom  he 
lived,  and  became  more  active  in  his  opposition  to  heresies, 
particularly -the  Manichuean,  converting  one  Felix,  a'very 
celebrated  character  among  them.  Nor  did  he  less  prove 
his  judgment  and  eloquence  in  a  conference  between  the 
Catholic  bishops  and  the  Donatists  at  Carthage  in  the  year 
411,  where  he  bent  his  endeavours  to  procure  unity  in  the 
church.  His  great  work  "  On  the  city  of  God,'*  now  made 
its  appearance.  -  .       .      \ 

In  the  year  418,  a  general  council  was  held  at  Carthage 
against  the  Pelagians.  Augustin,  who  had  formerly  re- 
futed their  errors,  now  prepared  nine  articles  against  them, 
and  evinced  a  zeal  on  the  subject,  which  procured  him  the 
title  of  the  "  Doctor  of  grace/*  After  having  thus  tri- 
umphed over  the  enemies  of  the  church,  he  had  to  contend 
with  those  of  the  empire.  The  Vatidals,  who  bad  passed 
from  Africa  intp  Spain,  under  the  conduct  of  their  king 
Genseric,  in  the  year  428,  made  themselves  masters  of  a 
considerable  part  of  that  country,  but  Carthage  and  Hippo 
resisted  them  a  long  time.  Augustin,  when  consulted  by 
his  associates,  whether  they  ought  to  escape  by  flight,  oi: 
wait  for  the  barbarians,  gave  his  opinion  for  the  latter,  as 
more  becoming  their  duty;  and  when  the  episcopal  city  wa$ 
besieged  by  a  great  army,  he  encouraged  his  flock  by  his 
esfample  and  exhortations.     He  dreaded^  nevertheless,  lesft 

A  U  G  U  S  T  I  N*  i7* 

Bippa  should  fall  into  the  hands  of  the  enenlyi  and  ptayed 
to  God  that  he  might  be  taken  away  before  that  calamity 
happened.  His  prayer,  it  would  appear,  was  answered,  a» 
he  was  cut  off,  during  the  siege,  by  a  violent  fever,  on  the 
2Sth  of  August,  in  ihe  year  430,  at  the  age  of  seventy-six. 
The  Vandals,  who  took  Hippo  the  year  following,  showed 
respect  to  his  library,  his  works,  and  his  body.  The  catho-^ 
lie  bishops  of  Africa  carried  his  body  to  Sardinia,  the  place 
to  which  they  were  driven  by  Thrasamond,  king  of  the 
Vandals ;  and  Luitprand,  king  of  Lombardy,  caused  it  to 
be  conveyed,  nearly  two  hundred  years  after^  to  Pavia« 
His  works  have  been  printed  at  Paris  in  1679  and  1700,  in 
elevefi  volumes,  folia  But  the  author  of  the  Bibliographi- 
cal Dictionary  says,  there  are  two  editions  under  the  same 
date,  and  that  the  first  is  preferred,  and  is  distinguished  by 
the  preface  at  the  beginning  of  the  first  volume.  In  the 
first  edition  there  are  only  five  lines  of  the  preface  on  the 
first  page ;  in  the  second  edition  there  are  more.  In  the 
tenth  volume  of  the  first  edition  there  is  a  little  tract,  of 
half  a  leaf,  preceding  page  747,  before  the  book  ''  D^Cor- 
ruptione  et  Gratia,"  which  is  not  found  in  the  second  edi« 
tion.  There  was  another  edition  in  12  vols.  fol.  published 
also  by  the  Benedictines  at  Antwerp,  1700 — 1703. 

The  character  of  Augustin  has  been  depreciated  by  some 
modern  writers,  and  ought  undoubtedly  to  be  considered 
with  a  reference  to  the  time  he  lived,  and  the  state  of 
learning  and  religion.  There  is  neither  wisdom  nor  can- 
dour, however,  in  collecting  and  publishing  the  frailties  of 
his  early  years,  nor  in  denying  that  he  may  justly  be  ranked 
among  those  illustrious  characters,  in  a  dark  age,  who  pre- 
served and  elucidated  many  of  those  doctrines  which  are 
held  sacred  in  days  of  more  light  and  knowledge.  Mo- 
sbeim^s  character  seems  candid  and  just  The  fame  of 
Augustin,  says  that  ecclesiastical  historian,  filled  the  whole 
Christian  world ;  and  not  without  reason,  as  a  variety  of 
great  and  shining  qualities  were  united  in  his  character. 
A  sublime  genius,  an  uninterrupted  and  zealous  pursuit  of 
truth,  an  indefatigable  application,  an  invincible  patience, 
a  sincere  piety,  a  subtile  and  lively  wit,  conspired  to  estab- 
lish his  fame  upon  the  most  lasting  foundations.  It  is, 
however,  certain,  that  the  accuracy  and  solidity  of  his 
judgment  were,  by  no  means,  proportionable  to  the  emi- 
nent talents  now  mentioned,  and  that,  upon  many  occa- 
sions^ he  was  more  guided  by  the  violent  impulse  of  a  warm 

17fi  AUG  US  TIN. 

imagination,  than  by  the  cool  dictates  of  wisdotn  and  Jliru-^ 
dence.  Hence  that  ambiguity  ^hich  appears  in  his  writ-^ 
ings,  and  which  has  sometimes  rendered  the  most  attentire 
readers  uncertain  with  respect  to  his  real  sentimei^ ;  and 
>hence  also  the  just  complaints  which  many  have  made  of 
the  contradictions  that  are  so  frequent  in  his  works,  and  of 
the  levity  and  precipitation  with  which  he  set  himself  to 
write  upon  a  variety  of  subjects,  before  he  had  examined 
them  with  a  sufficient  degree  of  attention  and  diligence. 
It  ought  to  be  added,  that  almost  all  Augustin's  works  hare 
lateen  printed  separately  and  often,  particularly  his  ^^  City 
of  God,"  and  his  **  Confessions."  * 

AUGUSTIN  (Anthony),  archbishop  of  Tarragona, 
one  of  the  most  learned  men  of  his  age,  was  born  at  Sara* 
gossa,  in  1516.  His  parents  were,  Anthony  Augustin,  vice^ 
chancellor  of  Arragon,  and  Elizabeth,  duchess  of  Cardonna. 
He  was  well  skilled  in  civil  and  canan  law,  the  belles 
lettres,  ecclesiastical  history,  languages,  and  antiquities. 
His  first  promotion  was  to  be  auditor  of  Rota ;  then  he  was 
made  bishop  of  Alisa,  afterwards  of  Lerida,and  distingtiished 
himself  greatly  in  the  council  of  Trent.  The  archbishopric 
of  Tarragona  was  conferred  upon  him  in  1574,  and  here  he 
died  in  1586,  aged  seventy.  His  character  appears  to  have 
been  excellent,  and  such  was  his  charity  that  he  left  not 
enough  to  defray  the  expences  of  his  funeral.  His  work^ 
are  much  valued.  The  principal  are,  1.  "  De  emenda- 
tione  Gratiani  Dialogorum,"  Tarrac.  1587,  4to,  a  curious 
and  much  esteemed  work.  Baluze  has  given  afi  excellent 
edition  of  this,  with  notes,  1672,  8vo.  2.  "  Coustitytionum 
Provincialium  Ecclesiae  Tarraconensis,  lib.  V."  Tarracon, 
1580,  4to;  and  again  in  1593.  3.  "  Canones  Penitentia- 
les,"  Tar.  1582,  4^to.  4.  "  D6  Nominibus  Propriis  Pan- 
dectas  Florentini,  cum  notis  A.  Augustini,"    1579,  folio. 

5.  "  Antiquaj  Collectiones  Decretalium,"  Paris,  1621,  fol. 

6.  "  Epitome  Juris  Pontificis,'*  3  torn;  Tar.  and  Rome, 
1587,  16H,  folio.  7.  '^  Dialog.  XI.  de  las  Medallas,'' 
Tarrag.  1587,  4to  and  folio,  and  in  Latin,  1617,  fol.  The 
4to  edition  of  these  dialogues  on  medals,  in  Italian,  is  pre- 
ferable, as  the  medais  of  the  dialogues,  from  the  third  to 
the  eight,  are  not  in  the  edition  of  1537,  a  remark  which 
the  editor  of  the  Bibliographical  Dictionary  has  by  mistake 
made  upon  the  "  Emendatio  Gratiani."  * 

i  Baylc— Moreri.— Diet.  Utst.«-Dupiii. — Lardner,  vol.  V. 

*  Diet.  Hilt*  de  I'Avocat.—- Diet  Bibliograph.— Morcri.->*S«xii  OfiMnMl. 


AUGUSTINE,  or  by  contraction  AUSTIN  (St.),  usual- 
ly styled  the  Apostle  of  the  English,  and  the  first  archbishop 
of  Canterbury,  was  originally  a  monk  in  the  convent  of  St. 
Andrew  at  Rome,  and  was  educated  under  St,  Gregory, 
afterwards  pope  Gregory  I.  who  undertook  the   conver- 
sion of  the  island  of  Britani.     His  inducement  to  this,  in 
the  life  of  St.  Gregory,  written  by  John  Diaconus,  intro- 
duces us  to  a  string  of  puns,  which  we  must  refer  to  the 
manners  and  taste  of  the  times,  without  surely  impeaching 
the  seriousness  of  Gregory,  who  in  his  present  situation,  as 
well  as  when  pope,  had  no  other  visible  motive  for  his  zeal, 
than  the  propagation  of  Christianity.     Walking  in  the  fo- 
rum at  Rome,  he  happened  to  see  some  very  handsome 
youths  exposed  to  sale,  and  being  informed  that  they  were 
of  the  island  of  Britain,  and  that  the  inhabitants  of  that 
island  were  Pagans,  he  regretted  that  such  handsome  youths 
should  be  destitute  of  true  knowledge,  and  again  asked  the 
name  of  the  nation.     *^  ArigW*  was  the  answer;  on  which 
be  observed,   *^  In  truth  they  have  angelic  countenances^ 
and  it  is  a  pity  they  should  not  be  coheirs  with  angels  ia 
heaven."    When  'informed  that  they  came  from  the  pro- 
vince of  Deira  (Northumberland),  he  observed,   **  It  is 
well,  dc  tra,  snatched  from  the  wrath  of  God,  and  called  to 
the  mercy  of  Christ ;  and  when,  in  answer  t6  another  in- 
terrogatory, he  was  told  that  the  name  of  their  king  was 
£lla,  he  said,  ^^  ^//^luia  should  be  sung  to  God  in  those 
regions.'*     More  seriously  impressed  with  a  sense  of  his 
duty  on  this  occasion,  he  requested  pope  Benedict  to  send 
some  persons  to  our  island  on  a  mission,  and  offered  to  be 
.  one  of  the  number.     He  was  himself,  however,  too  much  a 
favourite  with  the  Roman  citizens  to  be  suffered  to  depart,' 
and  it  was  not  until  he  became  pope,  that  he  was  enabled 
effectually  to  pursue  his  purpose.     After  his  consecration 
in  the  year  595,  he  directed  a  presbyter,  whom  he  had  sent 
into  France,  to  instruct  some  young  Saxons,  of  seventeen 
or  eighteen  years  of  age,  in  Christianity,  to  act  as  mission- 
aries ;  and  in  the  year  597,  he  sent  about  forty  monks,  in- 
eluding  perhaps  some  of  the^e  new  converts,  with  Augus- 
tine at  their  head.     Having  proceeded  a  little  way  on  their 
journey,  they  began  to  dread  the  attempt  of  committing 
themselves  to  a  savage  and  infidel  nation,  whose  language 
they  did  not  understand.     In  this  dilemma,  doubtful  whe- 
ther to  return  or  proceed,  they  agreed  to  send  back  -Augus- 
tine to  Gregory,  to  represent  their  fears;  and  intreat  that 
Vol,  III.  N 


he  would  release  them  from  their  engagement.  Gregcrj^ 
.  however,  in  answer,  advised  them  to  proceed,  in  confidence 
of  divine  aid,  undaunted  by  the  fatigue  of  the  journey,  or 
any  other  temporary  obstructions,  adding,  that  it  would 
h^ve  been  better  not  to  have  begun  so  good  a  wotk^  than 
to  recede  from  it  afterwards.  He  also  took  every  means 
for  their  accommodation,  recommending  them  to  the  atten- 
tion of  Etherius,  bishop  of  Aries,  and  providing  for  them 
such  assistance  in  France,  that  at  length  they  arrived  safely 
in  Britain. 

Before  proceeding  to  their  success  here,  it  is  necessary 
to  advert  to  some  circumstances  highly  in  their  favour. 
Christianity,  although  not  extended  over  the  kingdom,  was 
not  at  this  period  unknown  in  Britain,  notwithstanding  it 
had  been  much  persecuted  by  the  Saxons.  They  were  at 
this  time,  however,  disposed  to  look  upon  their  Christian 
brethren  with  a  more  favourable  eye,  and  the  marriage  of 
Ethelbert,  king  of  Kent,  in  the  year  570,  with  Birtha,  or 
Bertha,  daughter  of  Cherebert,  king  of  France,  a  Christian 
princess  of  great  virtue  and  merit,  contributed  not  a  little 
to  abate  the  {^ejudices  of  that  prince  and  his  subjects 
against  her  religion,  for  the  free  exercise  of  which  she  had 
stipulated  in  her  marriage  contract.  She  was  also  allowed 
the  use  of  a  small  church  without  the  walls  of  Canterbury, 
where  Luidhart,  a  French  bishop,  who  came  over  in  her  re- 
tinue, with  other  clergymen,  publicly  performed  all  the 
rites  of  Christian  worship,  and  by  these  means  Christianity 
had  some,  although  probably  a  very  confined  influence. 

It  is  easy  to  suppose  that  a  queen,  thus  sincere  in  her 
principles,  would  be  very  earnest  in  persuading  her  hus- 
band to  give  Augustine  and  his  followers  a  hospitable  re- 
ception, and  Ethelbert  accordingly  assigned  Augustine  an 
habitation  in  the  isle  of  Thanet.  By  means  of  French  in- 
terpreters, whom  the  missionaries  brought  with  them,  they 
informed  the  king  that  they  were  come  from  Rome,  anijL 
-  brought  with  them  the. best  tidings  in  the  world — eternal 
life  to  those  who  received  them,  and  the  endless  enjoyment 
o^  life  hereafter.  After  some  days,  Ethelbert  paid  them  a 
visit ;  but  being  afraid  of  enchantments,  things  which,  true 
or  false,  were  then  objects  of  terror,  chose  to  receive  them 
in  the  open  air.  The  missionaries  met  him,  singing  litanies 
for  their  own  salvation,  and  that  of  those  for  whose  sake 
they  came  thither;  and  then,  by  the  king^s  direction,  un- 
folded the  nature  of  theijr  mission,  and  of  the  religion  they 


wished  to  preach.  The  substance  of  the  king's  answer  was, 
that  he  could  not,  without  further  consideration,  abandon 
the  religion  of  his  forefathers,  but  as  they  had  come  so 
far  on  a  friendly  errand,  he  assigned  them  a  place  of  resi  - 
dence  in  Canterbury,  and  allowed  them  to  use  their  best 
endeavours  to  convert  his  subjects.  The  place  assigned 
them  was  in  the  parish  of  St.  Alphage,  on  the  north  side  of 
the  High  or  King's  street,  where,  in  Thorn's  time,  the  arch- 
bishop's palace  stood,  now  called  Stable-gate.  Accord- 
ingly they  entered  the  city,  singing  in  concert  a  short 
litany,  recorded  by  Bede,  in  these  words :  "  We  pray  thee, 
O  Lord,  in  all  thy  mercy,  that  thine  anger  and  thy  fury 
may  be  removed  from  this  city,  and  from  thy  holy  house, 
for  we  have  sinned.     Alleluia." 

In  this  city  they  employed  example  and  precept  in  the 
introduction  of  their  doctrines.  They  prayed,  fasted, 
watched,  preached,  wherever  they  had  opportunity,  and 
received  only  bare  necessaries  in  return.  They  practised 
also  what  they  taught,  and  showed  a  firmness  and  zeal,  evea 
to  death,  if  it  should  be  necessary,  which  produced  con- 
siderable eiFect  on  the  people ;  and  at  length  the  king  him- 
self was  converted,  and  gave  the  missionaries  his  license  to 
preach  every  where,  and  to  build  or  repair  churches.  The 
king,  however,  declared  that  no  compulsion  should  be  used 
in  making  converts,  although  he  could  not  avoid  express- 
ing greater  partiality  to  those  who  embraced  Christianity. 
.  During  this  success,  Augustine  went  to  France,  and  was 
there,  by  the  archbishop  of  Aries,  consecrated  archbishop 
of  the  English  nation,  thinking  that  this  new  dignity  would 
give  additional  influence  to  his  exhortations.  When  he 
returned  into  Britain,  he  sent  Laurentius  the  presbyter, 
and  Peter  the  monk,  to.  acquaint  Gregory  with  what  had 
been  done,  and  to  consult  him  upon  several  points  of  doc- 
trine and  discipline.  Some  of  "these  points  savour,  un- 
doubtedly, of  the  superstitious  scruples  of  the  monastic 
austerity,  but  others  lead  to  some  information  respecting 
the  early  constitution  of  the  church.  To  his  inquiries  con- 
cerning the  maintenance  of  the  clergy,  Gregory  answered, 
that  the  donations  made  to  the  church  were,  by  the  custom 
of  the  Roman  see,  divided  into  four  portions ;  one  for  the 
l)ishop  and  his  family  to  support  hospitality,  a  second  to 
the  clergy,  a  third  to  the  poor,  and  a  fourth  to  the  repara- 
tion of  churches.  As  the  pastors  were  all  monks,  they 
were  to  live  in  common,  but  such  as  chose  to  marry  were 

N  2 


to  be  maintained  by  the  monastery.  With  respect  to  H* 
versities  of  customs  and  liturgies,  Gregory^s  answer  was 
truly  libei*al,  implying  that  Augustine  was  not  bound  to 
follow  the  precedent  of  Rome,  but  might  select  whatever 
parts  or  rules  appeared  the  most  eligible  and  best  adapted 
to  promote  the  piety  of  the  infant  church  of  England,  and 
compose  them  into  a  system  for  its  use.  Gregory  also,  at 
Augustine's  request,  sent  over  more  missionaries,  and  di« 
rected  him  to  constitute  a  bishop  at  York,  who  might  have 
other  subordinate  bishops ;  yet  in  such  a  manner,  that  Au- 
gustine of  Canterbury  should  be  metropolitan  of  all  Eng- 
land. He  sent  over  also  a  valuable  present  of  books, 
vestments,  sacred  utensils,  and  holy  relics.  He  advised 
Augustine  not  to  destroy  the  heathen  temples,  but  only  to 
remove  the  images  of  their  gods,  to  wash  the  walls  with  holy 
watei^  to  erect  altars,  deposit  relics  in  them,  and  so  gra* 
dually  convert  them  into  Christian  churches;  not  only  to 
save  the  expence  of  building  new  ones,  but  that  the  people 
might  be  more  easily  prevailed  upon  to  frequent  those 
places  of  worship  to  which  they  had  been  accustomed.  He 
directs  him  further,  to  accommodate  the  ceremonies  of  the 
Christian  worship,  as  much  as  possible,  to  those  of  the  hea- 
then, that  the  people  might  not  be  too  much  startled  at  the 
change ;  and  in  particular,  he  advises  him  to  allow  the 
Christian  converts,  on  certain  festivals,  to  kill  and  eat  a 
great  number  of  oxen,  to  the  glory  of  God,  as  they  had  for- 
merly done  to  the  honour  of  Ae  devil.  It  is  quite  unne- 
cessary, in  our  times,  to  offer  any  remark  on  this  mixture  of 
pious  zeal  with  worldly  policy. 

The  next  great  event  of  Augustine's  life  was  his  attempt 
to  establish  uniformity  of  discipline  and  customs  in  the 
island,  and  as'  a  necessary  step  to  gain  over  the  British 
(Welch)  bishops  to  his  opinion.  These  Britons,  from  the 
first  time  of  planting  Christianity  in  the  island,  had  con- 
stantly followed  the  rules  and  customs  left  them  by  their 
first  masters.  But  the  church  of  Rome  had  made  certain 
alterations  in  the  manner  of  celebrating  divine  service,  to 
which  it  preteaded  all  other  churches  ought  to  conform. 
The  churches  of  the  West,  as  being  the  nearest  to  Rome, 
were  the  most  easily  gained ;  and  almost  all  of  them,  ex- 
cepting those  of  France  and  Milan,  conformed  at  last  to 
the  Roman  ritual.  But  Britain  still  continued,  as  it  were,  a 
world  apart.  Since  the  embassy  of  Lucius  to  pope  Eleu«* 
therius,  the  Britons  had  very  little  communication  with  the 


bithops  of  Rome.  They  acknowledged  tfajem  only  a^ 
bishops  of  a  particular  diocese,  or,  at  most,  as  heads  of  a 
patriarchate,  on  which  they  did  not  think  the  British  church 
ought  to  be  any  way  dependent.  They  were  so  far  from 
receiving  orders  from  the  pope,  that  they  were  even  stran« 
gers  to  bis  pretensions.  But  Augustine,  full  of  zeal  for  the 
interests  of  the  see  of  Rome,  made  an  attempt  to  bring  them 
to  acknowledge  the  superiority  of  the  pope  over  all  other 
churches.  For  this  purpose  he  invited  the  Welch  bishops 
to  a  conference,  and  began  to  admonish  them  to  enter  into 
Cluristian  peace  and  concord,  that  they  might  join  with  him 
in  converting  the  Pagans ;  but  this  proved  fruitless,  as  they 
would  hearken  to  no  prayers  or  exhortations,  and  Augus- 
tine, therefore,  had  recourse  to  a  miracle.  A  blind  man 
was  introduced  to  be  healed,  and  was  healed  by  Augustine^s 
prayers,  when  those  of  the  ancient  Britons  failed.  They 
were  obliged,  therefore,  to  confess  that  Augustine  was  sent 
pf  God,  but  pleaded  the  obstinacy  of  their  people  as  a  rea- 
son for  their  non-compliance.  A  second  synod  was  ap- 
pointed, attended  by  seven  British  bishops,  and  many  of 
their  learned  men,  belonging  to  the  ancient  monastery  of 
Bangor,  of  which  Dinoth  was  at  that  time  abbot.  Before 
these  came  to  the  synod,  they  asked  the  advice  of  a  person 
of  reputed  sanctity,  whether  they  should  give  up  their  own 
traditions  on  the  authority  of  Augustine  or  not.  *'  Let  hu- 
milil^y,"  said  he,  ^^  be  the  test ;  and  if  you  find,  when  you 
come  to  the  synod,  that  he  rises  up  to  you  at  your  ap- 
proach, obey  him ;  if  not,  let  him  be  despised  by  you.** 
On  such  precarious  evidence  was  a  matter  to  rest  which 
they  thought  -  so  important.  It  happened  that  Augustine 
continued  sitting  on  their  arrival,  which  might  easily  have 
been  the  case  without  kny  intentional  insult ;  but  it  answered 
the  purpose  of  the  Britons,  already  averse  to  join  him,  and 
they  would  now  hearken  to  no  terms  of  reconciliation. 
Augustine  proposed  that  they  should  agre^  with  him  only 
in  three  things,  leaving  other  points  of  difference  undeter- 
mined ;  namely,  to  observe  Easter  at  the  same  time  with 
the  rest  of  the  Christian  world ;  to  administer  baptism  after 
the  Roihan  manner;  and  to  join  with  him  in  preaching  the 
gospel  to  the  English  :  but  all  this  they  rejected,  and  re- 
fused to  acknowledge  his  authority.  This  provoked  Augus- 
tine to  tell  them,  that  if  they  would  not  have  peace  with 
brethren,  they  should  have  war  with  enemies ;  and  it  hap* 
pened  afterwards,  that  in  an  invasion  of  the  Pagan  Saxons 


of  the  North,  the  Bangorian  monks  were  cruelly  murdered ; 
but  this  was  long  after  the  death  of  Augustine,  who,  never- 
theless, has  been  accused  by  some  writers  of  exciting  the 
animosity  which  ended  in  that  massacre.  For  tliis  there 
seems  no  solid  foundation.  Augustine  betrayed  an  impro-* 
per  warmth,  and  was  not  free  from  ambition  ;  but  in  all  his 
history  we  can  find  no  instance  of  a  sanguinary  spirit,  or 
any  inclination  to  propagate  Christianity  by  any  other  wea- 
pons than  those  he  had  at  first  employed.  The  Britons 
undoubtedly  had  a  right  to  their  independence,  and  Augus- 
tine is  not  to  be  praised  for  endeavouring  to  destroy  what 
bad  so  long  existed,  and  over  which  be  bad  no  legal  con- 

Augustine  died  in  the  year  604,  at  Canterbury,  and  wa« 
buried  in  the  church-yard  of  the  monastery  that  was  called 
after  his  name,  the  cathedral  not  being  then  finished ;  but 
after  the  consecration  of  that  church,  his  body  was  taken 
up,  and  deposited  in  the  north  porch,  where  it  lay,  till,  in 
1091,  it  was  removed  and  placed  in  the  church  by  Wido^ 
abbot  of  Canterbury.  The  miracles  ascribed  by  popisit 
writers  to  Augustine  may  now  be  read  as  other  legendary 
tales,  as  monuments  of  weakness  and  superstition,  nor  do 
such  writers  gain  any  credit  to  their  cause,^  by  asserting  that 
t-o  be  true,  which  they  know  to  be  contrary  to  the  economy 
of  providence  and  nature,  and  the  appearance  of  which,  for 
the  purposes  of  conversion,  could  not  be  produced  without 
implicating  the  parties  in  a  charge  of  wilful  delusion.^ 
•  AUGUSTUS,  duke  of  Brunswick  and  Lilnenburg,  was 
a  man  of  learning,  and  a  patron  of  men  of  learning.  He 
published  several  works,  among  which  bis  ^^  Evangelical 
Harmony,"  written  in  German,  is  much  esteemed  by  Pro- 
testants. He  pubUshed  also,  in  1636,  a  ^^  Treatise  on  the 
Cultivation  of  Orchards,"  which  is  still  consulted  in  Ger- 
many. The  **  Steganographia,"  under  the  name  of  Gus- 
tavus  Selenus,  which  was  publi^ed  in  Latin,  at  Lunenburg, 
in  1624,  folio,  was  also  the  work  of  this  prince,  who  died 
in  1666,  in  the  eighty-seventh  year  of  his  age. ' 

AVIANO  (Jeromb),  an  Italian  poet,  was  born  at  Vin- 
cenza,  and  employed  his  fortune,  which  was  very  consider- 
able, in  patronising  and  associating  with  men  of  genius  and 

1  Biog,  Brit— Cave. — ^Dupin. — Bede  Hist.  £cc]es,-*-Wbarton's  Anglia  Sacra. 
— Godwin,  de  Presulibus. — ^Thorn's  Chrooicon  apud  Decern  Scriptoresv-* 
Henry's  Hist,  of  Great  Britain.— Milner's  Keel.  History. 

9  Diet,  Historique. 

A  V  I  A.N  O.  183 

talents.  He  is  supposed  to  have  died  about  1607.  His 
poems,  consisting  of  ^*  Three  Epistles,"  highly  praised  by 
Mazzuchelli,  Crescembini,  and  Quadrio,  were  first  printed 
in  1605,  and  were  reprinted  in  1615  and  1627.  They  were 
inserted  likewise  in  some  of  the  collections.  * 

AVICENNA,  Abou-Ali-Alhussein-ben-Abdoullah, 
Ebn-Sina,  called  Avicenes,  the  prince  of  Arabian  philo- 
sophers and  physicians,  was  born  at  Assena,  a  village  in 
the  neighbourhood  of  Bokhara  in  the  year  980.  His  far 
ther  was  from  Balkh  in  Persia,  and  had  married  at  Bok- 
hara. The  first  years  of  Avicenna  were  devoted  to  the 
study  of  the  Koran,  and  the  belles  lettres,  and  so  rapid  was 
his  progress  that,  when  he  was  but  ten  years  old,  he  was  per- 
fectly intelligent  in  the  most  hidden  senses  of  the  Koran* 
Abou-AbdouUah,  a  native  of  Napoulous  in  Syria,  at  that 
time  professed  philosophy  at  Bokhara  with  the  greatest 
reputation.  Avicenna  studied  under  him  the  principles  of 
logic ;  but  soon  disgusted  with  the  slow  manner  of  the 
schools,  he  set  about  studying  alone,  and  read  all  the  au- 
thors that  had  written  on  philosophy,  without  any  other 
help  than  that  of  their  commentators.  Mathematics  like- 
wise had  great  charms  for  him,  and  after  reading  the  first 
six  propositions  of  Euclid,  he  reached  to  the  last,  without 
a  teacher,  having  made  himself  perfect  master  of  them^ 
and  treasured  up  all  of  them  equally  in  his  memory. 

Possessed  with  an  extreme  avidity  to  be  acquainted  with 
every  science,  he  likewise  devoted  himself  to  the  study  of 
medicine.  Persuaded  that  this  divine  art  consists  as  much 
in  practice  as  in  theory,  he  sought  all  opportunities  of  see- 
ing the  siick ;  and  afterwards  confessed,  what  can  seldom 
be  denied,  that  he  had  learned  more  from  experience  than 
from  all  the  books^  he  had  read.  He  was  now  only  in  his 
sixteenth  year,  and  already  was  celebrated  as  the  luminary 
of  his  age.  He  resolved,  however,  to  resume  his  studies 
of  philosophy,  which  medicine  had  interrupted ;  and  he 
spent  a  year  and  a  half  in  this  painful  labour,  without  ever 
sleeping  all  this  time  a  whole  night  together.  If  he  felt 
himself  oppressed  by  sleep,  or  exhausted  by  reading,  a 
glass  of  wine  refreshed  his  wasted  spirits,  and  gave  him 
new  vigour  for  study :  if  in  spite  of  him  his  eyes  for  a  fe^y 
minutes  shut  out  the  light,  we  are  told  that  he  then  re- 
collected and  meditated  upon  all  the  things  that  ha4  op-r 

I  Diet  Hiitonque. 

18*  A  V  I  C  E  N  N  A. 

cupied  his  thoughts  before  sleep*  At  the  age  of  twenty <• 
one,  he  conceived  the  bold  design  of  incorporating,  in  one 
ivork,  all  the  objects  of  human  knowledge,  and  carried  it 
into  execution  in  an  Encyclopedia  of  twenty  volumes,  to 
ivhich  he  gave  the  title  of  the  "  Utility  of  Utilities.'* 

Several  great  princes  had  been  taken  dangerously  ill, 
and  Avicenna  was  the  only  one  who  could  know  their  aiU 
ments,  and  administer  a  remedy.  His  reputation  conse- 
quently increased  daily,  and  all' the  kings  of  Asia  desired 
to  retain  him  in  their  families.  Mahmoud,  the  first  sultaa 
of  the  dynasty  of  Samanides,  was  then  the  most  powerful 
prince  of  the  east.  Imagining  that  an  implicit  obedience 
Vas  due  by  all  to  his  will,  he  wrote  a  haughty  letter  to  Ma- 
moun,  sultan  of  Kharism,  ordering  him  to  send  Avicenna  to 
him,  who  was  at  his  court,  with  several  other  learned  men : 
but  as  Avicenna  had  himself  been  used  to  the  most  ilatter- 
ing  distinctions,  he  resented  this  imperious  command,  and 
refused  to  go.  The  sultan  of  Kharism,  however,  obliged 
him  to  depart  with  the  others  who  had  been  demanded. 

Avicenna  pretended  to  obey,  but,  instead  of  repairing 
to  Gazna,  he  took  the  road  to  Giorgian,  Mahmoud,  who 
had  gloried  in  the  thought  of  keeping  him  at  his  palace, 
was  greatly  irritated  at  his  flight,  and  dispatched  portraits 
of  this  philosopher  to  all  the  princes  of  Asia,  with  orders 
to  have  him  conducted  to  Gazna,  if  he  appeared  in  their 
courts.  But  Avicenna  eluded  the  most  diligent  search, 
and  arrived  in  the  capital  of  Giorgian,  where,  undqr  a  dis* 
guised  name,  he  performed  many  admirable  cures.  Ca« 
bous  then  reigned  in  that  country,  and  a  favourite  nephew 
having  fallen  sick,  he  consulted  the  most  able  physicians,^ 
Done  of  whom  were  able  to  discover  his  disorder,  or  to 

five  him  any  relief.  Avicenna  was  at  last  consulted,  who 
iscovered,  as  soon  as  \xe  felt  the  young  prince's  pulse, 
that  his  disorder  was  copcealed  love,  and  he  commanded 
the  person,  who  had  the  care  of  the  different  apartments  in 
the  palace,  to  name  them  all  in  their  respective  order.  A 
more  lively  motion  in  the  prince's  pulse,  at  hearing  men« 
tioned  one  of  those  apartments,  betrayed  a  part  of  bh  se- 
cret. The  keeper  then  had  orders  to  name  all  the  slaves 
that  inhabited  that  apartment.  At  the  name  of  one  of  those 
beauties,  the  young  prince,  by  the  extraordinary  beating 
of  his  pulse,  completed  the  discovery  of  what  he  in  vain  de- 
sired to  keep  concealed.  Avicenna,  now  fully  assured 
that  this  slave  was  the  cause  of  his  illness,  declared  that 

A  V  I  C  E  N  N  A.  18S 

she  alone  had  the  power  to  cure  him.  The  Sultanas  con- 
sent being  necessary,  he  expressed  a  desire  to  see  his 
nephew^s  physician,  and  had  scarcely  looked  at  him  when 
he  knew  in  his  features  those  of  the  portrait  sent  to  liim  bjr 
Mahmoud ;  but  Cabous,  far  from  forcing  Avicenna  to  re* 
pair  to  Gazna,  retained  him  for  some  time  with  him,  and 
heaped  honours  and  presents  on  him. 

Avicentia  passed  afterwards  into  the  court  of  Nedjmed- 
jdevle^  sultan  of  the  race  of  the  Bouides.  Being  appointed 
first  physician  to  that  prince,  he  found  means  to  gain  his 
confidence  to  so  great  a  degree,  that  he- raised  him  to  the 
post  of  Grand  Vizir,  but  h^  did  not  long  enjoy  that  dig- 
nity. Too  great  an  attachment  to  pleasures  made  him  lose 
at  the  same  time,  his  post,  and  his  master^s  favour.  Front 
that  time  Avicenna  felt  all  the  rigours  of  adversity,  wan- 
dered about  as  a  fugitive,  and  was  often  obliged  to  shift 
the  place  of  bis  habitation  to  secure  his  life  from  danger. 
Certain  propositions  he  had  advanced,  and  which  seemed 
to  contradict  the  sense  of  the  Koran,  were  alleged  against 
him  as  very  criminal.  He  is  said,  hovyever,  to  have  abjured 
bis  errors  before  the  end  of  his  life.  He  died  at  Hamadan^ 
aged  58  years,  in  the  428th  year  of  the  Hegira,  and  of  the 
Christian  aera  1036. 

Such  are  the  reputed  events  of  the  life  of  this  extraor- 
dinary man,  of  whose  genius  and  studies  the  most  wonder- 
ful tales  have  been  told.  He  enjoyed  so  great  a  reputation 
after  his  death,  that  till  the  twelfth  century,  he  was  pre- 
ferred in  philosophy  and  medicine  to  all  his  predecessors. 
His  works  were  higldy  popular  even  in  the  European 
schools.  His  style  is  said  to  be  clear,  elegant,  and  solid. 
Physic  is  indebted  to  him  for  the  discovery  of  cassia,  rhu- 
barb, and  tamarinds ;  and  from  him  also  came  tbe  art  of 
making  sugar.  Dr.  Freind,  however,  is  inclined  to  under- 
value tbe  medical  knowledge  in  his  works.  He  wrote.  On 
the  utility  and  advantage  of  the  sciences,  —  on  innocence 
and  criminality,  —  health  and  remedies, — canons  of  physic 
in  fourteen  books,,  his  chief  work  :  On  astronomical  obser- 
vations, mathematics,  theological  demonstrations,  on  the 
Arabic  language,  and  many  other  subjects  of  morals  and 
metaphysics.  Hebrew  and  Latin  versions  of  his  works  are 
still  extant,  but  in  Brucker's  opinion,  the  translators  do 
not  i^pear  to  have  been  sufficiently  masters  of  the  Arabic 
tongue  to  do  justice  to  their  author.    Tbe  last  edition  of 

186  A  V  I  C  E  N  N  A. 

the  "  Canon  Medicine"  was  printed  at  Venice. in  2^  vols. 
in  1608,  fol.* 

AVIENUS  (RuFUS  Festus),  a  Latin  poet,  flourished 
under  Theodosius  the  elder,  in  the  fifth  century.  We 
have  by  him  a  translation  in  verse  of  the  Phaenomena  of 
Aratus,  Venice,  1488,  4to,  and  Madrid,  1634,  4to;  of 
the  description  of  the  Earth  by  Dionysius  of  Alexandria  J 
and  of  some  fables  of  iEsop,  far  inferior  to  those  of  Phae- 
drus  for  purity  and  elegance  of  diction.  His  translation 
of  ^sop  in  elegiac  verses  is  to  be  found  in  the  Phsedrus  of 
Paris,  1747,  12mo,  and  the' Variorum  edition  of  Amster- 
dam, 1731,  in  8vo.  He  also  turned  all  the  books  of  Livy 
itito  iambic  verse :  a  very  strange  undertaking,  of  which  it 
is  not  easj'  to  conceive  the  use  at  that  time,  although  at 
present  it  may  supply  in  part  what  is  wanting  of  that  his- 
torian. * 


AVILER  (x^uGUSTiNE  Chahles  d'),  descended  from  a 
family  originally  of  Nanci  in  Lorraine,  but  long  established 
at  Paris,  was  born  in  the  latter  city  in  1653.  From  his 
earliest  years,  he  discovered  a  taste  for  architecture,  and 
studying  the  art  with  eagerness,  soon  made  very  consider- 
able progress.  At  the  age  of  twenty  he  was  sent  to  an 
academy  at  Rome,  founded  by  the  king  of  France  for  the 
education  of  young  men  of  promising  talents  in  painting,, 
architecture,  &c.  He  was  accompanied  in  the  voyage  by 
the  celebrated  Antony  Desgodets,  whose  measurements  of 
the  ancient  Roman  edifices  are  so  well  known.  They  em- 
barked at  Marseilles  about  the  end  of  1674,  with  all  the 
impatience  of  youthful  curiosity,  but  had  the  misfortune  to 
be  taken  by  an  Algerine  corsair,  and  carried  into  slavery; 
Louis  XIV.  no  sooner  heard  of  their  disaster,  than  he  made 
interest  for  the  liberation  of  Desgodets  and  Aviler,  and 
likewise  for  John  Foi.Vaillant,  the  celebrated  antiquary, 
who  had  been  a  passenger  with  them.  Sixteen  months, 
however,  elapsed  before  the  Algerines  admitted  them  to  be 
exclmnged  for  some  Turkish  prisoners  in  the  power  of 
France.  Aviler  and  his  friends  obtained  their  liberty, 
Feb.  22,  1676.  During  their  slavery,  Aviler  could  not 
conceal  his  art,  although  the  admiration   with  which  it 

1  Catalogue  Ratsoiin^  of  Arabian  MSS.  in  tke  library  of  the  Escu(ial.— ^Freind^ 
Hist,  of  Physic. — Brucker. — Baj^le. 
<  Diet.  Hi8t.-«-Fabric.  Bibl.  Lat.-^Saxii  OnomasticoD. 

A  V  I  L  E  R.  187 

Struck  the  Algerines,  might  have  afforded  them  a  preteset 
for  detaining  one  who  could  be  so  useful  to  them.  On  the 
contrary,  he  solicited  employment,  and  had  it :  at  least 
there  was  extant  some  time  ago,  an  original  plan  and  ele* 
vatiou  of  a  mosque  which  he  made,  and  which  was  built 
accordingly  at  Tunis.  On  being  released,  however,  he 
went  to  Rome,  where  he  studied  for  five  years  with  unin- 
terrupted assiduity,  and  on  his  return  to  France  was  ap« 
pointed  by  M.  Mansart,  first  royal  architect,  to  a  consider-  . 
able  place  in  the  board  of  architecture.  While  in  this 
situation,  he  began  to  collect  materials  for  a  complete 
course -of  architectural  studies.  His  first  design  was  to 
reprint  an  edition  of  Vignola,  with  corrections ;  but  per- 
ceiving that  the  explanations  of  the  plates  in  that  work 
were  too  short,  he  began  to  add  to  them  remarks  and  illus- 
trations in  the  form  of  commentary ;  and,  what  has  long 
rendered  his  work  valuable,  he  added  a  con^lete  series,  in 
alphabetical  order,  of  architectural  definitions,  which  em- 
brace every  branch,  direct  or  collateral,  of  the  art,  and 
which  have  been  copied  into  all  the  subsequent  French 
dictionaries.  He  prefixed  also  a  translation  of  Scamozzi^s 
sixth  book,  which  treats  of  the  ordei?. 

While  Aviler  remained  as  subordinate  to  Mansart,  he 
conceived  that  he  could  not  acquire  any  high  distinction  in 
his  profession,  and  therefore  accepted  an  invitation  to  go 
to  Montpellier,  where  he  6uilt  a  magnificent  triumphal 
arch,  in  honour  of  Louis  XIV.  from  a  design  by  M.  D'Or- 
bay,  who  was  one  of  his  friends,  and  had  assisted  him  in 
completing  his  literary  work.  This  arch  was  finished  in 
1 692,  and  highly  approved,  and  Aviler  afterwards  construct* 
ed  various  edifices  at  Beziers,  Nismes,  Montpellier,  and 
at  Toulouse,  where  he  built  the  archiepiscopal  palace. 
In  1693  the  states  of  Languedoc,  as  a  testimony  of  their 
esteem,  created  the  title  of  arc*hitect  to  the  province,  a 
mark  of  distinction  which  induced  him  to  reside  there 
during  life ;  but  this  was  not  long,  as  he  died  in  1700, 
when  only  forty-seven  years  of  age. 

He  published,  1.  "  CEuvres  d' architecture  de  Vincent 
de  Scamozzi,"  translated  from  the  Italian,  Paris,  1685, 
Leydeo,  1713,  fol.  This  being  only  an  extract  from 
Scamozzi,  whose  method  was  no  longer  followed,  the  work 
had  not  much  success.  2.  "  Cours  d'architecture,  qui 
comprend  les  ordres  de  Vignole,  avec  des  commentaires, 
et  plusieurs  nouveaux  dessins,^^  Paris,   1691,  2  vols.  4to, 

188  A  V  I  L  E  R. 

and  a  third  edit.  1699,  and  again  in  1710, 1720,  and  l73S ; 
the  latter  the  best  edition,  with  the  lives  af  Aviler  and  Vig- 
Dola,  by  Mariette  the  printer.  Aviler  also  wrote  a  sonnet 
on  the  death  of  the  chevaUer  Bernin  in  the  Mercure  of 
Jan.  1681,? 


AVISON  (Charles),  an  ingenious  English  musician, 
.was  born  probably  at  Newcastle,  where  he  exercised  his 
profession  during  the  whole  of  his  life.  In  1736,  July  12, 
.he  was  appointed  organist  of  St.  John's  church  in  that 
town,  which  he  resigned  for  the  church  of  St.  Nicholas  in 
October  following.  In  1748,  when  the  organ  of  St  Johi^'s 
required  repair,  which  would  amount  to  160/.  Mr.  Avison 
.offered  to  give  100/.  if  the  parish  would  raise  the  other  60/« 
upon  condition  that  they  appointed  him  organist,  with  a 
salary  of  2QL  and  allow  him  to  supply  the  place  by  a  suf- 
ficient deputy.  This  appears  to  have  been  agreed  upon, 
and  the  place  was  supplied  by  his  son  Charles.  In  1752 
he  published'  ^VAn  essay  on  Musical  Expression,'*  Lon- 
don, 12mo.  In  this  essay,  written  with  neatness  and  even 
lelegance  of  style,  he  treats  of  the  power  and  force  of  mu- 
sic, and  the  analogieA)etween  it  and  painting  :  of  musical 
composition,  as  consisting  of  harmony,  air,  and  expression ; 
and  of  musical  expression  so  far  as  it  relates  to  the  per- 
former. To  the  second  edition,  which  appeared  in  1753, 
was  added,  an  ingenious  and  learned  letter  to  the  author, 
conceruing  the  music  of  the  ancients,  now  known  to  be 
written  by  Dr.  Jortin.  Mr.  Avison's  treatise  was  very  fa- 
vourably received,  but  some  were  dissatisfied  with  his  sen- 
timents on  the  excellencies  and  defects  of  certain  eminent 
musicians,  and  particularly  his  preference  of  Marcello  and 
Geminiani,  or  at  least,  the  latter,  to  Handel.  In  the  same 
year,  therefore,  was  published,  '^  Remarks  on  Mr.  Avison's 
essay,  &c.  wherein  the  characters  of  several  great  mas- 
ters, both  ancient  and  modern,  are  rescued  from  the  mis- 
representations  of  the  above  author ;  and  their  real  merit 
ascertained  and  vindicated.  In  a  letter  from  a  gentleman 
to  his  friend  in  the  country."  In  this  tract,  which  was 
written  by  Dr.  Hayes,  professor  of  music  at  Oxford,  Mr. 
Avison  is  treated  with  very  little  ceremony,  and  accused 
of  being  ignorant,  or  neglectful  of  our  ancient  English  mu- 
sicians, and  of  having  spoke  too  coldly  of  the  merits  of 

1  Moreri^ 

A  V  I  S  O  N.  189 

tlandel.  It  is  also  insinuated  that  he  was  obliged  to  abler 
pens  for  the  style  and  matter  of  his  essay.  This  last  was 
probably  true,  as  both  Dr.  Brown  and  Mr.  Mason  are  sup- 
posed to  have  assisted  him,  but  in  what  proportions  cannot 
now  be  ascertained.  Mr.  Avison  wrote  a  reply  to  Dn 
Hayes,  nearly  in  the  same  uncourtly  style,  which  was  re- 
published in  the  third  edition  of  his  essay  in  1775.  Avisoa 
had  been  a  disciple  of  Geminiani,  who,  as  well  as  Giardini^ 
had  a  great  esteem  for  him,  and  visited  him  at  Newcastle^ 
where  the  latter  played  for  his  benefit.  Whenever  Gemi« 
niani  affected  to  hold  HandePs  compositions  cheap,  it  was 
usual  with  him  to  say,  ^^  Charley  Avison  shall  make  a  bet- 
ter piece  of  music  in  a  month's  time.^*  Avison  died  at 
Newcastle,  May  10,  1770,  and  was  succeeded  in  the  church 
of  St.  Nicholas,  by  his  son  Edward,  who  himself  died  in 
1776,  and  in  the  church  of  St.  John,  by  his  son  Charles, 
who  resigned  in  1777.  Avison  assisted  in  the  publication 
of  Marcello's  music  to  the  psalms  adapted  to  English 
words.  Of  his  own  composition  there  are  extant  five  col- 
lections of  concertos  for  violins,  forty- four  in  number; 
suid  two  sets  of  sonatas  for  the  harpsichord,  and  two  vio- 
lins, a  species  of  composition  little  known  in  England  till 
his  time.  The  music  of  Avison  is  light  and  elegant,  but 
wants  originality,  a  consequence  of  his  too  close  attach- 
ment to  the  style  of  Geminiani.  ^ 

AVITUS  (Sextus  Alcimus  Ecditius),  son  to  the  sena- 
tor* Isychius,  and  brother  to  Apollinaris,  bishop  of  Valen^ 
tia,  was  promoted  in  the  beginning  of  the  sixth  century  to 
the  archbishopric  of  Vienna,  which  his  father  had  also  held 
for  some  years.  His  principal  object  was  the  refutatioa 
and  conversion  of  the  Arians,  and  during  his  conferences 
for  this  purpose  with  the  Arian  bishops  before  Goudeband 
king  of  Burgundy,  who  was  an  Arian,  he  converted  his 
son  Sigismond.  Cave  thinks  he  converted  the  king  him- 
self, and  when  he  found  him  concealing  his  principles^ 
urged  him  to  a  public  profession  of  them.  He  wrote  also 
in  defence  of  pope  Symmachus,  and  died  in  the  year  52S. 
His  principal  works  were  Letters,  Sermons,  and  Poems  : 
his  Letters,  87  in  number,  contain  many  curious  particu- 
lars of  the  civil  and  ecclesiastical  history  of  the  times.  Of 
his  Homilies,  one  only  is  extant  on  Rogation   day,   in 

1  Biog.  Brit.  vol.  tl.  p.  655,  art.  Browm. — Brand's  Hist,  of  NewcastlejTol.  I. 
f,  109«  26S,  S69,*-Sir  Joho  Hawkins's  Hist,  of  Music,  ToLV, 

190  AVITUS. 

which  he  gires  the  origin  of  the  days  so  called.  In  all  hi^ 
works,  his  style  is  harsh,  obscure,  and  intricate.  His 
poems  were  printed  at  Francfort  in  1 507,  and  at  Paris  and 
Lyons  in  1508,  1509,  and  1536  ;  but  his  whole  works  were 
published  at  Paris  by  father  Sirmond,  in  1643,  fol.  and 
«ince  that  Luc  d^Achery  published  in  his  Spicilegium,  the 
conference  with  the  Arian  bishops.  ^ 

AULISIO  (DoMiNico),  th.e  son  of  Antonio  Aulisio,  was 
born  at  Naples,  Jan.  14,  1649  (or  1639,  according  to  Diet. 
Hist),  studied  Latin  under  Floriati  and  Marteua,  and  made 
$uch  rapid  and  successful  progress  in  his  other  studies, 
that  at  the  age  of  nineteen,  he  taught  rhetoric  and  poetry 
with  reputation.  We  are  also  told,  that  he  understood, 
and  could  write  and  speak  all  the  languages  of  the  East  and 
West,  and  that  he  acquired  a  knowledge  of  them  without 
the  aid  of  a  master.  He  was  equally  well  acqviainted  with 
the  sciences,  and  yet  with  all  ,this  knowledge  he  was  for  a 
long  time  extremely  poor,  owing  to  the  loss  of  his  father 
and  mother,  and  the  charge  of  a  younger  brother  and  five 
sisters.  At  the  age  of  twenty -six  he  taught  as  professor- 
extraordinary,  without  any  salary,  but  about  eight  years 
after  he  obtained  the  chair  of  the  institutes,  which  was 
worth  about  one  hundred  ducats,  and  at  forty  he  held  that 
of  the  code,  worth  one  hundred  and  forty.  From  bis 
forty-sixth  year  to  the  end  of  his  life,  he  was  principal 
professor,  of  civil  law,  with  a  salary  of  11 00  ducats.  He 
died  Jan.  29,  1717,  in  the  sixty-eighth  year  of  his  age.. 
As  he  b^d  been  a  public  teacher  at  Naples  about  fifty  years^ 
be  acquired,  according  to  custom,  the  title  of  Count  Pala- 
tine, and  was  interred  with  the  honours  due  to  that  rank, 
for  twenty-three  years,  also,  he  had  been  superintendant 
of  the  school  of  military  architecture,  by  order  of  Charles 
n.  with  a  salary  of  twenty -five  ducats  per  month.  During^ 
all  this  time  be  lived  a  retired  life,  and  had  no  ambition 
to  exchange  it  for  the  bustle  of  ambition.  In  the  course 
of  his  studies,  he  became  a  great  admirer  of  Plato,  and 
when  his  maternal  uncle  Leonard!  di  Capoa,  wrote  a  work 
agreeable  to  the  principles  of  Des  Cartes,  Aulisio  became 
his  antagoist ;  but  instead  of  argument,  substituted  satirical 
verses,  which  contributed^  little  to  his  own  fame,  and  ex« 
cited  the  displeasure  of  his  uncle's  learned  friends.  This 
dispute  induced  him  to  break  off  all  correspondence  with 

A  U  L  I  S  I  O.  l$l 

them,  and  employ  his  time  on  several  works,  particularly, 
1..  *^  De  Gymnasii  constructione  ;  De  Mausolei  architec- 
tura ;  de  Harmonia  Timaica,  et  numeris  medicis.^*  These 
three  were  printed  in  a  quarto  volume,  Naples,  1694. 
2.  **  Commentarii  juris  civilis  ad  tit.  Pandect/'  3  vols.  4to. 
,3.  "  Delle  Scuole  sacre,"  1723,  4to.  4.  **  Historia  deortu 
et  progressu  MedicinsB,'*  Venice,  1700.  His  life  is  pre- 
fixed to  the  "  Scuole  sacre."  * 


AUNGERVYLE  (Richard),  commonly  known  by  the 
name  of  Richard  de  Bury,  was  born  at  St.  Edmundsbury, 
in  Suffolk,  in  1281.  His  father,  sir  Richard  Aungervyle, 
kut*  dying  when  he  was  young,  his  uncle  John  de  Wil« 
lowby,  a  priest,  took  particular  care  of  his  education  ;  and 
wheni  he  was  fit  sent  him  to  Oxford,  where  he  studied  phi- 
losophy and  divinity,  and  distinguished  himself  by  his 
learning,  and  regular  and  exemplary  life.  When  he  had 
finished  his  studies  there,  he  became  a  Benedictine  monk 
at  Durham,  Soon  after  he  wa$  made  tutor  to  prince  Ed- 
ward, afterwards  king  Edward  III.  Being  treasurer  of 
Guienne  in  1325,  he  supplied  queen  Isobel,  when  she 
was  plotting  against  her  husband  king  Edward  II.  with  a 
large  sum  of  money  out  of  that  exchequer,  for  which  be- 
ing questioned  by  the  king^s  party,  he  narrowly  escaped 
to  Paris,  where  he  was  forced  to  hide  himself  seven  days 
in  the  tower  of  a  church.  When  king  Edward  III.  came 
to  the  crown,  he  loaded  his  tutor  Aungervyle  with  honours 
and  preferments,  making  him,  first,  his  cofferer,  then  trea- 
surer of  the  wardrobe,  archdeacon  of  Northampton,  pre- 
bendary of  Lincoln,  Sarum,  and  Lichfield,  and  afterVvards 
keeper  of  the  privy  seal.  This  last  place  he  enjoyed  five 
years,  and  was  in  that  time  sent  twice  ambassador  to  the 
pope.  In  1333  he  was. promoted  to  the  deanery  of  Wells, 
and  before  the  end  of  the  same  year,  being  chosen  bishop 
of  Durham,  he  was  consecrated  about  the  end  of  Decem- 
ber, in  the  abbey  of  the  black  canons  of  Chertsey  in 
Surrey.  .  He  was  soon  afterwards  enthroned  at  Durham,  on 
which  occasion  he  made  a  grand  festival,  and  entertained 
in  the  haU  of  his  palace  at  Durham,  the  king  and  queen  of 
l^ngland,  ^he  queen-dowager  of  England,  the  king  of  Scot- 
land, the  two  archbishops,  and  five  bishops,  seven  earls 
ivith  their  Udies^  ail  the  nobility  north  of  Trent,  with  a 

I  MoKcrU 


vast  concourse  of  knights,  esquires,  and  other  persons^  cjf 
distinction.  The  next  year  he  was  appointed  higb-chan* 
cellor,  and  in  1336,  treasurer  of  England.  In  1338  he 
was  twice  sent  with  other  commissioners  to  treat  of  a  peace 
with  the  king  of  France,  though  to  no  purpose. 

This  prelate  was  not  only  one  of  the  most  learned  men  of 
his  time,  but  also  a  very  great  patron  and  ^ncourager  of 
learning.  Petrarch  he  frequently  corresponded  with,  and 
had  for  his  chaplains  and  friends  the  most  eminent  men  of 
the  age.  His  custom  was,  to  have  some  of  his  attendants 
read  to  him  while  he  was  at  meals,  and  when  they  were 
over,  to  discourse  with  his  chaplains  upon  the  same  sub« 
ject.  He  was  likewise  of  a  very  bountiful  temper.  Every 
week  he  made  eight  quarters  of  wheat  into  bread,  and  gave 
it  to  the  poor.  Whenever  he  travelled  between  Durham 
and  Newcastle,  he  distributed  eight  pounds  sterling  in  alm»; 
between  Durham  and  Stockton,  five  pounds;  between 
Durham  and  Auckland,  five  marks ;  and  between  Durham 
and  Middleham',  five  pounds.  But  the  noblest  instance  of 
his  generosity  and  munificence  was  the  public  library  he 
founded  at  Oxford,  for  the  use  of  the  students.  This  library 
he  furnished  with  the  best  collection  of  books  that  was  then 
in  England,  fixed  it  in  the  place  where  Durham,  now  Tri«» 
nity -^college,  was  built  afterwards,  and  wrote  a  treatise  con- 
taining rules  for  the  management  of  the  libra,ry,  how  the 
books  were  to  be  preserved,  and  upon  what  conditions  lent 
out  to  scholars.  The  title  o(  this  book  is,  ^<  Philobiblon, 
sjeu  de  Amore  Librorum  et  Institutione  Bibliothecae,*^  cum 
Appendice  de  MSS.  Oxoniensibus,  per  Thorn.  Jame% 
printed  at  Oxford  in  1599,  4to.  It  was,  however,  first 
printed  at  Spires  in  1483,  and  there  are  several  MS  co« 
pies  in  the  libraries  of  Oxford  and  Cambridge.  This  pre- 
late died  at  Auckland,  April  24,  1345,  and  was  buried  ia 
the  south  part  of  the  cross  aile  of  the  cathedral  of  Dur- 
ham. ' 

AUNOY  (Marie  Catherine  Jumelle  de  Berneville, 
CoMTESSE  d'),  widow  of  the  count  d^Aunoy,  and  niece  of 
ihe  celebrated  madame  Desloges,  died  in  1 705.  She  wrote 
with  ease,  though  negligently,  in  the  departitient  of  ro^ 
mance.  Readers  of  a  frivolous  taste  still  peruse  with  plea- 
sure her  "  Tales  of  the  Fairies,"  4  vols.  l2mo,  and  espe- 
cially  her  **  Adventures  of  Hippolytus  earl  of  Douglas/^  in 

1  Hutchinioo'f  Hist  of  Durliam.— Biof .  BriU 

A  U  W  6  V.  id* 

l2mi>.  a  piede  containing  much  warmth  and  nature  in  the 
style^  and  abundance  of  the  marvellous  in  the  adventures. 
Her  **  Memoires  historiqiies  de  ce  qui  s'est  passe  de  plus 
remitr(|uable  en  Europe  depuis  1672^  jusqu^en  1679/'  arel 
a  medley  of  truth  and  falsehood.  Her  **  Memoirs  of  th^ 
court  of  Spain,*'  where  she  had  lived  with  her  mother,  ia 
2  vols,  present  us  with  no  favourable  id^a  of  the  Spanish 
nation,  which  she  undoubtedly  treats  with  two  much  se- 
verity. Her  "  History  of  John  de  Bourboti,  prince  de 
Carency,**  1692,  3  vols.  12mo,  is  one  of  those  historical 
romances  that  are  the  offspring  of  slender  parts,  in  conjunc*^ 
tion  with  alluring  effusions  of  gallantry*  Her  husband^ 
the  count  d*Aunoy,  being  accused  of  high  treason  by  three 
Normans,  very  narrowly  escaped  with  his  h^ad.  One  o£ 
his  accusers,  struck  with  remorse  of  conscience,  declared 
the  whole  charge  to  be  groundless.  ^ 

AVOGADRI  (Lucia  Albani)  was  born  at  5ergamo,  of 
an  ancient  and  noble  family,  but  derived  greater  renown 
from  her  talents  than  her  birth.  She  excelled  in  Italian 
poetry,  and  merited  such  a  commentator  and  admirer  as 
Tasso.  Her  poems  were  collected  in  1 56 1.  She  was  mar-^ 
ried  to  a  nobleman  of  Brescia  in  the  Venetian  state,  where 
she  died.  Calvi  has  made  very  honourable  mention  of  heif 
in  his  account  of  the  writers  of  Bergamo.  ^ 

AVOGADRO  (Albert),  of  Verceil  in  Italy,  Uved  uhdet 
the  government  of  Cosmo  de  Medicis,  grand  duke  of  Flo- 
rence, whose  piety  and  magnificence  he  celebrated  in  a 
poem  in  elegiac  verse,  consisting  of  two  books.  It  was 
printed  in  the  1 2th  volume  of  Lamias  "  Delicise  Erudito-* 
rum.'*  The  late  edition  of  the  Dictionnaire  Historique  gives 
tiie  following  brief  notices  of  others  of  this  name  ;  Jerome 
AvoGADRO,  a  patron  of  learning  and  learned  men,  who 
first  edited  the  works  of  Vitruvius. — Nestor- Denis  Ave- 
GADRO,  a  native  of  Novaro,  who  published  a  Lexicon,  of 
which  an  edition  was  printed  at  Venice  in  1488,  fol.  To 
th^  subsequent  editions  were  added  some  treatises  by  the 
same  author,  on  the  eight  parts  of  speech,  on  prosody,  &.C. 
— ^Peter  Avogadro,  who  lived  at  Verona  about  1490.  He 
wrete  Literary  Memoirs  of  the  illustrious  men  of  his  coun- 
try ;  an  Essay  on  the  origin  of  Mont-de-Piete  in  Italy,'  and 
another  ^'  De  Origine  gentis  Rizzonse."    The  marquis 


>  MoNtko-OMU  Di(!t.~.Siet.  Hist.  *  DictHitW 

Vol.  III.  O 

194  A  V  O  G  A  D  R  O. 

Maffei  speaks  in  high  praise  of  this  author  in  his  ^'  Verontt 
Illustrata.'^  * 

,  AURELIO  (Lofus),  a  native  of  La  Peroosa,  and  canoft 
of  St.  John  of  Lateran,  died  at  Rome  in  1637.  His  know- 
^ege  of  history-made  him  be  t:onsidered  by  pope  UrbanVIIL 
as  one  of  the  most  learned  historians  of  his  age.  tie  pub- 
lished an  "  Abridgement  of  Tursellitfs  Universal  History,'* 
in  1623 ;  another  of  "  Baronius^s  Annals,*'  and  another 
of  Bzovius's  great  work  on  ecclesiastical  history,  in  9  vols, 
folio.  He  wrote  also  "  A  History  of  the  Revolt  of  Bohemia 
against  the  Emperors  Matthias  and  Ferdinand,"  Rome^l625. 
^his  last  is  written  in  Italian,  the  others  in  Latin.  ^ 



AURIA  (Vincent),  born  at  Palermo,  in  1625,  and  died 
tn  the  same  city  in  1710,.  quitted  the  bar,  to  devote  himself 
to  literature.  He  was  but  poorly  provided  with  the  goods 
pf  fortune :  but  he  comforted  himself  in  his  poetical  studies* 
There  ai*e  a  great  number  of  works  by  him,  several  iti  La« 
jtin,  but  most  in  Italian.  The  latter  are  more  esteemed 
than  the  former.  Among  these  are  reckoned,  a  **  History" 
(in  good  repute)  **  of  the  great  men  of  Sicily/'  Palermo, 
1704,  4to,  and  a  **  Histoiy  of  the  Viceroys  of  Sicily,"  ibid- 
1697,  folio.* 

AURIGNI,  or  AVRIGNI  (Gilles  de),  called  also  Pam^ 
PHILLE,  a  French  poet  of  the  sixteenth  century,  was  born 
at  Beauvais,  but  we  have  no  particulars  of  his  life^  except 
that  be  wa^  an  advocate  of  parliament.  The  editors  of  the 
f*  Annales  Poetiques"  have  inserted  his  best  productions  in 
their  collection,  and  among  others  his  ^^  Tuteur  d'Amour,'* 
in  four  cantos,  praised  for  elegance,  tenderness,  and  fancy. 
His  other  works  are^  1.  ^^  Le  cinquanbe*deuxieme  Arret 
tl' Amour,  avec  les  ordonnances  sur  le  feit  des  ma^ques,*^ 
firo,  1528.  2;  <^  La  genealogie  des  dieiix  poetiques,^^ 
12mo,  1545.  3,  **  Aureus  de  utraque  potestate  libellus, 
in  hunc  usque  diem  non  visus,  Somniuin  Viridarii  vulgariter 
iiun£upat^s,'M  jil  6,  4to.  ^ 

\  AVRIGNY  (Hyacinth  Richari>^  or  Hobillard  d*>,  « 
French  historian,  was  born  at  Caen  in  1675,  and  admitted 
^t  Psuris  into  thesociety  of  the  Jesuits,  Sept  1-5^  1691.  Tl^ 

1  Diet  Hjtt..  t.  Ibid.  f  IbUL-^MoRsU-KkMitB,  VAUIL 

4  Diet  Hist 

A  V  R  I  G  N  y.  i§5 

dPatigues  lie  undeni^ent  in  tbts  society  mjared  his  hlsahh,  and 
After  bis  theological  studies  he  was  sent  to  Alen^on,  where 
he  was  employed  as  procurator  of  tha  college.  He  died 
/either  there  or  at  Quimp6r,  April  2 4,  17 19,  He  is  the 
•author  of  two  works  which  have  been  often  reprinted. 
1.  '^  Memoires  chronologiques  et  dogmatiques,  pourseryir 
l  Thistoire  ecclesiastique,  depuis  1600  jusqu^en  1716^  avec 
des  reflexions  et  des  remarques  critiques,*^  4  vols.  12ino, 
1720.  2.  '^  Memoires  pour  servir  a  Phistoire  universelle 
de  I'Europe,  depuis  1600  jusqu'eo/ 1716,  &c,''  4  volfi. 
l2mo,  Paris,  1725,  reprinted  the  same  year  at  Amsterdam^ 
and  again  in  1757.* 

AVUILLON  (John  Baptist  Elus),  a  French  Francis* 
can  of  the  order  called  Minimes,  was  bom  at  Paris  Jan.  1, 
1652,  and  was  educated  in  the  Jesuits'  college*  In  the 
course  of  his  studies,  and  after  taking  orders,  he  acquired 
very  high  reputation  for  learning,  and  particularly  for  h^s 
^oquenoe  and  zeal  as  a  preacher  and  devotionad  writer, 
fie  died  at  Paris,  May  16,  1729.  Moreri  has  given  a  long 
list  of  his  religious  treatises,  all  of  which  were  frequ^eitly 
•reprinted,  and  admired  in  France,  when  religion  was  more 
-prevalent  than  now.  He  also  wrote  a  work  on  Algebra,  but 
committed  it  to  the  flames  sometime  before  his  death,  and 
it  was  with  much  difficulty  he  was  persuaded  to  publish  his 
*^  Genealogie  de  la  maison  de  Fontaine-Soliers,  issue  de  b 
-Case  Solare,  souveraine  d'Aste  en  Piemont,"  1680,  4tj, 
.which  has  procured  him  a  place  in  Le  Long^s  Bibliot^que 
c^the  French  historians.  * 

AURISPA  (John)  was  bom  at  Noto,  a  town  of  Sicily, 
ill  1369.  He  applied  himself  to  the  study*  of  the  Greek 
ianguage^  and  w^nt  to  Constantinople  to  collect  Greek 
jnaooscripts.  Here  he  became  acquainted  with,  and  was 
highly  xiespected  by,  the  emperor  John  Pals&ologus,  who 
iound  him  afterwards  at  Ferrara  when  he  went  to  assist  at 
«  council  assembled  by  Eugene  IV.  Aurispa  became  se«- 
cretary  to  this  pope  and  also  to  Nicholas  V.  his  successor, 
twho  bestowed  upon  him  two  rich  abbeys.  He  died  at 
Rome  in  1459,  in  tjie  90th  year  of  his  age.  He  translated 
)>art  of  the  wofks  of  Archimedes,  Hierocles's  Commentaty 
on  the  Golden  verses  of  Pythagoras,  and  published  some 
poems  and  letters.  His  translation  of  Hierocles  was  printed 

t  Ditt  Hilt— •Moreri— NouTeaux  Memoires  d'Artigni,  voU  I»  p*  463. 
*  Moreri* 

O  2 

J96  A  U  R  I  S  P  A. 

at  Basle  iii  1543,  8to.  By  a  part  of  the  preface,  qnbted 
by  Oesner,  it  appears  that  he  made  this  translatfOfi  wheh 
in  his  eightieth  year.  * 

AUROGALLUS  (Matthew),  a  native  of  Bohemia^  of 
the  sixteenth  century,  was  teacher  of  languages  in  the  uni- 
versity of  Wittemberg.  He  compiled  "  Compendium  He- 
brsea)  Chaldeajque  grammatices,"  Wittemberg,  8vo,  1525, 
Basle,  1539;  and  *<  De  Hebrseis  urbium,  regionum,  &c. 
nominibus,  liber  e  veteri  instrumento  congestus,^'  ibid. 
1526,  1529,  8vo.  This  second  edition  was  much  enlarged 
by  the  author.  He  also  assisted  Luther  in  the  translation 
of  the  Bible.     He  died  in  1 543.  * 

AUSONIUS  (Decimus  Magnvs),  an  eminent  poet  of  the 
fourth  century,  was  the  son  of  a  physician,  and  born  at 
Bourdeaux.  Great  care  was  taken  of  his  education,  the 
M'hole  family  interesting  themselves  in  it,  either  because  his 
genius  was  very  promising,  or  that  the  scheme  of  his  na- 
tivity^  which  had  been  cast  by  his  grandfather  on  the  mo^  ' 
therms  side,  led  them  to  imagine  that  be  would  rise  to  great 
honour.  Whatever  their  motive,  it  is  allowed  that  be  made 
an  uncommon  progress  in  classical  learning,  and  at  the  age 
of  thirty  was  chosen  to  teach  grammar  at  Bourdeaux.  He 
was  promoted  some  time. after  to  be  professor  of  rhetoric, 
in  which  office  he  acquired  so  great  a  reputation,  that  he 
Was  sent  for  to  court  to  be  preceptor  to  Gratian  the  em- 
peror Valentiuian's  son.  The  rewards  and  honours  con- 
ferred on  him  for  the  faithful  discharge  of  his  office  remind 
us  of  JuvenaPs  maxim,  that  when  fortune  pleases  she  can 
raise  a  man  from  a  rhetorician  to  a  consul.  He  was  actually 
appointed  consul  by  the  emperor  Gratian,  in  the  year  379, 
after  having  filled  other  considerable  posts;  for,  besides 
the  dignity  of  questor,  to  which  he  had  been  nominated 
by  Valentinian,^  he  was  made  prefect  of  the  prsetorium  in 
Italy  and  Gaul  after  that  princess  death.  His  speech  re- 
turning thanks  to  Gratian  on  his  promotion  to  the  consul- 
ship is  highly  commended.  The  time  of  his  death  is  un- 
certain ;  he  was  living  in  392,  and  lived  to  a  great  age.  He 
had  sereral  children  by  his  wife,  who  died  young.  The 
emperor  Theodosius  had  a  great  esteem  for  Ausonius,  and 
pressed  him  to  publish  his  poems.  There  is  a  great  in- 
equality in  his  product!  ofis ;  and  in  his  style  there  is  a 
Jiarshness,  which  was  perhaps  rather  the  defect  of  the  times 

^  Morert— Gea.  Dict.<*^ui  Ooomartiooa*  *  Ibid. 

A  U  S  O  N  I  U  S,  197 

he  lived  in,  than  of  bis  genius.  Had  he  lived  in  Augustus's 
reign,  his  verses,  according  to  good  judges,  would  have, 
equalled  the  most  finished  of  that  age.  .  He  is  generally 
s^upposed  to  have  been  a  Christian :  some  ingenious  authors 
indeed  have  thought  otherwise,  and  the  indecency  of  many 
of  his  poeins  make  us  not  very  anxious  to  claim  him.  The 
editio  princeps  of  his  works  was  published  at  Venice,  1 472, 
fol.  of  which  there  are  four  copies  in  this  country,  in  the 
libraries  of  his  majesty,  the  museum,  earl  Spencer,  and 
Mr.  WodhuIL  De  Bure  was  not  able  to  iiiid  one  in  France. 
The  two  best  editions,  the  first  very  uncommon,  are  those 
of  Amsterdam,  1671,  iJvo,  and  Bipont,  1785,  8vo.* 

AUTELS  (William  des),  a  French  and  Latin  poet,  vo« 
luminous  enough  to  require  some  notice,  although  his  works 
are  now  perhaps  but  little  known  or  valued  even  in  his  owa 
country,  was  born  at  Charolles  about  the  year  1529,  the 
son  of  Syacre  or  Fiacre  des  Autels,  a  gentleman  of  the 
same  country.  He  inherited  little  from  this  father,  except, 
^  he  informs  us,  a  chateau,  rather  noble  than  rich.  For 
some  time  he  studied  law  at  Valencia,  but  it  does  not  ap- 
pear with  what  view  :  poetry  was  his  favourite  pursuit,  al- 
though he  succeeded  very  seldom^;  but  what  was  wanting 
in  genuine  poetry  was  made  up  by  an  obtrusive  display  of 
Greek  and  Latin,  in  the  manner  of  Ronsard,  whon>  he 
called  his  friend.  Like  other  poets,  he  aflPected  to  have  a 
mistress  for  whom  he  cherished  a  Platonic  affection,  but  it 
appears  that  he  was  married  at  the  age  of  twenty-four. 
His  de^iti}  is  said  to  have  happened  about  1580.  Moreri 
enumerates  many  volumes  of  his  poems,  sonnets,  elegies, 
pieces  in  imitation  of  Rabelais,  Ronsard,  &c.  The  fol- 
lowing are  of  a  different  description,  and  respect  a  contro<^ 
versy  ojn  the  orthography  of  the  French  language.  1* 
'*  Trait6  touchant  Tancienne  ^criture  de  la  Langue  Fran- 
goise,  et  de  sa  Poesie,"  Lyons,  16mo,  published  under  the 
anagrami;natical  naqoe  of  Glauma^is  de  Vezelet  LQuis 
Meigret,  his  opponent  in  the  controversy,  imipediately 
published  his  "Defenses  touphant  son  Ortoeraphe  Frangoise 
contre  ]es  censures  et  c^lomnies  de  Glaumalis,''  Paris,  1 550, 
4to,  Autels  followed  this  by  "  Repliques  aux  furieuses 
defenses  de  Louis  Meigret,^'  16mo,  ^yons,  1551,  whicl^ 
Meigret  answered  the  same  year,     Gruter  thought  son^e 

I  G«p.  Dict.^Moreri.— Cave>  vol.  L-HSasiiiOnomaitiGen.— Dibdin'9  0)a9sics, 

'i^»  A  U  T  E  L  S. 

<rf  his  Latin  poetry  of  sufficient  merit  to  obtain  a  place  in 
the  *^  DelicisB  poetaruoi  Gallorum,"  1609.  * 


AUTHON,  or  AUTON  (John  d*),  historiographer  of 
France  under  I^ouis  XII.  abbot  of  Angle  in  Poitou,  was*, 
originally  of  Saintonge,  and  of  the  same  family  from  which, 
according  to  some  authors,  the  famous  Barbarossa  de-' 
scended.  He  wrote  the  history  of  France  from  1490  to 
1508,  with  great  fidelity,  but  M.  Garnier  says,  that  **  Louis  • 
XIL  who  usually  employed  the  most  celebrated  pens,  chose, 
with  less  than  his  ordinary  discernment,  Jean  d*  Authon,  to 
write  the  particular  history  of  his  reign :  for,  though  he* 
bad  bestowed  several  benefices  upon  him ;  though  he  made 
him  commonly  travel  in  the  suite  of  the  army,  and  gave* 
orders  to  his  ministers  and  generals  to  conceal  nothing 
from  him  of  all  that  was  worthy  of  being  handed  down  to 
posterity,  he  was  less  happy  in  this  respect  than  a  great 
number  of  his  predecessors.  Authon  is  but  a  cold  proser, 
nice  in  giving  the  particulars  of  little  matters,  but  deficient 
in  unfolding  motives,  &c."  Theodore  Godefi-oi  published 
Ae  four  first  years  of  his  history  in  1620,  4'to,  and  the  two 
last  which  had  appeared  in  1615,  in  4to,  with  ^^  PHistoire 
de  Louis  XII.''  by  Seyssel ;  the  three  others,  whieh  have 
not  yet  been  sent  to  the  press,  are  now  in  the  Imperial  li- 
brary. This  historian  died  in  January  1523,  according  to 
Moreri,  or  1527  in  Diet.  Hist,  which  gives  the  following 
productions  from  his  pen :  1.  "  Les  Epistres  envoy^es  au 
Toy  par  les  ^tats  de  France,  avec  certaines  ballades  et  ron- 
deaux,"  Lyons,  1509,  4to.  2.  "  L'exil  de  Gennes  le  Su- 
perbe,"  1 508,  4to.  3.  "  Diverses  pieces  sur  la  mort  de 
Thomassine  Espinolle  (Spinola)  MS."  * 

AUTOLYCUS,  a  philosopher  who  flourished  about  340 
years  before  the  Christian  oera.  He  was  the  preceptor  of 
Arcesilas,  the  son  of  Seuthes.  He  wrote  several  treatises 
on  astronomy,  of  which  Joseph  Auria,  of  Naples,  translated 
into  Latin  the  only  ones  extant,  on  the  sphere,  and  the 
stars. ' 

AUTOMNE  (Bernard),  advocate  of  the  parliament  of 
Bourdeaux,  was  born  in  1587,  at  Agenois.  He  undertook 
an  edition  of  the  >*'  Corps  du  Droit,"  the  expence  of  which 

*  Moreri.  *  Ibid. — Diet.  Hist. 

9  Moreri. — ^VossiuB  de  Math.  £.  33.  §  1^.  p.  154. — Fabrie.  Bibl.  6r«c.-«- 

ii  Onomast. 

A  U  T  O  M  N  E.  iw 

tlte-  chancellor  had  promised  to  defray^  but  in  this  onr 
auihor  was  disappointed,  and  was  exposed  to  the  demands 
of  his  creditors,  when  he  was  relieved  by  the  generosity  of 
le  Bret,  a  counsellor  of  state.  Automne  was  a  man  of 
study,  and  wrote  several  works  on  professional  subjects^ 
which  were  much  approved.  The  most  celebrated  of  these 
is  his  <'  Commentaire  surla  Coutume  de  Bourdeaux,^'  the 
best  edition  of  which  was  published  by  Dupin,  in  1728,  fok 
with  notes.'  He  wrote  also  a  "  Conference  du  Droit  Ro- 
main  avec  le  l^roit  Francois,"  1644,  2  vols.  fol.  and  "  Cen* 
siira^Gallica  in  Jos  Civile  Romanum,"  Paris,  1625,  8v6^ 
or  according  to  Saxius,  1613.  Some  of  these  works  ar^ 
thought  to  be  deficient  in  judgment  and  in  perspicuity  of 
$irrangement.  He  is  said  to  have  been  the  editor  of  Ju<- 
veflal  anjd  Persius,  with  copious  notes  in  Latin,  2  vols.  8vo^ 
Paris,  1607,  which  we  do  not  find  mentioned  in  any  of  the 
lists  of  editions  of  those  poets,  yet  it  is  noticed  by  Saxius. 
Moreri  thinks  he  died  about  1 629,  but  in  the  Diet  His- 
torique  it  is  said  he  died  in  1666  at  the  age  of  ninety-nine 
years,  i^hich  does  not  correspond  with  the  date  of  his  birth^ 
which  we  have  given  from  Moreri.  ^ 

AUTREAU  (Jacques  d'),  a  painter  from  necessity  and  a 
poet  by  taste,  died  in  indigence,  in  constant  attachment 
to  his  two  professions,  at  Paris,  his  birth*place,  in  the  hos-^ 
pital  of  Incurables,  in  1745.  D'Autreau,  although  of  a 
gloomy  and  melancholy  character,  wrote  comedies  that 
excited  laughter,  and  continue  ^o  amuse  upon  the  stage. 
He  was  almost  sixty  when  he  first  turned  his  thoughts  to 
the  drama,  an  employment  that  demands  all  the  vivacity 
and  imagination  of  youth ;  but  his  plots  are  too  simple,  the 
catastrophe  is  immediately  perceived,  and  the  pleasure  of 
surprise  is  lost.  His  dialogue,  however,  is  natural,  his  6tyle 
easy,  and  some  of  his  scenes  are  in  the  true  comic  taste. 
The  Italian  theatre  has  preserved  his  "  Port  a  TAnglois,*^ 
in  prose ;  *^  Deihocrite  pr6tendu  fou,"  in  three  acts,  and 
in  verse.  The  theatres  of  France  have  represented  "  Clo* 
tinda,"  a  tragedy  in  five  acts ;  the  "  Chevalier  Bayard,"  in 
five  acts ;  and  the  "  Magie  de  PAmour,"  a  pastoral  in  one 
act,  in  verse.  He  gave  at  the  opera,  *^  Plat6e,  ou  la  Nais* 
sance.  de  la  Com^die,"  the  music  by  the  celebrated  Ra- 
meau.  "  Le  Port  i  I'Anglois"  is  the  first  piece  in  which 
the  Italian  players  spoke  Prench.     The  works  of  d'Au* 

*  Moreri.-^Dict.  Hi»t.— Saxii  Onomast. 

eoo  A  U  T  R  E  A  U. 

treau  were  collected  in  1749,  in  4  vols.  l:2mo>  with  agoo4 
preface  by  Pesselier.  The  most  known  of  .the  pictures  of 
this  painter,  is  that  of  Diogenes,  with  the  lanthem  in  bis 
hand,  in  search  of  an  honest  man,  and  finding  him  in  the 
cardinal  de  Fleury.  D'Autreau  lived  very  retired,  dc*» 
spising  all  that  the  generality  of  mankind  esteem,  and 
agreeing  with  the  public  in  no  one  thing  except  in  the  lit<p 
tie  concern  he  took  about  himself.  ^ 

AUVERGNE  (Antoine  d'),  an  eminent  French  mxm^ 
cian  and  composer,  was  born  at  Clermont  in  Auvergnie, 
.Oct.  4,  1713.  Instead  of  giving  any  extraordinary  proofs 
of  voluntary  application,  or  early  pregnancy  of  genius,  he 
merely  complied  with  the  desire  of  bis  father,  who  was  a 
musician,  in  turning  his  thoughts,  or  rather  employing  his 
jtime,  in  that  pursuit.  About  his  eighteenth  year,  how^ 
ever,  an  entire  change  appeared  to  have  taken  place  in  his 
mind,  which  became  suddenly  seized  with  the  most  vio? 
lent  enthusiasm,  and  such  was  his  application  night  and 
day,  that  he  soon  became  a  capital  performer  on  the  vior 
}in,  and  was  in  1739  thought  worthy  of  the  honour  of  bet 
ing  admitted  into  his  majesty^s  chamber  band.  With  no 
other  help  in  composition  than  the  works  of  Rameau,  he 
composed  a  trio  for  two  violins  and  a  bass,  which  he  pre<f 
sented  tp  that  celebrated  author,  who,  flattered  by  such  a 
mark  of  respect,  offered  the  young  composer  iiis  advice 
and  friendship.  Auvergne  began  to  compose  a  number 
of  works  for  the  court  and  the  opera,  which  were  much 
admired.  In  1766,  having  the  direction  of  the  spiritual 
concert  entrusted  to  him,  and  being  unable  tp  treat  with 
Mpndonville,  who  asked  an  exorbitant  price  for  his  Motets, 
Auvergne,  undismayed  by  thje  vast  reput^itiou  which  the 
Orpheus  of  Languedoc  (as  Mpndonville  was  called)  bad 
;^cquired  in  that  species  of  composition,  turned  bis  own 
talents  to  it,  and  with  such  success,. that  his  ^'Te  Deum,** 
f*De  Profundis,'*  and  his  ^^Miserefe,"  were  considered  as 
first-rate  work^.  In  1753,  he  composed  the  music  of  the 
first  jcpmic  opera  tliat  was  exhibited  in  France,  and  tbu$ 
prepared  the  way  for  that  style  in  which  Monsigny,  Gretry^ 
itnd  Daleyr^c  have  since  so  ably  distinguished  themselves. 
Auvergne  w^  director  of  the  opera  from  1767  to  1775, 
^nd  from  1785  to  1790.  Although  in  this  time  he  had  not 
^tudii^d  to  accumulate  a  fortune,  be  lived  in  v^ry  e^sy 

}  Moreri.7— Diet  Jf  1st. 

A  U  V  E  B  G  N  E.  201 

eu^cuitistafices  until  the  revolution,  when  be  lost  all  hU 
pkces,  and  jw^s  thrown  into  a  state  approaching  to  indi« 
getice.  In  1796,  he  went  to  Lyons,  and  was  consoled  in 
his  age  and  poverty  by  his  sisters  and  his  second  wife,  and 
here  he  died  Feb.  12,  1797,  justly  regretted  by  all  who 
knew  him.  Besides  the  music  already  mentioned,  he 
composed  the  following  operas,  **  Canente,^*  ^*  Enee  et 
Lavinia,"  and  ^^  Hercule  mourant,'*  all  in  his  younger  days, 
but  the  dates  not  specified ;  **  Les  Amours  de  Tempe,*' 
1752  ;  **  Les  Ffetcs  d'Euterpe,"  1758;  «  PolyXene,"  1763; 
^'  La  Venitienne.'*  He  also  retouched  some  former 
operas,  and  composed  the  music  of  several  ballets  per-* 
formed  at  Versailles  and  Fontainbleau.  It  seems  remarks- 
able  that  so  popular  a  composer,  and  one  who  had  contri- 
buted so  much  to  *^  gladden  life*^  in  the  gay  metropolis  of 
France,  should  Jiave  been  left  to  end  his  days  in  obscurity 
and  poverty, ' 

AUVIGNY  (N.  Castres  d'),  born  in  the  Hainaut,  lived 
some  time  with  th&  abb^  des  Fontaines,  who  formed  his 
taste.  He  entered  afterwards  into  the  light  ^horse-guards^ 
.and  was  killed  in  the  battle  of  Dettingen,  in  1743,  at  the 
age  of  3 1 .  He  was  a  man  of  genius  and  imagination.  His 
'  writings  are :  L  ^^  Memoirs  of  madame  de  Barneveldt,''  a 
roaiiu^e,  2  vols.  12mo.  2.  ^*  An  abridgment  of  the  his- 
tory of  France  and  of  the  Roman  history,*'  by  question 
and « answer,  2  vols.  12mo.  which  was  recommended  as 
useful  to  young  persons.  It  used  to  be,  and  sometimes  yet 
is,  attributed  to  the  abb6  des  Fontaines,  who  only  revised  it, 
but  overlooked  several  inaccuracies  in  the  dates  and 
njsgiigences  in  the  style.  3.  The  three  6rst  volumes,  and 
Jupif ,  of  the  fourth,  of  the  ^^  History  of  Paris,**  in  5  vols. 
l;2mo.  4.  Tl^e  eight  first  volumes  of  the  ^^  Lives  of  the 
illjustrious  men  of  France,'*  in  12mo.  The  ninth,  and  the 
tenth  were  published  in  1744,  by  his  brother,  canon  of 
Pr^montr^.  The  work  was  continued  by  the  abb^  Pereau 
;ind  M.  Turpin.  D*Auvigny*8  part  is  written  with  spirit, 
and  contains  curious  anecdotes  and  facts  but  little  known. 
But  the  author  prefers  the  ornaments  of  style  to  historical 
pr^ci^iou,  and  sometimes  adopts  the  romantic  tone.  His 
jdictipil  is  ii^  geneiral  either  laboriously  inflated,  or  too  neg« 
ligent*  * 

AUZOUT  (Adrian)  was  a  French  astronomer,  and  a 
jpember  of  the  old  academy  of  France,  into  wliich  he  was 

»  Diet.  Hist.  «  ibid.—Moreri. 

20*  A  U  Z  O  U  T. 

^received  in  1666,  He  is  principally  knomi  fdr  licivitigf 
brought  to  perfection  the  micrometer,  an  instrument 
tisuaUy  fitted  to  a  telescope,  in  the  focus  of  the  object- 
glass,  for  measuring  small  angles  or  distances.  This  be 
published  in  1666,  but  Mr.  Townley,  in  the«Philosophical 
Transactions,  claims  it  for  one  of  our  countrymen.  Mi*. 
Gascoigne.  He  relates  that  from  some  scattered  letters 
and  papers  of  this  gentlemen,  who  was  killed  in  the  grand 
rebellion,  he  had  learned  that  before  its  breaking  out,  he 
had  invented  a  micrometer,  of  as  much  effect  as  that  made 
by  M.  Auzout,  and  had  made  use  of  it  for  some  years '; 
not  only  in  taking  the  diameters  of  the  planets^  and  distan- 
ces upon  land,  but  in  determining  other  matters  of  nice 
importance  in  the  heavens,  as  the  moon's  distance,  &c, 
Mr.  Gascoigne's  instrument  also  fell  into  the  hands  of  Mr. 
Townley,  who  says  ferther,  that  by  the  help  of  it  he  could 
make  above  40,000  divisions  in  a  foot.  The  French  writ- 
ers endeavour  to  deny  all  this,  and  conclude  with  an  as* 
sertion,  as  illiberal  as  it  is  false,  that  every  nation  has  a 
zeal  for  its  literary  glory,  but  that  in  England  alone  this- 
zeal  is  pushed  to  ardour  and  to  injustice.  Auzout,  l)ow^ 
ever,  was  an  astronomer  of  acknowledged  abilities.  He 
died  in  1691.* 

•  AYALA  (Gabriel),  a  physician,  of  a  Spanish  family, 
iitudied  at  Antwerp,  about  the  beginning  of  the  sixteenth 
century,  and  took  bis  doctor's  degree  in  medicine  at  Loa- 
vain  in  1556.  He  practised  chiefly  at  Brussels,  and  was 
appointed  physician-pensionary  to  that  city.  He  was  also 
esteemed  among  his  learned  contemporaries,  on  account  of 
his  poetical  talents,  and  taste  in  polite  literature,  Hia 
works  are  :  1 .  "  Popular ia  epigrammata  medica."  2.  ^*  Car* 
men  pro  vera  Medicina."  3.  "  De  Lue  pestilenti."  4. 
**  Elegiarum  liber  unus,"  printed  together,  Antwerp,  1562, 
4to.  * 

AYLESBURY  (Thomas),  a  patron  of  learning,  was  the 
second  son  of  William  Aylesbury  by  his  wife  Anne,  daugh- 
ter of  John  Poole,  esq.  and  was  born  in  London  in  1576: 
He  was  educated  at  Westminster  school,  and,  in  1598,  be* 
came  a  student  of  Christ  church,  Oxford ;  where  he  dis- 
tinguished himself  by  his  assiduous  application  to  bis  stu- 

1  Httiton*8  Mathematical  Diet,  in  art»  Micrometer.-^-Eloges  dei  Acadeniciens, 
▼ol.  I.  p.  1781  edit.  1799— Diet.  Hist, 

•  Antonio  Bibl.  Hist.— Foppen  13ibl.  Belg.— Vander  Linden  de  Script.  M«d.— 
Diet  Hist. 

A  Y  L  E  S  B-  U  R  V.  80* 

dresi  especially  the  mathematics  In  June  1605,  be  took 
his  degree  of  M.  A,  After  he  quitted  the  university,  he 
was  employed  as  secretary  to  Charles  earl  of  Nottingham^ 
then  lord  high  admiral  of  England,  in  which  post  he  had* 
an  opportunity  of  improving  his  mathematical  knowledge, 
as  well  as  of  giving  many  proofs  of  it.  On  this  account 
when  George  VillierS|  duke  of  Buckingham,  succeeded 
the  earl  of  Nottingham  as  high  admiral,  Mr.  Aylesbuiy 
not  only  kept  his  employment,  but  was  also,  by  the  favotir 
of  that  powerful  duke,  created  a  baronet,  April  19,  1627, 
having  been  before  made  master  of  requests,  and  master 
of  the  mint.  These  lucrative  employments  furnished  him 
with  the  means  of  expressing  his  regard  for  learned  men« 
He  not  only  made  all  men  of  science  welcome  at  his  table, 
and  afforded  them  all  the  countenance  he  could ;  but  like* 
wise  gave  to  such  of  them  as  were  in  narrow  circumstances, 
regular  pensions  out  of  his  own  fortune,  and  entertained 
them  at  his  bouse  in  Windsor-park,  where  he  usually  spent 
Ae  sumnxer.  Walter  Warner,  who,  at  his  request,  wrote 
a  treatise  on  coins  and  coinage,  and  the  famous  Mr.  Tho- 
mas Harriot,  were  among  the  persons  to  whom  he  extended 
his  patronage,  and  Harriot  left  him  (in  conjunction  with* 
Robert  Sidney  and  viscount  Lisle)  all  his  writings  and  all 
the  MSS.  he  had  collected.  Mr.  Thomas  Allen  of  Oxford, 
likewise,  whom  he  had  recommended  to  the  duke  of  Buck- 
ingham, confided  his  manuscripts  to  sir  Thomas,  who  is 
said  to  have  been  one  of  the  most  acute  and  candid  critics 
of  his  time.  By  this  means  he  accumulated  a  valuable  li- 
brary of  scarce  books  and  MSS.  which  were  either  lost  at 
home  during  the  civil  wars,  or  sold  abroad  to  relieve  his 
distresses;  for  in  1642  his  adherence  to  the  king,  occa- 
sioned his  being  turned  out  of  his  places,  and  plundered  of 
kis  estates.  This  he  bore  with  some  fortitude,  but  the  mur- 
der of  his  sovereign  gave  him  a  distaste  of  his  country,  and 
vetiring  with  his  family  to  F4anders,  he  lived  for  some  time 
at  Brussels,  and  afterwards  at  Breda,  where  in  1657  he 
died.  He  left  a  son  William,  who,  at  the  request  of 
Charles  I.  undertook  to  translate  D'Avila's  History  of  the 
Givil  Wars  of  France,  which  appeared  in  1647  ;  but  in  the 
second  edition,  published  in  1678,  the  merit  of  the  whole 
translation  is  given  to  sir  Charles  Cotterel,  except  a  few 
passages  in  the  first  four  books.  The  calamities  of  his* 
country  affected  this  gentleman  too,  and  in  1657,  when 
Cromwell  fitted  out  a  fleet  to  ^o  on  an  expedition  to  the 

90*  A  Y  L  E  S  B  U.R  Y, 

West  Indies,  and  to  carry  a  supply  to  the  isknd  of  Ja- 
maica, Mr.  Aylesbury,  from  pure  necessity,  engaged  him- 
self as  secretary  to  the  governor,  and  died  on  the  island 
soon  after.  His  surviving  sister,  the  countess  of  Claren- 
don,  became  heiress  of  what  could  be  recovered  of  the 
family  estate.  * 

AY  LETT  (Robert),  master  in  chancery,  was  educated 
in  Trinity  hall,  Cambridge,  wherein  1 6 1 4  he  commenced 
LL.  D.  It  was  his  usual  practice  to  relax  himself  after  bis 
severer  studies  with  poetry.  Besides  his  "  Divine  and 
Moral  Speculations"  in  verse,  London,  1654,  8vo,  he 
wrote  "  Susanna,  or  the  Arraignment  of  the  two  Elders,'* 
in  verse,  Lond.  1622,  Svo.  Mr.  Wood  starts  a  question 
whether  he  was  author  of  "  Britannia  Antiqua  illustrata,'* 
published  under  the  name  of  Aylett  Sammes,  but  said  to 
be  written  by  his  uncle.  Certain  it  is  that  the  nominal 
author  was  unequal  to  it,  though  much  learning  and  la- 
bour have  been  spent  on  it  to  very  little  purpose.  The 
Ceusura  Literaria  attributes  to  Dr.  Aylett  four  pastoral 
eclogues,  entitled  "  A  Wife  not  ready  made,  but  be- 
spoken :"  the  dedication  of  which  is  signed  R.  A.  and  the 
second  edition  was  pubhsbed  in  1653,  8vo.  ^ 

AYLMER,  or  ^LMER  (John),  an  eminent  English 
prelate,  descended  from  a  very  ancient  and  honourable  fa- 
in ily,  seated  at  Aylmer-hall,  in  Norfolk,  was  born  in  1521, 
and  being  a  younger  brother,  was  either  recommiended  hy 
his  relations,  or  recommended  himself  by  his  pregnant 
parts,  to  the  marquis  of  Dorset  (Henry  Grey),  ^fter^ards 
duke  of  Suffolk,  who  honoured  him  with  the  title  of  his 
Scholar,  and  gave  him  an  exhibition  fit  the  university  of 
Cambridge.  When  he  had  there  stained  competent 
learning,  the  marquis  took  him  home,  where  he  became 
tutor  to  his  children,  amongst  whom  was  the  lady  Jane, 
whp  for  some  days  was  styled  queen,  and  who,  under 
Aylmer's  tuition,  acquired  the  Latin  and  Greek  tongues, 
reading  and  writing  in  the  latter  with  ease  and  elegance. 
By  his  care  also,  she  received  right  principles  of  religion, 
as  he  imbibed  the  opinions  of  the  primitive  reformers ;  and 
haying  for  his  patrons  the  duke  of  Suffolk  and  tbe  ea,rl  of 
Huntingdon,  in  the  reign  of  Edward  VI„  was  for  some  time 
the  only  preacher  in  Leicestershire ;  where  he  hfid  great  suc- 
cess in  inculcating  the  Protestant  religion.     When  the  cele? 

»  Biog.  Brit.— At^.  Ox.  vol.  I.— Lloyd's  Memoirs,  fol  p.  699. 
:  «  GrtDger'sfiios.  Hist.— Wood's  At|i»n»,  vol.  II.— Ceaiura  Literaria,  vol.  V.' 

A  Y  L  M  E  R.  «<5* 

bnUe'd  Asoham,  in  a  visit  to  lady  Jane  in  1550,  asked  her 
how  so  young  a  lady  (not  then  above  fourteen)  could  have 
arrived  at  such  perfection  both  in  philosophy  and  the 
Greek  language,  she  bore  the  following  testimony  to  the 
merit  of  her  tutor ;  <<  I  will  tell  you/'  said  she,  *^  and  tell 
you  truth, .  which,  perchance,  you  will  marvel  at.  One  of 
the  greatest  benefits  which  ever  God  gave  me,  is  that  he 
sent  so  sharp  and  severe  parents,  and  so  gentle  a  schooK 
master.  For  when  I  am  in  presence  either  of  father  or 
member,  whether  I  speak,  keep  silence,  sit,  stand,  or  go ; 
eat,  drink,  be  merry  or  sad;  be  sewing,  playing,  dancing, 
or  doing  any  thing  else,  I  must  do  it,  as  it  were,  in  such 
weight,  measure,  and  number,  and  even  so  perfectly,  as 
God  made  the  world,  or  else,  I  am  so  sharply  taunted,  so 
cruelly  threatened,  yea,  presently  sometimes  with  pinches, 
nips,  and  bobs  (or  other  ways,  which  I  will  not  name,  for 
the  honour  I  bear  them),  so  without  measure  misordered, 
that  I  think  myself  in  hell,  till  time  come  that  I  must  go 
to  Mr.  ElmeVj  who  teacheth  me  so  gently,  so  pleasantly, 
with  fiatir  allurements  to  learning,  that  I  think  all  the  time 
nothing  while  I  am  with  him  ;  and  when  I  am  called  from 
him,  I  fall  a  weeping,  because  whatsoever  I  do  ehe  but 
learning,  is  full  of  grief,  trouble,  fear,  and  wholly  mislik- 
ing  unto  me ;  and  this  my  book  hath  been  so  much  my 
pleasure,  and  bringeth  daily  to  me  more  pleasure,  and 
more  yet,  in  respect  to  it,  all  other  pleasures,  in  very 
deed,  be  but  trifles  and  troubles  unto  me.*'  Mr.  Ascham 
was  so  affected  with  this  interview,  that  in  a  letter  to  lady 
Jane,  dated  the  eighteenth  of  January,  1551,  be  speaks  of 
it  in  rapture,  and  by  a  beautiful  apostrophe,  addressing 
himself  to  Mr.  Aylmer;  felicitates  him  on  his  having  so  in- 
genious, a  scholar,  in  a  strain  of  compliment,  which  he 
saysr  the  great  Sturmius  made  use  of  to  him,  speaking  of 
his  happiness,  in  having  the  lady  Elizabeth  for  his  pupil. 
]n  this  letter  it  is,  that  he  desires  Mr.  Aylroer,  to  whom 
he  foresaw  it  would  be  shewn,  to  engage  the  lady  Jane, 
to  write  ^  letter  in  Greek  to  himself,  and  another  to  Stur* 
mius,  and  also  desires  they  might  continue  to  live  in  the 
same  learned  friendship  and  intercourse,  which  they  had 
hiiherto  4otie- 

The  first  preferment  bestowed  upon  Aylmer,  was  the 
archdeaconry  of  Stow,  in  the  diocese  of  Lincoln,  which 
giving  him  a  seat  in  the  convocation,  held  in  the  first  year 
of  queen  Mary,  be  boldly  opposed  that  return  to  Popery, 

3^06  A  y-L  M  E  ft. 

•which  he  s^w  apjiroaching.  He  was  ooe  of  &x^  whd^  in 
the  midst  of  all  the  violence  of  that  assembly,  offered  to 
dispute  all  the  controverted  points  in  religion,  against  the 
most  learned  champions  of  the  Papists.  But  when  the>8U<- 
preme  power  began  to  employ  force,  archdeacon  Ayimer 
withdrew^  and  escaped  abroad  in  almost  a  miraculous  man- 
ser^*  He  resided  first  at  Strasbourg,  afterwards  at  Zu- 
jrick  in  Switzerland,  and  there  in  peace  followed  his  studies, 
employing  all  his  time  in  acquiring  knowledge,  or  inaseost- 
ing  other  men  of  study.  His  thoughts,  though  in  a  distant 
country,  were  continually  employed  in  the  service  of  £ng« 
land,  and  of  Englishmen.  He  published  (as  Strype  sup* 
.poses)  lady  Jane  Grey's  letter  to  Harding,  who  had  been 
her  father's  chaplain,  and  who  apostatized.  He  -assisted 
Fox  in  translating  the  History  of  English  Martyrs  into 
JLatin,  and  also  in  the  version  of  archbishop  Cranoier's 
Vindication  of  the  book  on  the  Sacram^it,  against  GardU 
uer,  bishop  of  Winchester,  which,  however,  was  never 
printed.  Duruig  these  employments  he  found  leisure  to 
visit  mx)6t  of  the  universities  of  Italy  and  Gemany,  and 
had  an  offer  from  the  duke  of  Saxooy,  of  the  Hebrew  pro^ 
fessor^p  of  Jena,  which  he  refused,  on  the  project  of 
speedily  returning  home.  It  was  during  his  exile  likewise 
ihat  he  wrote  the  only  work  of  consequence  which  he  ever 
published,  in  answer  to  the  famous  Scotch  reformer,  John 
Knox.  In  1556,  John  Knox  printed,  at  Geneva,  a  trea- 
tise under  this  title :  ^*  The  first  Blast  against  the  mon* 
«trous  regiment  and  eoopire  of  Women,"  to  shew  that, 
by  the  laws  of  God,  women  could  not  exercise  sovareiga 
Buthorityk'  The  ofa^ts  of  this  attack  were  the  two  <{ueens, 
Mary  of  Lorrain,  then  regent  of  Scotland,  and  Mary  quecoi 
of  England.  It  was  violent,  but  iiot  xmarg^umentative,  aii4l 
he  could  s^opeal  with  ^ect  to  the  laws  of  Frauoe,  and  to 
the  recent  proposal  of  Edward  VI.  to  adopt  the  same  lai#. 
He  intended  a  second,  and  a  third  part ;  but  findii^g  k 
.gave  offence  to  many  of  his  brethren,  and  being  desirous 
to  strengthen  rather  than  invalidate  the  authority  of  Eliza*- 
beth,  he  relinquished  his  design.  ^11  as  this  first  taadedi 
to  injure  the  Protestant  religion  in  the  minds  of  Princes, 
and  those  in  authority,  Mr.  Aylmer  resolved  to  employ  his 

*  Fuller  says  that  the  ship  in  whieh  and  that  Aylmer,  who  was  a  man  sf 

he  embarked  was  searched,  and  that  he  low  stature,  sat  on  one  side  of  it,  while 

was  concealed  in  a  very  laiye  wine  ves"  the  searchers  4lnAk  w'me  out  of  Ul0 

stl,  with  a  partition  in  Hkt  middle  ;  other. 

A  t  L  M  £  ft.  m07 

peo  in  die  performance  of  a  duty  incumbent  opon  fabn^  Ms 
a  Christian  divine,  and  a  good  subject.  His  piece  was  en- 
titled, '<  An  Harborowe  for  faitbfuU  and  trewe  subjects^ 
against  the  late  blowne  Blaste,  concerning  the  government 
of  Women.  Wherein  bee  confuted  al  such  reasons  as  n 
atraunger  of  late  made  in  that  behalfe*  With  a  briefe  Ex^ ' 
hortatton  to  obedience.^'  Strasbourg,  April  26,  1559,  de^ 
dicated  to  the  earl  of  Bedford,  and  Icnrd  Bobert  Dudl^ 
{afterwards  earl' of  Leicester,  then)  master  of  the  queen^js 
horse.  This  hook  is  written  with  great  vivacity,  and  at 
Ae  same  time  discovers  its  author's  deep  and  general  learn- 
ing. It  contains,  however,  some  sentiments  rather  more 
in  favour  of  the  Puritans  than  he  afterwards  held,  a  cir- 
cumstance whfich  was  objected  to  him  by  some  of  that 
party,  when  in  discharge  of  his  episcopal  duty  he  found 
it  necessary  to  repress  their  endeavours  to  assimilate  the 
church  of  Eugkud  with  that  of  Geneva. 

After  the  iu:ccsssion  of  queen  Elizabeth,  Aylmer  returned 
home,  and  was  one  of  the  eight  divines  appointed  to  dis-- 
pute  with  as  many  popish  bishops  at  Westminster,  in  the 
presence  of  a  great  assembly.  In  1562,  he  obtained  the 
archdeaconry  of  Lincoln,  by  the  favour  of  Mr.  secretary 
Cecil ;  and  in  right  of  this  dignity,  sat  in  the  famous  sy- 
nod held  the  saxae  year,  wherein  the  doctrine  and  disci- 
pline of  the  church,  and  its  reformation  from  the  abuses  of 
pop^y,  were  carefully  examined  and  settled.  In  this 
fituatton  he  continued  for  many  years,  and  discharged  the 
duty  of  a  good  subject  to  the  government  under  which  hh 
lively  in  church  and  state  ;  being  one  of  the  cfueen's  jus'- 
lices  of  the  peace,  as  also  an  ecclesiastical  commissioner. 
In  October,  1573,  he  accumulated  the  degrees  of  bachelor 
aad  doctor  in  divinity,  in  the  university  of  Oxford.  The 
next  year  the  archbidKip  of  Canterbury  made  choice  of 
kim,  to  answer  a  book  written  in  Latin  against  the  govern- 
ment of  the  eharch  of  England ;  but  after  thoroughly  con« 
nderiag  it.  Dr.  Aylmer  declined  the  task,  which  some  iit 
those  days  (perhaps  unjustly)  attributed  to  discontent,  be «• 
canse  he  was  not  made  a  bishop.  To  this  dignity  he  had 
been  often  named  by  Parker,  then  archbishop  of  Canter- 
bury^  but  always  prevented  either  by  the  interest  of  the 
aroMBU^op's  enemies,  or  his  own,  the  latter  never  failing 
to  suggest,  that  in  the  same  book  where  Aylmer  had  mide 
his  court  to  the  queen,  he  had  also  shewn  his  spleen 
agaiast^efiiscojiacy.    At  W,  in  tkeye^t  1 57  6,  on  Dr.  Ed^ 

SM  A  Y  L  M  £  IL 

win  Sandys  b^ing  promoted  to  the  archbishopric  df  Vort^r 
Dr.  Aylixier  was  made  bishop  of  London,  not  without  ihm 
furtherance  of  his  predecessor,  who  was  his  intimate  friend^ 
and  had  been  his  fellow^exile.  Yet,  immediately  after  bis 
.promotion,  bishop  Aylmer  found,  or  thought  he  found, 
cause  to  complain  of  the  archbishop ;  and  although  bis 
^race  assisted  at  his  consecration,  on  the  24th  of  March, 
J  576,  bishop  Aylmer  sued  him  for  dilapidations,  which 
after  some  years  prosecution  he  recovered.  In  1577,  our 
bishop  began  his  first  visitation,  wherein  he  urged  sub- 
scriptions, which  some  ministers  refused,  and  reviled  such 
as  complied,  calling  them  dissemblers,  a^d  comparing 
them  to  Arians  and  Anabaptists.  He  was  also  extremely 
assiduous  in  public  preaching,  took  much  pains  in  exa* 
mining  such  as  came  to  him  for  ordination,  and  kept  a 
strict  eye  over  the  Papists  and  Puritans ;  in  which  he  acted 
not  only  to  the  extent  of  episcopal  authority,  but  wrote 
freely  to  the  treasurer  Burleigh,  as  to  what  he  thought 
farther  necessary.  When  the  plague  raged  in  London,  in 
the  year  1578,  our  bishop  shewed  a  paternal  care  of  his 
clergy  and  people,  and  without  exposing  the  former  to^ 
needless  perils,  took  care  that  these  last  should  not  be 
without  spiritual  comforts.  In  1581  came  out  Campion^s 
book,  shewing  the  reasons  why  he  had  deserted  the  re* 
formed, .  aud  returned  to  the  popish  communion.  It  was 
written  in  very  elegant  Latin,  and  dedicated  to  the  scho* 
lars  of  both  universities ;  and  the  treasurer  Burleigh  thought 
that  it  should  be  answered,  and  referred  the  care  thereof 
to  our  bishop,  who  though  he  gave  his  opinion  freely  upon 
the  subject,  as  to  the  mode  in  which  it  should  be  done,  yet 
declined  the  task  himself  on  account  of  the  great  business 
he  had  upon  his  hands,  and  it  was  undertaken  and  ably 
executed  by  Dr.  Whitaker.  Aylmer  was  indeed  no  great 
friend  to  controversy,  which  he  thought  turned  the  minds 
of  the  people  too  much  from  the  essence  of  religion,  made, 
them  quarrelsome  and  captious,  indifferent  subjects,  and 
not  very  good  Christians.  On  this  account,  he  was  mor^ 
severe  with  the  Puritans  than  the  Papists,  imprisoning  one 
Woodcock,  a  stationer  or  bookseller,  for  vending  a  trea* 
tise,  entitled  *<  An  Admonition  to  Parliament,'*  which 
tended  to  subvert  the  church  as  it  was  then  constituted: 
He  had  likewise  some  disputes  with  one  Mn  Welden,  a 
person  of  a  good  estate  and  interest,  in  Berkshire^  wn6ai 
he  procured  tp  be  conunitt^d  by  the  ecc^siastioal  cOob^ 


A  V  L  M  E  R.^  209 

xniiisioners.  These  proceedings  roused  the  Puritans,  who 
treated  him  as  a  persecutor,  and  an  enemy  to  true  reli- 
gion ;  but  this  did  not  discourage  the  bishop^  who  thought 
the  peace  of  the  church  was  to  be  secured  by  the  authority 
of  its  fathers)  and  therefore  he  executed  his  episcopal 
power^  as  far  and  as  often  as  he  thought  necessary.  Thu3 
he  suddenly  summoned  the  clergy  of  London  to  his  p^* 
lace  on  Sunday,  September  27,  1379,  at  one  o^ clock.  On 
this  summons  forty  appeared;  and  the  dean  being  likewise 
present,  the  bishop  cautioned  them  of  two  things,  one  was, 
not  to  meddle  with  the  Ubiquitarian  controversy;  the 
other,  to  avoid  meddling  with  the  points  treated  in  Stubb's 
book,  entitled  "  The  Discovery  of  a  gaping  Gulph,"  &c: 
written  against  the  queen's  marriage  with  Monsieur,  the 
French  king^s  brother,  and  in  which  it  was  suggested,  that 
the  queen  wavered  in  her  religion.  This  method  being 
found  very  effectual,  he  summoned  his  clergy  often,  and 
made  strict  inquiries  into  their  conduct,  a  practice  as 
much  approved  by  some,  as  censured  by  others  ;  and  his 
unpopularity,  perhaps,  might  occasion,  in  some  measure, 
that  violence  with  which  he  was  prosecuted  before  the 
council,  in  May  1579,  for  cutting  down  his  woods,  when 
he  was  severely  checked  by  the  lord  treasurer ;  but  not- 
withstanding his  angry  letters  to  that  great  nobleman,  and 
his  long  and  laboured  defence  of  himself,  he  was,  at 
length,  by  the  queen's  command,  forbidden  to  fell  any 

On  the  6th  of  April,  in  the  same  year,  there  was  a  dread- 
ful earthquake  ;  and  in  the  dead  of  the  night  of  the  1st  of 
May,  it  was  felt  again,  which,  as  it  exceedingly  terrified 
the  people,  so  the  bishop,  that  he  might  turn  their  con- 
cern to  a  proper  object,  and  at  the  same  time  exhibit  to 
them  reasonable  grounds  of  comfort,  composed  certain 
prayers  to  be  made  use  of  in  the  public  service.  In  1581, 
the  bishop  had  an  angry  contest  with  the  lord  RicI^,  who 
kept  one  Wright  a  puritan  minister  in  his  house,  and  would 
have  compelled  the  bisliop  to  license  him  to  preach  in  his 
diocese  ;  but  on  a  hearing  before  the  ecclesiastical  com- 
shis^ioners,  Wright  was  committed  to  the  Fleet,  and  others 
who  had  interfered  in  this  afFairi  to  other  prisons.  This 
increased  the  number  of  his  enemies,  of  whom  he  had  not 
a  ^few  before,  who  daily  suggested  that  he  was  a  violent 
iQSui>  aud  sought  to  vest  too  great  a  power  in  churchmen ; 
ahdTthese  representations  had  such  effect,  that  sometimes 

Vol.  III.  P 

210  -  A  Y  L  M  E  R. 

snessages  were  sent  to  hioiy  to  abate  somewhat  of  the  rigour 
of  his  proceedings.  His  lordship,  however,  still  supported 
the  ecclesiastical  commission,  by  his  presence  and  autho- 
rity ;  and  though  a  milder  course  might  have  made  him 
ipore  popular,  yet  he  thought  it  better  to  suffer  himself, 
than  that  the  church  should.  He  began,  however^  to  have 
many  doubts  ooncerning  the  treasurer,  from  whose  hands 
his  re.proofs  usually  came  :  but  upon  the  winding  up  of  his 
catise  before  the  council  about  felling  of  woods,  he  ^aw 
clearly^  that  he  had  no  friend  equal  to  the  treasurer,  who, 
though  he  endeavoured  by  his  admonitions  to  prevent  his 
falling  into  difficulties,  yet  generously  exerted  his  utmost 
power  to  help  him  out  of  them,  so  &r  as«  was  consistent 
with  equity,  and  the  good  of  the  common  weal.  From  this 
time  forward,  therefore,  the  bishop  applied  chiefly  to  the 
treasurer,  for  any  favours  he  expected  from  court,  par- 
ticularly with  regard  to  the  business  of  his  translation.  He 
became  exceedingly  solicitous  to  be  removed  from  Lon- 
don, either  to  Winchester  or  Ely ;  but,  though  he  had 
many  fair  promises,  his  interest  was  insufficient,  and  iii  the 
mean  time  new-  informations,  some  with  little,  many  with 
no  cause  at  all,  were  exhibited  against  him,  and  gave  him 
not  a  little  uneasiness,  although,  on  a  thorough  examina- 
tion, his  conduct  escaped  the  censure  of  his  superiors.  In 
1583  he  performed  his  triennial  visitation,  and  having  dis- 
covered many  scandalous  corruptions  in  the  ecclesiastical 
courts,  especially  in  the  business  of  commuting  penances, 
he  honestly  represented  what  came  to  his  knowledge  to 
the  privy  council.  About  this  time  also  he  suspended 
certain  ministers,  accused  of  nonconformity;  and  it  ap* 
pears,  that  upon  a  thorough  examination  of  the  matter,  his 
lordship  did  impartial  justice,  in  restoring  one  Mr.  GifFard, 
whom  he  had  twice  suspended,  when  those  who  had 
charged  him  were  able  to  make  nothing  out.  In  this  year 
also  he  committed  Mr.  Thomas  Cartwright,  the  celebrated 
Puritan  minister,  who  had  written  against  the  hierarchy. 
Yet  for  this  his  lordship  incurred  the  queen's  displeasure ; 
and  a  little  after  was  informed  that  he  stood  accused  to  her 
majesty,  for  impairing  the  revenues  of  his  bishopric,  of 
which  iie  purged  himself,  by  exhibiting  a  state  of. the 
bishopric  as  it  then  stood,  compared  with  the  condition  it 
was  in  when  he  became  bishop.  Other  difficulties  he  oiet 
with,  on  account  of  the  share  he  had  in  executing.' ber 
majesty's  ecclesiastical  commission,  from  which  theve  were 


4Y.  tMEB,  au 

who  &voured  tlia.  Pqrii^na^  did  not  &ii  to  ot^ecttto*  (b^ 
bi9hap^9  eond^P^  which  qontribute^DOtaEliUl^.to  imtate 
hh  w^ni  temper.  lu  158^  b^s  compiQ8^4  &  pv»it|(6r.  to  Imis 
used  W  account. of  the  rainy  tlnaeasQ^abl^  .weather,  whick 
ha  recominend^  to  .priviite  femiliefly  a»  well  as  dicc^tedl  to 
be  read  with  theppblic pnayer^,  >  He  aUo  used  hfis  interest 
tp  quiet  the  murnlurs  of  the  coDimoD  people  in  Londooy 
against  the  crowda  of  strangers  who  fled  hither,  to  avoid' 
the  persecutioa3  raised  against  them,  for  emii^raGing  the 
Protestant  religion.  In  the  summer  of  the  year  1586,  the 
bishop  went  his  next  triennial  viiutation,  and  at  Maiden  iu 
{Issex,  narrowly  escaped,  an  outrageous  insult,  intended 
against  him  by  some  disaffected  persons.  In  1587,  the 
bishop  entered  into  a  new  scei^e  of  trpuble,  on  account  o£ 
one  Mr.  Robert  Cawdry,  schoolmaster,  whotti  the  lorcl 
Surleigh  had  presented  to  the  living  of  South  Luffenhaai 
in  Kutiandshire,  where,  after  preaching  sixteen  years,,  he 
WBS  convened  before  the  ecclesiastical  eommtssion^  and  at 
length,  the  bishop  sitting  as  Judge,  deprived.  Cawdryi 
would  not  submit  to  the  sentence  ;  upon  which  the  ipat-« 
ter  was  re*-examined  by  the  ecclesiastical  commission^  »t 
Lambeth,  where  to.  deprivation,  degradation  was  added. 
Cawdry,  however,  .still  refusing  to  submit,  made:  new  and 
warm  representations  to  the  lord  Budeighi  who  favoured 
him  as  much  as  with  justice  he  could  :  but.  after  near  five 
years  contest,  the  bishop's  and  ai^bishop's  sentences  were 
3upp(»rted,  both  by  the  civil  and  common  lawyera.  In 
1588,  his  lordship  restored  one  Mr.  Henry.  Smith,  a  very 
eloquent  and  much  admired  preachev,  whom  he  bad  sus-> 
pended  for  contemptuous  expressions  against  the  bodk  of 
Conunoa  Prayer,  which  Smith  denied.  In  1539,  he  ex- 
pressed  his  dislike  of  certain  libels  against  the  king  of 
Spain,  giving  it  as  his  reason,  that  on  so  glorious  a  victory, 
k  was  better  to  thank  God,  than  insult  men,  especially 
princes.  That  year  also  he  visited  his  diocescj^  though  he 
was  grown  old  and  veiy  infirm,  and  suspended  one  Dyke 
at  St.  Alban*s,  though  he  had  becjn  recommended  by  the 
lord  treasurer.  In  1591  be  caused  the  above-mentioned 
Mr.  Cartwrigbt  to  be  brought  before  him  out  of  the  Fleet, 
and  expostuTa];ed  with  him  rouixdly,  on  the  disturbance  he 
bad  given  the  church.  Ta  159i2,  be  strongly  solicited  in 
fevburof  Dr.  BuHtagham,\and  Dr.  Cole,  that  they  might 
W  preferred  to,  bi^jhoprlcs^  bujii  .without  success,  which  his 


312  A  Y  L  M  E  R. 

lordship  foresaw.  For  he  observed  when  he  applied  for 
them,  that  he  was  not  so  happy  as  to  do  much  good  for  hi9 
friends ;  yet  he  added,  he  would  never  be  wanting  in  shew- 
ing  his  good  will,  both  to  them  and  to  the  church.  About 
this  time,  casting  his  eye  on  Dr.  Bancroft,  a  rising  and  very 
active  man,  be  endeavoured  to  obtain  leave  to  resign  his 
bishopric  to  him,  as  a  man  every  way  (it  for  such  a  charge ; 
but  in  this  also  he  was  disappointed,  which  it  seems  lay 
heavy  at  his  heart ;  for  even  on  his  death-bed,  he  express- 
ed his  earnest  desire  that  Bancroft  might  succeed  him. 
In  1592,  the  bishop  assisted  at  his  son's  visitation,  as  arch- 
deacon of  London,  and  exerted  himself  with  as  much  zeal 
and  spirit  as  he  had  ever  shewn  in  his  life.  His  great  age, 
and  great  labours,  however,  weighed  him  down  by^^rees, 
iaind  he  died  June  3,  1594,  and  bis  body  being  brou^t> 
from  his  palace  at  Fulham,  was  interred  in  St.  Paul's  ca« 
thedral  before  St.  George's  chapel,  under  a  fair  stone  ef 
grey  marble,  with  an  inscription  which  was  demolished  by- 
the  republicans  in  Cromwell's  time.  Bishop  Aylmer  mar- 
ried Judith  Bures,  or  Buers,  of  a  very  good  family  in  S.uf- 
folk^  by  whom  he  had  a  very  numerous  offspring,  viz.  seven 
sons,  ^nd  two  or  three  daughters.  As  to  the  personal, 
qualities  of  the  bishop,  they  were,  as  those  of  most  men 
are,  good  and  bad,  the  former,  perhaps,  too  muchmagni^ 
fied  by  his  friends,  as  the  latter  were  By  his  enemies.  He 
was  solidly  and  extensively  learned  in  all  things  that  be-* 
came  either  a  great  churchman,  or  a  polite  man,  to  know* 
He  was  very  well  versed  in  the  three  learned  languages, 
had  read  much  history,  was  a  good  logician,  and  very  well 
skilled  in  the  civil  law.  As  a  divine,  he  had  studied,  and 
understood  the  scripture  thoroughly ;  could  preach,  not 
only  rhetorically  but  pathetically ;  and  in  the  course  of  his 
life*time,  never  buried  his  talent  *.     He  was  in  his  heart, 

*  The  bishop   wa8  not  only  well  of  the  damned ;  but  Christ's  pasf  in£ 

versed  ia  Hebrew  literature  himself^  into  Paradise,  agreeable  to  the  Greek 

but  also  a  great  friend  of  all  such  as  word  Hades,  and  the  Hebrew  Schoel ; 

applied  thsinseUes  to  the  study  of  that  which  are  often  rendered  into  English 

tongue.    Amon^g  otliers,  he  was  re-  by  the  ^rave^  and  do  not  strictly,  or 

markably  kind  to  the  celebrated  Mr.  properly,  signify  hell. '   When  he  ob* 

Broughton,  and  warmly  espoused  his  serred  the  thoughts  of  the  congregs^ 

interpretation   of  that  article  in   the  tiou  to  wander  while  he  was  preaching. 

Creed,  which  respects  Christ's  descent  he'  would  take  a  Hebrew  Bible  out  of 

into  hell,   a  point  in  those  days  very  his  breast,  and  read  a  chapter  out  of 
Warmly  disputed.    Broughton^s  inter-  '  it,  «at  which  when  the  people  naturally 

pretation,  to  which  the  bishop  adhered,  gaped  and  looked  astonished,  he  put?  . 

was  this :  That  the  descent  spoken  of^  Mng  it   up   again,   shewed '  them,  th^  . 

was  not  a  local  descK^nt  into  the  prison  folly  of  IjHtening  greedily  to  ncw^  aa^l 

A  Y  L  M  E  R.  ^  213 

from  the  conviction  of  his  head,  a  Protestant,  and  opposed 
Popery  warmly,  from  a  just  sense  of  its  errors,  which  he 
had  the  conrage  to  combat  openly  in  the  days  of  queen 
Mary,  and  the  honesty  to  suppress  in  the  reign  of  queen 
EKzabetb.  With  all  this,  and  indeed  with  a  temper  occa- 
sionally soured  and  irritable,  he  was  a  good-natured,  face* 
tious  man,  one^  extremely  diligent  and  painful  in  the  sevo* 
rai  employments  he  went  through  ;  of  too  generous  a  tem- 
per to  be  corrupted,  and  of  much  too  stout  a  one  to  be 
brow-beaten.  He  was  a  magnificent  man  in  his  house,  as 
appears  by  his  household,  which  consisted  of  fourscore 
persons,  to  whom  he  was  a  liberal  and  kind  master.  After 
his  fatigues  he  was  .wont  to  refresh  himself,  either  with 
con^'ersation  or  at  bowls.  As  to  his  failings,  his  temper 
wa«  without  doubt  warm,  his  expressions  sometimes  too 
blunt,  and  his  zeal  not  guided  by  wisdom.  His  enemies 
charged  him  with  an  exorbitant  love  of  power,  which  dis*- 
ptayed  itself  in  various  extraordinary  acts  of  severity,  with* 
covetousness,  which  prompted  him  to  spoil  his  see,  and 
injure  a  private  man;  with  intemperate  heat  against  Puri* 
tans,  with  a  slight  regard  of  the  Lord's  day,  aud  with  in- 
decencies in  ordinary  speech ;  some  of  which  charges  must 
be  allowed  a  foundation,  while  on  the  other  hand'  they 
appear  to  have  been  greatly  exaggerated.  But  upon  the 
whole  there  must  have  been  many  errors  in  a  conduct  which 
his  superiors  so  often  reproved.  At  the  time  of  his  decease 
he  left  seven  sons,  and  either  two^  or  three  daughters.  His 
sons  were,  first,  Samuel,  who  was  bred  to  the  law.  He 
was  stiled,  of  Claydon-hall  iu  the  county  of  Suffolk,  and 
was  high-sheriff  of  that  county  innhe  reign  of  king  Charles 
I.  and  by  two  wives  left  a  numerous  posterity.  His  second, 
TSieophilus,  a  most  worthy  divine,  archdeacon  of  Lon- 
don, rector  of  Much-Hadham  in  Hertfordshire,  and  doctor 
of  divinity.  He  was  chaplain  to  king  James,  an  able  and 
zealous  preacher,  and^  like  his  father,  zealous  against  the 
Puritans,  but  so  charitable,  that  he  left  his  own  family  in 
indifferent  circumstances.  •  He  lived  a  true  pattern  of 
Christian  piety,  and  died  heroically,  closing  his  own  eye^ 
lids,  and  with  these  words  in  his  inouth,  ^^  Let  my  people 
know  that  their  pastor  died  undaunted,  and  not  afraid  of 
death :  I  bless  my  God,  I  have  no  fear,  no  doubt,  no  re- 
strange  thififf,  and  giving  inian  at-  tetvet,  «a4  of  Um  mtiBMl  ii|»port« 
tcfttioA'U  mattcrt   rcgardiiDg  tbeob*     aac*. 


A  Y  L  M  E  U. 

iJdctaRcy^  but  a  sure  •confideiice  in  the  sin-bTereomiiig  me^^ 
rits  of  Jesus  Cbrist.''  This  faappeaed  January  1^25.  He 
ma»  buried  in  bis  own  parish  church,  and  the  excellent  pri- 
mate Usher  preached  his  funeral  sermon)  no  inconsiderable 
proof  of  his  merit.  His  third,  John,  who  for  some  eminent 
seryiee  was  knighted,  and  styled  sir  John  Aylmer,  of  Rigby 
in  the  ocMsnty  of  Lincoln^  knt.  Fourth,  fifth,  and  sixth,- 
Zacfaaiy,  Nathaniel,  and  Edmund,  of  whom  we  know  no« 
tbing  particalarly,  except  that  Zachary  and  Edmund  were 
the  warmest  friends  that  age  produced.  When  Edmund 
layfisck^  Eachary  continued,  with.him  night  and  day  till  bis 
death,  and  when  a  person  came  to  measure  the  body,  in 
ohier  to  nfake  a  coffin,  Zachaty  would  be  measured  also^ 
and  in  a  very  short  space  took  possession  of  the  coffin  made 
for  him  at  the  same  time  with  that  of  bis  deceased  brotben 
These  gentlemen  seem  to  have  been  divines.  «  His  seventh^ 
Tobel,  i^e.  God  is  good.  Atchbishop  Whitgift  was  his 
gbd&ther,  and  the  reason  he  was  thus  namted,  was  his  mo« 
tiler's  being  orert;urned  ia  a  coach,  widK>ut  receiving  any 
hurt,  wiien  she  was  big  with  child.  He  wrote  himself  To« 
bcl  Aylm^7  o£  Writtle,  ih  the  domity  of  Essex,  gentleman; 
He  married  a  gientleman's.  daughter  in  that  county,  and  had 
by  ber  several  children.  As  to  the  bishop's  daughters,  Ju-? 
dllih,  the  eldest,  .married  WiUtiam  Lynch,  iof  the  county  of 
Kent,  esq! ;  the  second,  Elizadbetb,  morriediCor  John  Foliot^ 
of  f  erton,  in  the  county  of  Woro^er,  knt.  Either  a  third 
daughter,  ;or  else  iady  Foliot,  took  for  her  second  husband 
Hr.  Sqtriiie,  a  clerg^main,  .^  man .  of.  JiK^it,  bat  yeiy  debauched^ 
ihd  a  gc^at  spendthrift^  thouf|;ih  .he  had  iairge  preferments^ 
Hb  made  a  viery  unktRd  hu^and  to  bis  wife,  which  her 
{atber,  the. bishop,  so  much  resented^  that^  as^Martin  M^x^ 
Bvelite  phvases  it,  **  He  went  to  huSeto.  wit^  bis  son-in- 
law,  for  a  bloody-nose  *."  This  Sqtiir^  died  poor,  leaving 
1  son  named  John,  who  was  well  educated,  and  provided 

♦  Jt  is  reported,  that  when  he  con^ 
ceivefd  liimself  very  ill-treated  by  his 
son-io-laiw^  Sqfoitfe,'«ho  by  k  base  con- 
trivance wowld  baf^e  tarnished  the  re- 
putation of  his  wife,  the  bishop's  daugh- 
ter; the  old'man  took  him  into  a  pri- 
T«te:T00in,  »nd  ba^intrjreproathed  hm 
for  his  wickedness  and  ingratitude,  af- 
terwards disd{)lined  him  stoutly  with 
a  cudgel.  Another  instance  of  his 
GDumge  M&  Strype  gives  Us  a  loag  ac- 
count of,  which,  in  few  words,  amduato 
to  this.    Queen  ^izabetli  was  once 

grievously  tormented  with  the  tooth- 
ache, and  though  it  was  absolutely  ne^ 
cestory,  was  yet  afraid  to  bave  her 
tooth  drawn :  bishop  Aylmer  being  by» 
to  encouirage  her  jnajesty,  sat  down  in 
a  chair,  and  calling  the  tootb-drawerk 
**  Come,^'  »aid  he,  **  though  I  am  ail 
^old  man,  and  have  but  kw  teeth  to 
spare,  draw  me  tbi^  ;**  whfch  was  ac- 
cordingly done,  and  the  queen,  seeing 
hfim  make  so  slight  a  matter  of  it,  siat 
4smtL  ai|d  had  h9t'§  drawn  aUo.         r. 

A  Y  L  M  E  H.  213 

for  as  a  clergyman,  at  the  expence,  and  by  tbe  procnre- 
tnent  of  his  uncle,  Dr.  Theophilos  Aylmer,  which  he  repaid 
with  the  utmost  gratitude.  To  all  his  children  our  bishop, 
by  his  will,  bearing  date  the  22d  of  April,  1 594,  bequeathed 
large  legacies,  as  also  some  to  his  grand-children,  appoint- 
ing his  two  sons,  Samuel  and  TheophiIi>s,  his  executors^ 
with  Dr.  Richard  Vaughan,  who  was  k\%o  his  relation.  ^ 

AYLMER  (John),  was  of  a  good  fdmily  in  Kampshirei 
and  educated  at  Winchester  school.  He  then  went  to  Ox"- 
ford,  and  was  admitted  perpetual  fellow  of  New  college^ 
after  he  had  served  two  years  of  a  probation;  this  was  \k 
1652.  He  took  his  degrees  in  civil  law,  and  that  of  doctor 
in  1663.  He  was  esteettved  an  exrcellent  Greek  scholar, 
and  a  good  Greek  and  Latin  poet,  as  appears  by  a  book 
which  he  composed  when  a  young  man,  entitled  ^^  Muss^ 
Sacrae  :  seu  Jonas,  Jeremi^e  threni,  et  Daniel,  Gr«cb  red-* 
diti  carmine,'^  Oxon.  1652.  He  also  wrote  many  Gfciek 
and  Latin  verses,  which  are  dispersed  in  various  book^.  *lf  e 
died  at  Peter^field,  April  6,  1672,  and  was  buiri^d  in  thd 
church  of  Havant  in  Hampshire:^  i  »* 

AYLOFFE  (Sir  Joseph),  bin.  V.P.  A.S.  and  T.ft.  S| 
of  Framfield  in  Sussex,  was  descended  from  si  Sdxbn  fa- 
mily, anciently  seated  at  Bocton  Alof  nestr  Wye,  in  the 
county  of  Kent,  in  the  reig^n  of  Henry  ni<  vfrho  rtjmbved  td 
Hornchurcfa,  in  tte  county  of  £s^k,  in  that  of  Henry  TV: 
and  to  Sudbury  in  that  of  Edward  IV.  Sir  William  AylcflFy 
of  Great  Braxtead,  in  the  county 'of  Esse^,  was  knighted 
by  James  I.  May  1,  160S,  and  ^^eseted  Ibdi^onet,  Nov. '25^ 
1612 ;  and  from  his  eldest  sott  by  his  third  wife,  the  ikt^ 
baronet  was  the  fourth  in  desfcebt,  a\id  fif^ti  in'  title.  His 
father  Joseph,  a  barrister,  who- married  a  daughter  of  Brr^ 
an  Ayliffe,  an  eminent  mert:liatlt  bf  Loncfen,  and  died  lit 
1717,  and'  his  grandfather,  vTer^  bbth  oi  6i<Ay*s  Inn.  fii 
was  born  about  1708,  received^,  the  early  part  of  his  edtr- 
cation  at  Westmilisier  iscbool,-  lakltifiltted  of  Lincoln's  Inif 
1 724,  and  in  th^  samd'  y e4r  Waa  eti tclred  t  gientlbtm^n-com^ 
moner  at  Sti  Johti'»  -^e^lkge^ '  Oirford;  Wkidi  college  'bd 
quitted  about  1*^28 yetettfed  F.A.S:  Feb.  10,  ;i73l.2,  dlifef 

of  tbe  first  eotmcil  under  Hhfeir  charter,  1751;  vice-^piresli 

-  .  •     ..        •■  •.  '         ,-1.  '  ...       ,  •  •     ) 

1  Strype'i  Life  of  lAjjImer,  Siro,'  t^fOJ.^-Strjrpe'ft  Craiimdis  ppl '9l4,' 0il^.'<^' 
Strype's  AaDiils,  see  iadex. — Strype's  Parker,  pp.2^7»S46.r-iB^«  9fila|intcB|.-M 
fuller's  Worthies.- 
4tia»/— Ath.  Ojt. 
\  a  Alb.  P4. 

mis,  see  mnex. — dtrype's  marker,  pp.v^i»  J4o.r-ii>9]i9«  Jw^^fiDtcBi.-^ 
rthies. — Keale's  Puritan^.— Harrington^s  Brief  View  in  Kvigse  Aoiv^ 
Ojt.  vol:  li  andl'asti/vol.  II.---M*fiife*sLi^eof^Kn6iu  •'  .    , 

316  AY  L  O  F  F  E. 

dent,  17  ..;  and  F.R.S.  June  3,  1731.  He  prevailed  on 
Mr.  Kirby,  painter  in  Ipswich,  to  make,  drawings  of  a  great 
number  of  monuments  and  buildings  in  Suffolk,  of  which' 
twelve  were  engi^aved,  with  a  description,  1748,  and  others 
remain  unpublished.  He  had  at  that  time  an  intention  to 
write  a  history  of  the  county,  and  had  drawn  up  proposals 
for  that  purpose ;  but,  being  disappointed  of  the  materials 
which  he  had  reason  to  expect  for  so  laborious  a  work,  they 
wjBre  never  published.  .  On  the  building  of  Westminster* 
bridge  he  was.  appointed  secretary  to  the  commissioners, 
1737 ;  and^n  the  establishment  of  the  Paper-office  on  the 
respectable  footing  it  at  present  is,  by  the  removal  of  the 
state-papers  from  the  old  gate  at  Whitehall  to  new  apart^r 
ments  at  the  Treasury,  he  was  nominated  the  first  in  the 
commission  for  the  care  and  preservation  of  them.  In  1 747 
ht  circulated  '^  Proposals  for  printing  by  subscription,  £n<« 
cyclopuedia;  or,  a  rational  Dictionaiy  of  Arts,  Sciences, 
and  Trade.  By  several  eminent  hands.  Methodized,  di^ 
gested,  and  now  publishing  at  Paris,  by  M.  Diderot,  fellow 
of  the  imperial  and  Royal  Academies  of  Paris  and  St.  Pe- 
terd>urgh ;  and,  as  to  the  math^ematical  part,  by  M.  d*Alem* 
bert,  member  of  the  Royal  Academy  of  Sciences  at  Paris 
au^  Berlin,  and  F.  R.  S.  TramJated.from  the  French,,  with 
additions  apd.impxxivements;'^  in  which  was  to  be  included 
a  great  variety  of  n^w  articles,  tending  to  explain  and  iU 
lustrate  the  antiquities,  history  ebclesiastical,'civil,  and  mili* 
tary,  law3scustoms,mariufa(?tiires,commercei  curiosities, &c. 
of  .Gre?tt  Britain  and  Ireland  ;^  by  sir  Joseph  AylofFe,  hart. 
F.R.S.:and  of , the  Society  pf  j^ntiquarie3  of  London,  and 
author  of,  'f.Th^  Universal  Librarism."  Of  this  work  a 
prof|>ectu&  was.  published,  jn  one,  large  sheet,  dated  Dec. 
14,  17  5\;  and  the  first  number  of  the  work  itself,  June  1 1, 
1752.  .Th]s  number  being  badly  received  by  the  public, 
the  f urt^e;*  prosecution  of  the  business  seems  to  have  been 
dropped*  S^e  some  account  of  it  in  the  Gentleman's  Mag. 
1752,  PL  46.^.  It  w^  prppoaed  to  have  been  finished  by 
Christm^u;  .1766,  in  teu  quarto  volumes,  price  nine  guinea^ 
the  .last  tw9jtp(Cpn^ip  upwards. of  six  hundred  plates.  In 
177^  h^  pubii^l^ed,  in  4tp,  ^^C^lfodars  of  the  Ancient 
Charters,  &c,  and  of  the  Welsh  and  Scottish  Rolls  now  re- 
mdimiig  in  the  Tower  of  London^  &c."  (which  was  begun 
to  be  primed  by  the  late  Rev.  Mr.  Morant),  and  in  the  in•^ 
ti-oduction'  giy^s  a  n^qst  judicious  aqd  es^^ict  account  of  ou^ 
]^ublic  records.     He  drew  up  the  accouut  of  the  chapel  of 

i     A  Y  L  O  F  F  £•  517 

London*bridge»  of  which  an  engraving  was  published  by 
Veitue,  I748y  and  agiain  by  the  Society  of  Antiquarves^ 
1777.  His  historical  description  of  the  interview  between 
Henry  VIIL  and  Francis  I.  on  the  Champ  de  Drap  d'Or, 
from  an  original  painting  at  Windsor,  and  his  account  of 
the  paintings  of  the  same  age  at  Cowdray,  were  inserted  in 
the  third  volume  of  the  Archaeologia,  and  printed  separate* 
ly,  to  accompany  engravings  of  two  of  these  pictures  by 
the  Society  of  Antiquaries,  1775.  His  account  of  the  liody 
of  Edward  L  as  it  appeared  on  opening  his  tomb,  1774,  was 
printed  in  the  same  volume,  p.  S76.  Having  been  edu- 
cated, as  has  been  observed,  at  Westminster,  he  acquired 
an  early  affection  for  that  venerable  cathedral;  and  his  in- 
timate acquaintance  with  every  part  of  it  displayed  itself  iti 
his  accurate  description  of  five  monuments  in  the  choir^ 
engraved  in  1779  by  the  same  society;  who  must  reckon, 
among  the  many  obligations  which  they  owe  to  his  zeal  and 
attention  to  their  interests,  the  last  exertions  of  his  life  to 
put  their  af&irs  on  the  most  respectable  and  advantageous 
footing,  on  their  removal  to  their  new  apartments  in  So- 
merset Place.  He  superintended  the  new  editic^n  of  Le- 
Jaod's  Collectanea,  in  9  vols.  8vo,  1770,  and  also  of  the 
Liber  Niger  Scaccarii,  in  2  vols.  8vo,  1771,  to  eqch  of 
which  Jie  added  a  valuable  appendix  ;  to  the  latter  the 
charter^  of  Kingston-on-Thames,  of  which  his  father  was 
recorder.  He  also  revised  through  the  press  a  new  edition 
of  Hearne's  *^  Curious  Discourses,"  1771,  2  vols.  8vo; 
and  likewise  the  ^*  Registrum  Roffense,''  published  by  Mr. 
Thorpe  in  1769,  folio.  At  the  beginning  of  the  seventh 
voluqae  of  Somers's  Tracts  is  advertised,  "A  Collection  of 
Debates  in  Parliament  before  the  Restoration,  from  MSS; 
by  sir  Joseph  Ayloffe,  hart"  which  is  supposed  never  to 
have  appeared.  In  January  1734,  he  married  Mrs.  Marga- 
ret Railton  (daughter  and  heiress  of  Thomas  Railton,  esq. 
of  Carlisle,  in  the  county  of  Cumberland,  and  relict  of 
Thomas  Railton,  esq.  who  died  in  the  commission  of  the 
peaoe  for  the  city  of  Westminster,  Sept«  4,  1732) ;  and  by 
this  lady  he  had  one  son  of  his  own  name,  who  died  of  the 
small^pox,  at  Trinity  hall,  Cambridge,  at  the  age  of  twenty- 
one,  Dj5c.  19,  1756.  Sir  Joseph  died  at  his  house  at  Ken- 
(lington-lane,  Lambeth,  April  19,  1731,  aged  seventy-two ; 
and  was  buried  in  a  vault  in  Hendon  church,  with  his  6Etther 
and  his  only  son.  His  extensive  knowledge  of  our  national 
antiquities  and  municipal  rights,  and  the  agreeable  manner 

il8  A  Y  L  O  F  F  E. 

in  which  he  comniunicatf^d  it  to  his  friends  and  the  public^ 
made  bioi  sinoevely  regretted  by  all  who  bad  the  pleasure 
of  bis  acquaintance*  Such  of  his^  MSS.  as  had  not  been 
claimed  by  his  friends,  were  sold  by  auction,  February  27^ 

AYMON  (John),  a  Piedmontese  author,  accompanied 
the  bishop  of  Maurienne  into  France  in  quality  of  chap-^ 
lain.  He  afterwards  retired  to  Holland,  where  be  embraced 
the  Calvinistic  persuasion,  but  some  years  after  be  feigned 
a.  desire  to  re-enter  the  Romish  communion*  Clement^ 
keeper  of  the  king's  library,  procured  him  a  passport  for 
returning  to  France.  The  cardinal  de  Noailles  obtained  a 
pension  for  him,  and  placed  him  in  the  seminary  of  foreign 
missions.  In  the  mean  time  Clement  gave  him  fall  liberty 
in  the  king's  library;  but,,  so  ungrateful  was  be  for  all  the 
advantages  he  derived  from  it,  that  he  purloined  several  of 
the  books,  end  among  others,  the  original  of  the  synod  of 
Jerusal^a,  bdd  in  1672.  He  got  this  manuscript  printed 
in  Holland,  with  the  letters  of  Cyril  Lucar,  and  some  other 
pieces,  under  the  title  of  >^  Monumens  anthentiques  de  la 
F^igion  des  Grecs,  et  de  la  fiuisset^  de  plusieurs  confes-^ 
sions  de  foi,".  i713,  in  4to.  This  work  was  answered  in  a, 
spirited'  manner  by  the  abb^  Henaudot.  We  have  likewise^ 
by  Aymon,  i.  "  Les  Synodes  nationaux  des  Eglises refor- 
miSes  de  France,"  printed  in  1710,  2vols.  4to.  2;  "  Ta- 
bleau de  la  ConlD  derRome,"  1707,  12mo,  a  satirical  work. 
9.  A  bad  translation  of  the  ^^  Letters  and  memoirs  of  the 
nuncio  Visoonti,^'  L7I9,  2  vols^tsn^o.  * 

AYRAULT  (Peter),  in  Latin  JErodius,  lieutenant-cri- 
minal in  the  presidial  of  Angers,  was- born  there  in  1536. 
He  studied  Latin  and  pbilosopby  at  Paris,  and  l&w  at  Tou- 
louse V  fzoih  thence  he  went  to  Botirges  for  the  advantage 
of  the  public  lectures  of  Diiarentss,  Cujas,  and  Doneau, 
three  of  the  most  eificellent  oivilitms  of  that  age.  Havings 
tak^i  the  degree  of  bachelor  at  Bourges,  he  returned  to  his" 
own  country,  where  ha  read  public  lectures  upon  the  civil 
law,  and  pleaded  sciveral  causes.  He  returned  to  Parid 
some  time  after,  and  became  one  of  the  most  famous  advo-^ 
Gates  in  the.  parliament.  He  published  thei^e,  in  1563, 
^^  The  Declamations  of  Quintilian,"-  which  be  corrected  in  a 
variety  of  places,  and  illustrated  with  notes.  The  year  fo)-^ 
lowing  he  published,  in  the  same  city,  a  treatise  ^  con- 

*  1  Nichols's  Life  of  Bowyer.— Morant's  Hist,  of  Essex* 

:  s  Mareti,  in  wt.  Aii^oii.— PieU  Hist.  .       * 

A  Y  R  A  U  L  T.  219 

ceiming  tKe  power  of  Bedemptioh/'  written  by  FraiM:i$ 
Grimaudet,  th^  king^s  advocate  at  Angers,  and  wrote  a  pre** 
face  to  it  concerning  *^  the  nature,  variety,  and  change  of 
Laws.-*  In  1567  he  published  "  Decretorum  Remove 
apud  diversos  popnlos  et  onini  antiquitate  judicatarum  libri 
duo — accedit  trac^tatus  de  origine  et  auctoritate  rerum  ju- 
dicatarum," which  be  much  enlarged  in  the  subsequent 
editions.  He  left  Paris  the  year  following,  in  order  to  tak^ 
upon  him  the  office  of/  lieutenant^criminal  in  his 'cH^n 
country,  and  performed  it  in  such  k  manner  as  to  ac<)uire 
the  name  of  ^^  the  rock  of  the  accused."  Some  other 
writings  came  from  his  pen,  political  or  controversial,  but 
that  which  acquired  most  fame  among  foreigners  was  hh 
treatise  **  De  Patrio  Jure,"  on  the  power  of  fathers,  written 
in  French  and  Latin,  and  occasioned  by  his  son  having 
been  seduced  by  the  Jesuits.  His  father,  for  the  purposes 
of  education,  Jaad  put  him  under  their  tuition^  btit  perceiv-^ 
ing  that  he  bad  a  lively  genius^  a  strong  memory,  and  other 
excellent  qualifications,  he  very  earnestly  desired  both  the 
provincial  of  that  order,  and  the  rector  of  the  college,  not 
to  solicit  him  to  enter  into  their  society,  which  they  readily 
promised,  but  soon  broke  their  word ;  and,  though  he  made 
die  greatest  interest,  and  even  prevailed  on  .the  king  of 
France  and  the  pope  to  take  his  part^  be  could  never  re<» 
cover  him  from  their  snares.  The  young  man  answered  his 
fatber^s  book,- but  his  superiors  were  ashamed  to  publish  it^ 
and  employed  Ricbeome,  the  provincial  of  the  Jesuits  at 
Paris,  to  answer  it,  bat  even  this  they  did  not  venture  to 
publish.  Peter  Ay rault  died  July  21,  1601.  His  son  not 
until  1644.* 

AYRES  (John),  an  eminent  English  penman  of  tb« 
seventeenth  century.  It  is  difficult  to  fix  the  time  and 
place  of  his  birth ;  we  find  him,  early  in  life,  in  a  menial 
capacity  with  sir  William  Ashurst,  who  was  lord  mayor  in 
1694,  to  whom,  and  in  which  year,  he  dedicated  his  '^Arith-» 
metic  made  easy,"  a  book  which  was  well  received  by  the 
public^  and  has  passed  through  several  editions ;  the  twelfth 
was  printed  in  1714,  with  an  addition  in  book-keeping  by 
Charles  Snell.  In  1695,  he  published  his  "  Tutor  to  Pen- 
manship,^' engraved  by  John  Sturt,  in  oblong  folio.  It  is 
dedicated  to  king  William  III,  and  though  a  very  pompous 
book^  is  valuable  on  many  accounts;    the  writing  being 

>  Gen,  Diet— i>Moreri>  in  Aiiaalfc* 

«20  A  Y  K  E  S;    ' 

plain  and  practical,  and  much  more  useful  than  Us  ^^  A^la- 
mode  Secretary/'  another  writing-book  he  published  from 
the  hand  of  the  same  engraver.  In  1 700  he  published  his 
**  Paul's  school  round  hand/'  It  is  no  more  than  a  set  of 
.copies,  ornamented;  but  is  clear  and  bold,  and  was  en-' 
graved  by  Sturt.  He  lived  then  at  the  Hand  and  Pen  in' 
St.  Paul's  Church-yard,  and  is  said  to  have  gained  800A 
per  annum  by  teaching  and  the  sale  of  his  works.  We  have 
.  aqother  of  his  performances  under  the  title  of  the  "  Pen- 
man's Daily  Practice,'*  wliich  he  calls  a  cyphering  book  ; 
it  contains  examples  of  all  the  hands  now  in  use,  in  thirty- 
four  plates  done  by  the  same  engraver,  but  has  no  date. 
He  died  about  1705,  of  an  apoplexy.  *       /   . 

AYSCOUGH  (George  Edward),  esq.  a  lieutenant  in 
the  first  regiment  of  foot-guards,  only  son  of  the  rev*  Dr. 
Francis  Ayscough  (who  was  tutor  to  lord  Lyttelton  at  Ox- 
ford, and  at  length  dean  of  Bristol)  by  Anne,  fifth  sister  to 
bis  lordship,  who  addressed  a  poem  to  the  doctor  from  Pa- 
ris, in  1728,  printed  in  Dodsley's  second  volume.  And 
there  are  some  verses  to  captain  Ayscough  in  the  second 
lord  Lyttelton's  poems,  1780.  Captain  Ayscough  was  also 
author  of  Semiramis,  a  tragedy,  1777,  and  the  editor  of  the 
greiat  lord  Lyttelton's  works.  In  September,  1777,  he 
went  to  the  continent  for  the  recovery  of  his  health,  and 
wrote  an  account  of  his  journey,  which,  on  his  return,  he 
published  under  the  title  of  "  Letters  from  an  Officer  in 
the  Guards  to  his  Friend  in  England,  containing  some  ac* 
counts  of  France  and  Italy,  1778,"  8to.  He  received, 
however,  but  a  temporary  relief  from  the  air  of  the  conti-* 
nent.  After  lingering  for  a  short  time,  he  died  Oct.  14, 
1779,  a  few  weeks  only  before  his  cousin,  the  second  lord 
Lyttelton,  whose  family  owes  little  to  his  character,  or  that 
of  the  subject  of  this  short  article.  Two  young  men  of 
more  profligate  morals  have  seldom  insulted  public  de- 
cency, by  calling  the  public  attention  to  their  many  licen- 
tious amours  and  adventures.  ^  ' 

AYSCOUGH  (Samuel),  a  very  useful  contributor  to 
the  literary  history  of  his  country,  was  the  son  of  George 
Ayscough  of  Nottingham,  a  respectable  tradesman,  who 
unfortunately  launched  into  speculations  which  impaired 

1  Massey's  Orig^in  and  Prog^rest  of  Letters,  part  II.  p.  13. 

*  Nicholi'i  Bowyer,  vol.  HI.  p.  ISO.  For  au  excellent  character  of  hi».fi»tber,- 
Dr.  Ayscough,  see  London  Magazine  for  1766,  p.  532;  and  for  a  very  iuterefU 
'm$  letter  from  him,  see  Doddritlfe's  Mttecsi  p.  321,  8voy  1790.  .        . 

A  y  s  c  o  u  G  h;  ssv 

bis  fortune*  Ris  son  Samuel,  after  receiving  a  school 
education,  assisted  his  father  in  the  business  of  a  farm  for 
some  time,  and  afterwards  was  reduced  to  work  as  a  labour- 
ing miller  for  the  maintenance  of  his  father  and  sister. 
While  at  this  humble  occupation,  which  didf  not  procure 
the  very  moderate  advantage  he  exp^ted,  an  old  school- 
fellow  and  friend,  hearing  of  his  distress,  about  1770,  sent 
for  him  to  London,  and  obtained  for  him  at  first  the  office 
of  an  overlooker  of  some  paviours  in  the  street.  Soon  after, 
^wever,  he  assisted  in  the  shop  of  Mr.  Rivington,  book- 
seller, of  St.  Paul's  Church-yard,  and  then  obtained  an 
employment  in  the  British  Museum,  at  a  small  weekly  sti- 
pend. Here  he  discovered  a  degree  of  knowledge,  which^ 
if  not  profound,  was  highly  useful,  in  arranging  and  cata^ 
loguihg  books  and  MSS.  and  his  services  soon  recom- 
mended him  to  an  increase  of  salary,  and  to  some  extra 
employment  in  reg:ulating  the  libraries  of  private  gCntler- 
men^  the  profits  of  which  he  shared  with  his  father,  whoih 
he  sent  for  to  town,  and  maintained  comfortably  until  his 
death,  Nov.  18,  1783. 

About  1785  he  was  appointed  assistant-librarian  to  the 
British  Museum,  on  the  establishment,  and  soon  after  went 
into  orders,  and  was  ordained  to  the  curacy  of  Normanton 
upon  Soar  in  Nottinghamshire.  He  was  also  appointed 
assistant-curate  of  St.  Giles's  in  the  Fields;  and  in  all  these 
situations  conducted  himself  in  such  a  manner  as  to  gain 
the  friendship  of  many  distinguished  characters.  In  1790 
he  was  appointed  to  preach  the  Fairchild  lecture*  on  Whit- 
Tuesday,  at  Shoreditch  church,  before  the  Royal  Society, 
which  he  continued^  to  do  till  1 804,  when  he  completed  the 
series  of  the  discourses  in  fifteen  sermons. 

His  labours  in  literature  were  of  the  most  useful  cast,  and 
manifested  a  patience  and  assiduity  seldom  to  be  met  with, 
and  his  laborious  exertions  in  the  vast  and  invaluable  li- 
brary of  the  British  Museum  form  a  striking  instance  of 
bis  zeal  and  indefatigable  attention.  He  soon  acquired 
that  slight  degree  of  knowledge  in  several  languages,  and 
that  technical  knowledge  of  old  books  and  of  their  authors, 
and  particularly  that  skill  in  decyphering  difficult  writing, 
which  amply- answered  the  most  useful  purposes  of  the  li- 

*  In  1739Thoina8  Fairchild.of  Shore-  God  io  the  Creation,"  &c.    It  has  been 

ditch  parish,  gardener,  bequeathed  a  preached  by  some  very  eminent  men. 

Mm  of  n^ney  for  a  smmon  on  Whit-  a  list  of  whom  may  be  seen  in  ElHs*! 

Tuesday,  oa  "  The  wondtrful  worki  of  History  of  Shoreditch,  p.  288. 

322  A  Y  S  C  O  U  G  H. 

brarias,  us  well «»  the  vbitipg  scholar.  He  assisted  also  in 
the  a<lj  ustinent  of  the  records  in  the  Tower,  and  in  the  forma-* 
tioii  of  many  useful  indexes  and  catalogues,  some  of  which 
will  be  noticed  hereafter.  By  these  meana  his  situation 
becaine  very  comfortable,  and  about  a  year  before  bis  death 
it  was  rendered  yet,  more  so,  by  his  being  presented  with 
the  living  of  CudJ^m  in  Kent,  by  lord  chancel l<»r  Eldon, 
He  wrote  a  very  accurate  account  of  this  parish  in  the 
Gentleman's  Magazine  a  few  weeks  before  be  died,  and  by 
an  affeQtipg  coincidence,  it  appeared  in  that  excellent  re^ 
pository  the  same  month  in  which  his  death  was  announced. 
This  ev^nt  happened  on  the  30th  of  October,  1804,  at  bi» 
apartments  in  the  British  Museum,  in  the  fifty^ninth  year 
of  his  age. 

.  Mr.  Ayscough  was  a  man  of  a  benevolent  and,  charitable 
disposition,  and  frequently  consulted  how  he  might  exer-« 
cise  these  virtues,  without  rejecting  that  his  means  were 
circumscribed.  Having  experienced  much  distress  himself 
with  regard  to  pecuniajy  matters,  he  was  ever  ready  to  al^ 
leviate  it  in  others,  and  became  a  patron  almost  before  he 
ceased  to  be  a  dependant.  In  his  office  in  the  Museum  he 
will  long  be  remembered  for  the  pleasure  he  seemed  to 
take  in  assisting  the  researches  of  the  curious,  and  impart- 
ing the  knowledge  he  had  acquired  of  the  vast  resources  in 
that  national  repository.  With  somewhat  of  roughness,  or 
bluntness,  in  his  manner,  he  delighted  in  volunteering  his 
services  in  all  cases  where  the  visitors  wished  for  informa- 
tion ;  and  there  was  a  preciseness  and  regularity  in  all  the 
arrangements  he  had  made,  which  enabled  him  to  do  this 
with  a  facility  which  oftdn  cannot  be  acquired  by  veteran 

In  1783  Mr.  Ayscough  published  a  small  political  pam- 
phlet, entitled  "  Remarks  on  the  Letters  of  an  American 
Farmer ;  or,  a  detection  of  the  errors  of  Mr.  J.  Hector  Str 
John  ;  pointing  out  the  pernicious  tendency  of  those  let- 
ters to  Great  Britain."  But  among  his  more  useful  labours 
must  be  particularly  distinguished  his  ^^  Catalogue  of  the 
Manuscripts  preserved  in  the  British  Museum,  hitherto  un- 
described,  consisting  of  five  thousand  volumes,  including 
the  collections  of  sir  Hans  Sloane,  hart,  and  the  Rev.  Tho- 
xuas  Birch,  D.  D.  and  about  five  hundred  volumes  be- 
queathed, presented,  or  purchased  at  various^  times^**  2  vo^s 
17 Si?,  4to.  This  elaborate  catalogue  is  upon  a  new  plan, 
for  the  excellence  of  which  an  appeal  may  safely  be  made 

A  Y  S  C  O  U  G  H.  223 

%o  every  visitor  of  die  Museum  since  the  date  of  its  puUi^ 
cation.  Mr.  Aysicough  assisted  afterwards  in  the  catalogue 
of  printed  books,  2  vols.  fqUo,  1787^  of  which  about  two- 
thirds  were  compiled  by  Dr.  Maty  and  Mr.  Harper,  and 
the  remainder  by  Mr.  Ayscough.  He  was  also,  at  the  tim/e 
of  his  death,  employed  in  preparing  a  new  catalogue  of  the 
printed  books,  and  had  completed  a  catalogue  of  the  an- 
cient charters  in  the  Museum,  amounting  to  about  sixteen 
thousand.  As  an  index-maker  his  talents  are  well  known 
by  the  indexes  he  made  for  the  Monthly  Review,  the 
Gentleman^s  Magazine,  the  British  Critic,  &c.  and  espe- 
cially by  a  verbal  index  to  Shakspeare,  a  work  of  prodigious 
labour.  It  remains  to  be  added,  that  his  knowledge  of  to- 
pographical antiquities  was  very  considerable,  and  that  per- 
haps no  man,  in  so  short  a  space  of  time,  emerging  too 
from  personal  diiEculties,  and  contending  with  many  disad- 
vantages, ever  acquired  so  much  general  knowledge,'  or 
knew  how  to  apply  it  to  more  useful  purposes.  The  lead- 
ing facts  in  this  sketch  are  taken  from  the  Gentleman's 
Magazine  for  December  1 804.  To  that  miscellany,  we  be- 
lieve, he  was  a  very  frequent  contributor,  and  what  ha 
wrote  was  in  a  style  which  would  not  have  discredited  ta- 
lents of  which  the  world  has  a  higher  opinion. 

•  AYSCUE,  AYSCOUGH,  or  ASKEW  (Sir  George),  an 
eminent  English  admiral  in  the  last  century,  descended 
from  a  very  good  family  in  Lincolnshire,  and  entered  early 
into  the  sea-service,  where  he  obtained  the  character  of 
an  able  and  experienced  officer,  and  the  honour  of  knight- 
hood from  king  Charles  I.  Tjiis,  however,  did  not  hin- 
der him  from  adhering  to, the  parliament,  when  by  a  very 
singular  intrigue  he  got  possession  of  the  fleet,  and  so 
zealous  he  was  in  the  service  o^  his  masters,  that  when  in 
1648,  the  greatest  part  of  the  navy  went  over  to  the  prince 
of  Wales,  he,  who  then  commanded  the  Lion,  secured 
that  ship  for  the  parliament,  which  was  by  them  esteemed 
an  action  of  great  importance.  As  this  was  a  sufficient 
proof  of  his  fidelity,  he  had  the  command  given  him  in  a 
squadron,  that  was  emplo3^ed  to  watch  the  motions  of  the 
prince  of  Wales;  and  accordingly  sailed  to  the  coast  of 
Ireland,  where  he  prevented  his  highness  from  landing, 
and  drew  many  of  the  seamen  to  that  service  from  which 
they  had  deserted.  The  parliament  next  j^ar.  sent  him 
with  a  considerable  number  of  ships,  and  tb^  %\x\e  of  ad- 
miral^  to  the  coast  of  Ireland,  which  comrpiysion  be  dis*^ 



22*  •    A  Y  S  C  U  E. 

charged  with  such  vigour,  that  the  parliament  conthiueJ 
him  in  his  command  for  another  year,  and  ordered  an  inn* 
mediate  proirision  to  be  made  for  the  payment  of  his  arrears^ 
and  presented  him  with  one  hundred  pounds.  After  the 
war  was  finished  in  Ireland,  sir  George  Ayscue  had  orders^ 
to  sail  with  a  small  squadron,  to  reduce  the  island  of  Bar- 
badoes ;  but  his  orders  were  countermanded,  as  the  par- 
h'ament  received  information,  that  the  Dutch  were  treating 
with  sir  John  Grenville,  in  order  to  have  the  isles  of  Scilly 
put  into  their  hands,  and  therefore  it  was  thought  neces- 
sary to  reduce  these  islands  first.  Blake  and  Ayscue  were 
employed  in  this  expedition,  in  the  spring  of  1651,  and 
performed  it  with  honour  and  success,  sir  John  Grenville 
entering  into  a  treaty  with  them,  who  used  him  very  ho- 
nourably, and  gave  him  fair  conditions,  after  which  Blake 
returned  to  England,  and  Ayscue  proceeded  on  his  voyage 
to  Barbadoes.  The  parliament  were  at  first  pleased,  but 
when  the  conditions  were  known,  Blake  and  Ayscue  were 
accused  of  being  too  liberal.  Blake  resented  this,  and 
threatened  to  lay  down  his  commission,  which  he  said  he 
was  sure  Ayscue  would  also  do.  Upon  this,  the  articles 
were  honourably  complied  with,  and  sir  George  received 
orders  to  sail  immediately  to  the  West  Indies.  Sir  George 
continued  his  voyage,  and  arrived  at  Barbadoes  October 
26,  1651.  He  then  found  his  enterprize  would  be  attended 
with  great  difficulties,  and  such  as  had  not  been  foreseen 
at  home.  The  lord  Willoughby,  of  Parham,  commanded 
there  for  the  king,  and  had  assembled  a  body  of  5,000 
men  for  the  defence  of  thejsland.  He  was  a  nobleman  of 
gVeat  parts  and  greater  probity,  one  who  had  been  ex- 
tremely reverenced  by  the  parliament,  before  he  quitted 
their  party,  and  was  now  extremely  popular  oii  the  island. 
Sir  George,  however,  shewed  no  signs  of  concern,  but 
boldly  forced  his  passage  into  the  harbour,  and  made  him- 
self master  of  twelve  sail  of  Dutch  merchantmen  that  lay 
there,  and  next  morning  be  sent  a  summons  to  the  lord 
Willoughby,  requiring  him*to  submit  to  the  authority  of 
the  parliament  of  England,  to  which  his  lordship  answered, 
that  he  knew  no  such  authority,  that  he  bad  a  commission 
from  king  Charles  II.  to  be  governor  of  that  island,  and 
that  he  would  keep  it  for  his  majesty's  service  at  the  hazard 
of  his  life.  On  this,  sir  George  thought  it  not  prudent  to 
land  the  few  troops  he  had,  and  thereby  discover  his  w^eak- 
ness  to  so  cautions  an  enemy.     In  the  moan  time,  he  re- 

A  Y  S  C  U  E.  S2S 

eeived  ft  letter  by  an  advice-boat  from  Eiigladd,  v^ith  the  » 
news'  of  the  king's  being  defeated  at  Worcester,  and  one 
intercepted  from  lady  Willoughby,  containing  a  very  par- 
ticular account  of  that  unhappy  affair.    He  now  summoned 
lord  Willoughby  a  second  time,  and  accompanied  his  sum- 
Aions  with  lady  Willoughby^s  letter,  but  his  lordship  con- 
tinued firm  id  his  resolution.     All  this  time,  sir  George 
anchored  in  Speights  bay,  and  stayed  there  till  December,' 
when  the  Virginia  merchant  fleet  arriving,  he  made  As  if 
thery  were  a  reinforcement  that  had  been  sent  him^  but  in 
fdct,  he  had  not  above  2000  men,  and  the  sight  of  fiie. 
little  army  on  shore  made  him  cautious  of  venturing  his 
men,  till  he  thought  the  inhabitants  had  conceived  a  great 
idea  of  his  strength.    The  Virginia  ships  were  welcomed 
at  their  coming  in,  as  a  supply  of  men  of  war,,  and  he  pre- 
sently  ordered  his  men  on  shore :  1 50  Scotch   servants 
aboard  that  fleet,  were  added  to  a  regiment  of  700  m^n, 
and  som&  seamen,  to  make  their  number  look  more  for- 
n\idable.    One  colonel  Allen  landed  with  them  on  the  17th 
of  December,  and  found  lord  Willoughby'g  forces  well  en- 
trenched, near  a  fort  they  had  upon  the  sea- coast*     They 
attacked  him,  however,  and,  in  a  sharp  dispute,  wherein 
about  sixty  men  were  killed  on  both  sides,  had  so  much  the 
advantage,  that  they  drove  them  to  the  fort,  notwithstand- 
ing that  colonel  Allen,  their  commander,  was  killed  by  a' 
miisket  shot,  as  he  attempted  to  land«     After  other  at- 
tempts, sir  George  procured  colonel  Moddiford,  who  was 
one  of  the  most  leading  men  on  the  place,  to  enter  into  a' 
treaty  with  him,  and  this  negociation  succeeded  so  well> 
that  JRSloddiford  declared  publiqly  for  a  peace,  and  joinecF 
with  sir  George  to  bring  lord  Willoughby,  the  governor^ 
to  reason,  as  they  phrased  it ;  but  lord  Willoughby  never 
would  have  consented  if  an  accident  had  not  happened^ 
which  put  most  of  the  gentlemen  about  him  into  such  con- 
fusion, that  he  could  no  longer  depend  upon  their  advice 
Or  assistance.     He  had  called  together  his  officers,  and 
while  they  were  sitting  in  council,  a  cannon-ball   beat 
open  the  door  of  the  room,  and  took  off  the  head  of  the 
eehtinel  posted  before  it,  which  so  frighted  all  the  gentle- 
Aien  of  the  island,  that  they  not  only  compelled  their  go- 
vernor to  lay  aside  his  former  design;  but  to  retire  to  a 
place  two  miles  farther  from  the  harbour.     Sir. George 
Ayscne,'  takine  advantage  of  this  unexpected  good  fortune, 
ifmihediately  ordered  all  bis  forces  on  shore/  as  if  he  in- 
Vet.  III.  Q 

226  A  Y  S  C  U  E. 

tended  to  have  attacked  them  in  their  entreiicbnieiits,  which 
'  struck  such  a  terror  into  some  of  the  principal  persons 
about  the  governor,  that,  after  itiature  deliberation  on  his 
own  circumstances,  and  their  disposition,  he  began  to  alter 
his  mind,  and  thereupon,  to  avoid  the  effusion  of  bloody 
both  parties  appointed  commissaries  to  treat.     Sir  George 
named  captain  Peck,  Mr.   Searl,  colonel  Thomas  Mod- 
diford,  and  James  Colliton,  esq. ;  the  lord  Willoughby,  sir 
Richard  Peers,  Charles  Pim,  esq.  colonel  EUice,  and  major 
Byham,  who  on  the  17th  of  January  agreed  on  articles  of 
rendition,  which  were  alike  comprehensive  and  honourable. 
The  lord  Willoughby  had  what  he  most  desired,  indemnity, 
and  freedom  of  estate  and  person,  upon  which,  soon  after, 
he  returned  to  England.     The  islands  of  Nevis,  Antigua, 
and  St.  Christopher,  were,  by  the  same  capitulation,  sur- 
rendered to  the  parliament.     After  this,  sir  George,  con- 
sidering that  he  had  fully  executed  his  commission,  re- 
turned with  the  squadron  under  his  command  to  England, 
and  arriving  at  Plymouth  on  the  25th  of  May,  1652,  was  re- 
ceived with  all  imaginable  testimonies  of  joy  and  satisfac- 
tion by  the  people  there,    to  whom  he  was  well  known 
before,  as  his  late  success  also  served  not  a  little  to  raise 
and  heighten  his  reputation.     It  was  not  long  after  his  ar- 
rival, before  he  found  himself  again  obliged  to  enter  upon 
action ;  for  the  Dutch  war  which  broke  out  in  his  absence, 
was   then  become  extremely  warm,  and  he  was  forced  to 
take  a  share  in  it,  though  bis  ships  were  so  extremely  foul, 
that  they  were  much  fitter  to  be  laid  up,  than  to  be  em- 
ployed in  any  farther  service.     On  the  2 1st  of  June,  1652, 
he  came   to  Dover,  with  his  squadron  of  eleven  sail,  and 
there  joined  his  old  friend  admiral  Blake,  but  Blake  having 
received  orders  to  sail  northward,  and  destroy  the  Dutch 
herring  fishery,  sir  George  Ayscue  was  left  to  command 
the  fleet  in  the  Downs.     Within  a  few  days  after  Blake's 
departure  he  took  five  sail  of  Dutch  mejrchantmen,  and 
had  scarcely  brought  them  in  before  he  received  advice 
«  that  a  fleet  of  forty  sail  had  been  seen  not  far  from  the  coast, 
upon  which  he  gave  chace,  fell  in  amongst  them,  took 
seven,  sunk  four,  and  ran  twenty- four  upon  the  French 
shore^  all  the  rest  being  separated  from  their  convoy.   The 
'  Dutch  admiral.  Van  Tromp,  who  was  at  sea  with  a  great 
Beet,  having  information  of  sir  George  Ayscue's  situation, 
resolved  to  take  advantage  of  him,  and  with  no  less  than 
one  hiondred  sail^  clipped  in  between  him  and  the  rirpr^ 

A  Y  S  C  U  E.  287 

^ad  reaotved  to  surprize  suqb  ships  as  should  attempt  to  go 
out ;  or,  if  that  design  failed,  to  go  in  and  .sink  sir  Qeorge. 
and  his  squadron.     The  English  admiral  soon  discovered^ 
their  intention,  and  causing  a  signal  to.  be  m^de  from  Dof 
xer  castle,  for  all  ships  to  keep  to  sea,  he  thereby  defeated 
the  first  part  of  their  project.     Hovirevev^  Van  Jromp  at- 
tempted  the  second  part  of  his  scheme,  in  hopps.of  better 
success,  and  on  the  8th  of  July,  when  it.was  ebb,  be  bjegan 
to  sail  towards  the  English  fleet ;  but,  the  wind  dying  away, 
he  was  obliged  to  come  to  an  anch9r  about  a  league  off,  in 
order  to  expect  the  next  ebb.     Sir  Geoi^e,  in  the  mean 
time,  caused  a  strong  raised  between  Deal, 
and    Sandown   castles,  well  furnished  with  artillery,   so 
pointed,  as  to  bear  directly  upon  the  Dutch  as  they  came 
in ;  die  militia  of  the  county  of  Kent  were  also  prdered 
down  to  the  sea-shore :  notwithstanding  which  preparation, 
the  Dutch  admiral  did  not  recede  from  his  point,  but  at 
the  next  ebb  weighed  anchor,  and  would  baye  stood  into 
the  port;   but  the  wind   coming  about  south-west,  and 
blowing  directly  in  his  teeth,  constrained  him  to  keep  out, 
and  being  straightened  for  time,  he  was  obliged  tp  sail 
away,  and  leave  sir  George  safe  in  the  harbour,  with  the 
small  squadron  he  commanded.     He  was  soon  after  ordered 
to  Plymouth,  to  bring  in  under  his  convoy  five  East-India 
ships,  which  he  did  in  the  latter  end  of  July  ;  and  in  the 
firit  week  of  Auguist,  brought  in  four  French  and  Dutch 
prizes,  for  which  activity  and  vigilance  in  his  command 
be  was  universally  commended.     In. a  few  days  after  this, 
intelligence  was  received,  that  Ysm  Tromp^s  fleet  was  seen 
off  the  back  of  the  isle  of  Wight,  and  it  was  thereupon  re- 
solved, th^t  sir  George  with  his  fleet  of  forty  men  of  war,, 
most  of  them  hired  merchantmen,  except  flag  ships,  should 
stretch  over  to  the  coast  of  France  to  meet  them.    Accord- 
ingly, on  the  16th  of  August,  between  one  and  two  oVlock 
at  noon,  they  got  sight  of  the  enemy,  who  quitted  their 
merchantmen,  being  .fifty  in  number.    About  fopr  the 
fight  began,  the  ]ISnglish  Admiral  with  nine  others  charging, 
through  their  flieet;  his  ships  rec^ved  n^ost  damage,  ia 
the  shrouds,  masts,  sails,  and  rigging,.  w)^ich  was  repaid 
the  Dutch  in  their,  hulls.     Sir  George  haying  thus  passed 
through  them,  got  the  weather-^age,  and  c;barged  them 
again,  but  all  his  fleet  not  coming  up,  .and  the  night  al- 
ready entered,  they  parted  with  a  drawn  battle.    Captaia 
Peck,  the  rear-adoura},  lost  his  le^  ol.whidi,  swu  after. 

228-  A  Y  S  C  U'E; 

hfe  died.  Several  captains  were  wounded,  but  no  ship  lost. 
Of  the  Dutch,  not  one  was  said  to  be  lost,  though  many 
\^ere  shot  throrugh  and  through,  biit  so  that  they  were  able 
t6  proceed  oit  their  voyage,  and  anchored  the  next  day 
after,  being  followed  by  the  English  to  the  isle  of  Bassa; 
but  nx)  farther  attempt  was  made  by  our  fleet,  on  account, 
as  it  vi^as  pr^end^,  of  the  danger  of  the  French  coasts, 
from  whence  thfey  rfetam^d  to  Plymouth- Sound  to  repair. 
The  truth  of  the  Matter  was,  some  of  sir  George's  captains 
^ere  a  little  bashful  rn  this  aflalr,  aild  the  fleet  was  in  so 
iridiflFerent  af  condition,  that  if  was  absolutely  neces^ry  to 
rfefit  before  they  proceeded  again  to  aetion.  He  proceeded 
riextto  join  Blake  in  the  northern  seas,  where  he  con- 
tinued during  the  best  part  of  the  month  of  September,  and 
took  seVeVal  prizes ;  and  towards  the  latter  end  of  that 
]iit)nlli  he  returned  with  general  Blake  into  the  Downs, 
with  one  hundred  and* twenty  sail  of  men  of  war.  On  the 
^th  of  that  month  a  great  Dutch  fleet  appeared,  after' 
vrtlich^  Blake  with  his  fleet  sailed,  and  sir  George  Ayscue, 
pmtSliant  to  the  orders  he  had  i^eceived,  returned  to  Chat- 
ham with  hi§  own  ship,  and  sent  the  rest  of  his  squadron 
into  several  ports  to  bd  careened.  Towards  the  end  of 
l^ovember,  1652,  general  Blalce  lying  at  the  mouth  of 
cmr  river,  began'  tb  think  that  the  season  of  the  year  left 
no  rooita  to  expect  farthei*  action,  for  which  reason  he  de- 
tfeched^  twenty  of  his'  ships  to  bring  up  a  fleet  of  colliers 
fk)m  Newta«tle,  twelve  more  he  had  sent  to  Plynlouth,  and 
ooridm/iral,  as  before  dbserviSd,  with  fifteen  sail,  liad  pro- 
cteeded  lip  the  rivelr  in  order  to  their  being  careened.  Such 
wa^  t!he  situatibn  of  things,  when  Van  Trorap  appeared  with 
9  Met  of  eighty- five  sail.  U^oti  thiis  Blake  sent  fbr  the 
most  experienced  oflicers  on  board  his  own  ship,  where, 
aAer  a  lon^  consultation,  it  was  agreed,  that  he  should 
wait  for,  aiid  fight  the  enemy,  though  he  had  but  thirty- 
seveni^il  of  nien  of  war,  and  a  few  sihall' ships.  Accord- 
ingly,'oti  the  ^i^th  of  Nt>vel]aber,  a  general  en^gement 
ensued;  which  lasted  with  great  fuiy  from  one  in  the  after- 
noon till  itl^  was  dkrit;  Blake  in  the  iViiith^h,  with  his  se- 
conds the  Victoty'  anatd  the'  Vanguard,  engaged  for  a  con- 
siderable lime  neartwenty  sail  of  Dutch  meti  of  war,  and 
Aey  were  in  the  utmost  dangei:  of  being  oppressed  and 
destroyed  by  so  iinequal  a  force.  This,  however,  did  not 
hinder  Blakt;  'firotn'  forcing  his  way  into  a  throfig  of  enemies, 
tordievetheOai'land  And  Bons^dventure^  in  doing  wfaiicliL 

A  y  S  C  U  E.  22d 

Jbe  was  attacked  by  many  of  their  stoutest  sbip^5,,'wliiph 
likewise  boarded  bim>  but  after  several  times  beatiixg  tUeii}L 
off,  he  at  last  found  an  .opportunity  to  rejoin  bis  fleet.  Thj? 
loss  sustained  by  the  English  cpnsisted  in  fiveibips^  either 
taken  or  sunk;  and  several  others  disabled.     The  Dutch 
confess,  that  one  of  their  men  oi  war  was  burnt  toward^ 
Ithe  end  of  the  fight,  and  the  captain  aud  most  of  his  meff^ 
drowned;  and  also  that  the  sliips  of  Tromp  and  Evert^w 
were  much  disabled,     At  iast|  night  having  parried  the  itwf) 
fleets,  Blake  supposing  he  bad  ^iifficiently  secured  th^ 
nation^s  honour  and  bis  own,  by  waiting  the  attack  of  ai|i 
enemy;,  so  much  superior,  and  seeing  no  prospect  of  ad- 
vantage by  r^uewinfg  the  fighl^i  retiredup  the  river :  but  sir 
George  Ay^cue,  who  iq|y|^Lned  to  the  bolder  but  l^ss  prudent 
pounsel,  was  so  4isfi;ust€||  at  this  reti^eat,  th^j^.b^  laidjdown 
his  commijssion.    The  sernq^s  thbs  great  map.  ha4.  r^t^^^ 
bis  country,  were  none  pf  tjl^€;m  mote  acc/eptable  to  tbie 
parliament,  than  thi^  act.of  layjng  down  Jais  pbrnixi^ 
They  had  long  wished  aiicf  waited  for  an  opportuaity  of 
dismissing  him  ifrom  their  service,  and  were  therefore  e:^f 
tremely  pleased  that  l}e  had  savefl  them  t}ii^  tp^bl^  :  bawt 
^ver,  to  shew  their  gratitude  for  past  servic^g^  labd  tb  pr^ 
yent  his  falling  into  absolute  di^cpntent,  ttejy ,  vpted  bimj^ 
present  of  three  hundred  pounds  in  xnou^y^jm^  likewise; 
bestowed  upon  .him  three  .^u\ndr^d  pounds  p^t  jafintiflji,  ,i^ 
Ireland.    There  is  good  reasiajn  to  believje^  tiiat  Cro^wel) 
and  his  faction  were  as.  well  pleased  with  this  g^i^tleq^i^^s 
quitting  the  sea-service  :  for  as  they  were  then  pi^e^^tating^ 
what  they  soon  afterwards  pfit  in  execuition^  tbe,|:urning 
the  parliament  out  of  doors,  it  could  not  l^qt  bi3  agreeable 
to  them,  to  see  an  officer  who  had  so  gr^^^t  creipit  in  the 
pavy,  and  who  was  so  generally  esteemed  ^y  the  nation^ 
laid  aside  m  such  a  manner^  both  as  it.  g^v^  them  au  pp» 
portuni^y  of  insinuating  the  ingratitude  pf  Jtbft.^ssepdbiy 
p}  so  worthy  a  person,  and  as  it  freed  them  frppii  t);^japr 
prehension  of  his  disturbing  their  measures^  in.q^s^  be  bWi 
continued  intbeBe^t;  which  it  is  highly  p^ob4)ie  i^g|^( 
have  come  to  pass,  considering  that  Blake  was  %;.paq\igji^ 
frgm  being  of  tiieir  party,  and  only  submitted  tp  s^rve  th^ 
protector,  because  he  saw  no  other  way  left  tq  $^ve  his 
countiy,  and  did  not  think  he  had  interest  enough  fp  pr^ei' 
^erve  the  fleet,  after  the  .defection  of  the  armjf,  whicl^ 
perhaps  might  not  have  been  the  ca^,  if  sir  Geprge  «Ayscui$ 
iiad  continued  in  bis  command.     This  is  so  much  the  more 


230  A  Y  S  C  U  E. 

J>robablc,  as  it  is  very  certain  that  he  never  entered  intd 
the  ][)rotector*s  service,  or  shewed  himself  at  all  willing  to 
concur  in  his  measures ;  though  there  is  no  doubt  that 
Cromwell  would  have  been  extremely  glad  of  so  expe- 
rienced an  officer  in  his  Spanish  war.  He  retired  after 
liiis  to  his  country-seat  in  the  county  of  Surrey,  and  lived 
there  in  jgreat. honour  and  splendor,  visiting,  and  being 
visited  by  persons  of  the  greatest  distinction,  both  natives 
and  foreigners,  and  passing  in  the  general  opinion  of  both, 
for  one  of  the  ablest  sea-captains,of  that  age.  Yet  there 
i^  some  reason  to  believe  that  he  had  a  particular  corre* 
spondence  with,  the  protector*^  second  son,  Henry ;  since 
there  is  still  aietter  in  being  from  him  to  seolretiary  Thur- 
loe,  wbi9h  shews  that  he  had  xerj^  jtst  notions  of  the  worth 
of  this  gentleman,  and  of  the  expe^ency  of  consulting  him 
in  all  such  matters  as  had  a  relation  to  maritime  power.  The 
protector,  towards  the  latter  end  of  his  Ufe,  began  to  grow 
dissatisfied  with  the  Dutch,  and  resolved  to  destroy  their 
system  without  entering  immediately  into,  a  war  with  them. 
It  ws^  with  this  view,  that  he  encouraged  the  Swedes  to  cul-^ 
tivate,  yvith  the  utmost^  diligence,  a  maritime  force,  pro- 
mising in'duie  tipie  to  assist  them  with  a  sufficient  number 
bf  able  '^lid  exp'erienced  officers,  and  with  an  admiral  to 
iep'mmand  them,  who,  in  point  of  reputation,  was  not  in* 
ferior  to  anv  then  living.  Fot  tjiis  reason',  he  prevailed 
on  sir  George,  by  tbe  intervention  of  the  Swedish  ambas- 
isador  and  of  Wfaitelock,  and  sir  George  from  that  tim0 
bi^gan  to  enterbiin  favourable  thoughts  of  the  design,  and 
brought  hiknself  lyy  degrees  to  think  of  accepting  the  offei 
made  iiini,  and  bf  going  over  for  that  purpose  to  SAveden  ; 
and  aldioughh^  bad  not' absolutely  complied  during  the 
life  of  the  protector,  he  closed  at  last  with  the  proposals 
madt^  him  from  Sweden,  and  putting  every  thing  in  order 
lor  his  journey,  towards  the  latter  end  of  the  year  1658, 
]3nd  as  soon  as  he  had  seen  the  officers  embarked,  and  had 
^dispatched  some  private  bnsiqess  of  his  own,  he  prosecuted 
his  voyage,  though  in  th|p  very  depth  of  winter.  This  ex-i 
i>os«d'  him  to  great  hardships,  but  on  his  arrival  in  Sweden^ 
he  was  received  with  all  imaginable  demonstrations  of  ci<^ 
vility  and  respect  by  the  king,  who  might  very  probably 
have  made  good  his  promise,  of  promoting  him  to  the 
rank  of  hig}>admiral  of  Sweden,  if  he  had  not  been  taken 
off  by  an  unexpected  deatl^    This  put  ah  end  to  his  hopes 

A  Y  S  C  U  E.  23i 

in  that  country,  and  disposed  sir  George  Ayscue  to  return 
home,  where  a  great  change  had  been  working  in  his  ab- 
sence, which  was  that  of  restoring  king  Charles  IL  It 
does  not  at  all  appear,  that  sir  George  had  any  concern  iii 
this  great  affair  ;  but  the  contrary  may  be  rather  presumedi 
'from  his  former  attachment  to  the  parliament,  and  his 
making  it  his  choice  to  have  remained  in  Sweden,  if  the 
death  of  the  monarch,  who  invited  him  thither,  had  not 
prevented  him.  On  his  return,  however,  he  not  only  sub- 
mitted to  the  government  then  established^  but  gg^ve  the 
strongest  assurances  to  the  administration,  that  he  should 
be  at  all  times  ready  to  serve  the  public,  if  ever  there 
should  be  occasion,  which  was  very  kindly  taken,  and  h^ 
had  the  honour  to  be  introduced  to  his  majesty,  and  to 
kiss  his  hand.  It  was  not  long  before  he  was  called  to  the 
performance  of  his  promise ;  for  the  Dutch  war  breaking 
out  in  1664,  he  was  immediately  put  into  commission  by 
the  direction  of  the  duke  of  York,  who  then  commanded 
the  English  fleet.  In  the  spring  of  the  year  1665,  he 
hoisted  his  flag  as  rear-admiral  of  the  blue,  under  the  earl 
of  Sandwich,  and  in  the  great  battle  that  was  fought  the 
third  of  June  in  the  same  year,  that  squadron  had  the 
honour  to  break  through  the  centre  of  the  Dutch  fleet,  and 
thereby  made  way  for  one  of  the  most  glorious  victories 
ever  obtained  by  this  nation  at  sea.  For  in  this  battle^, 
the  Dutch  had  ten  of  their  largest  ships  sunk  or  burned^ 
besides  their  admiral  Opdam's,  that  blew  up  in  the  midst 
of  the.  engagement,  by  which  the  admiral  himself,  and- up- 
wards of  five  hundred  men  perished.  Eighteen  men  of 
war  weire  taken,  four  fire-ships  destroyed,  thirteen  cap* 
tains,  and  two  thousand  and  fifty  private  men  made  pri- 
soners ;  ^nd  this  with  so  inconsideriable  lods^  as  that  of  ohe 
ship  only,  ahd  three  hundred  private  men.^  The  fleet 
being  again  in  a  conditiot)  to  put  to  sea,  was  ordered  to 
rendezvous  in  Southwold-ba^,  from  whence,  to  the  nuhi- 
berof  sixty  sail,  they  weighed  on  the  fifth  of*  July,  and 
stood  over  for  the  coast  of  Holland.  The  standard  was 
borne  by  the  gallant  earl  of  SaVidwich,  to  whom  was  vi^e- 
admiral  sir  George  Ayscue,  and  sir  Thomas .  Tyddiman 
rear-admiral,  sir  William  Pemi  was  admiral  of  the  white,* 
sir  William  Berkley  vice-admiral,  and  sir  Joseph  Jordan 
jrear-admiral.  The  blue  flag 'Was  carried  by  sir  Thomas 
4^l\e^,  whose  vice  and  rear,  were  sir  Christopher  Mimms^ 

^32  A  Y  S  C  U  £• 

jsmd  sic  John  Harmah.  The  design  was^  to  intercept  de 
Buyter  in  his  return,  or,  at  least,  to  take  and  burn  the 
Turkey  and  East-India  fleets,  of  which  they  bad  certain 
iptelligence,  but  they  succeeded  in  neither  of  these 
'schemes }  de  Euyter  arrived  safely  in  Holland,  and  the 
^Turkey  and  India  fleets  took  shelter  in  the  port  of  Bergeu 
in  Norway.  The  earl  of  Sandwich  having  detached  sir 
trhoma^i  Tyddiman  to  attaqk  them  there,  returned  home^ 
ajid  ip  his  passage  took  eight  Dutch  men  of  war,  which 
served  as  convoys  to  their  East  and  West  India  fleets^  and 
^fveral  merchantmen  richly  laden,  which  finished  the 
^lumpbs  of  that  year.  The  plain  superiority  of  the  English 
pver  the  Dutcii  at  sea,  engage4  the  French,  in  order  to 
l^eep  up  the  w^r  between  tne  maritime  powers,  and  make 
ihem  do  their  businesii  by  destroying  each  other,  to  declare 
on  the  »ide  of  the  weakest^  as  did  the  king  of  Denmark 
^IsQ,  which,  nevertheless,  had  no  effect  upon  the  English^ 
fi^ho  detenx^ined  to  carry  on  the  war  against  the  allies,  with 
tibbe  same  spirit  they  had  done  against  the  Dutch  alone. 
in  the  spring,  therefore,  of  the  year  1666,  the  fleet  was 
very  early  at  sea,  under  die  command  of  tibe  joint  admi- 
xsl^  ;  for  f(  rfsolution  haying  been  taken  at  Court,  iiot  to 
^xpqife  tia^  pierspn  of  the  duke  of  York  any  more,  and  the 
,earl  of  Sandwiph  being  then  in  Spain,  with  the  character 
of  ambass^dor-^extraordinaryi  prince  Rupert,  and  old  gef 
jferal  M9nk,  now  duke  of  Albemarle,  were  appointed  tp 
coo^^iand  tl^Q  fleet;  having  under  them  as  gallant  and  pru- 
^Qt  officers  ^  ever  distinguished  themselves  in  the  Engr 
li^l)  navy^  ^d,  amongst  t^es^,  sir  William  Berkley  cou^r 
pwided  ^e  blue,  and  sir  George  Ayscue  the  white  squa:<^ 
^rojn.  Prince  Rupert,  and  the  duke  of  Albemfrle,  went 
pa  board  the  fleet,  the  twenty-third  of  April,  i666y  and 
ffijif d  in  the  beginning  of  May.  Towards  the  latter  end 
(Of  that  mpntb,  the  court  wa^  informed,  that  the  French 
&(f^tji  under  the  cQOun^nd  of  the  duke  of  Beaufort,  were 
coming  ogt  to  the  assistance  of  the  Dutch,  and  upon  receiv* 
^g  this  news,  the  court  sent  orders  to  prince  Rupert  to  sail 
i^dtb  the  y^hhe  squadron,  the  admirals  excepted,  to  look 
{)^t  ^nd  fight  the  French,  lyhich  coDomand  that  brave 
prince  obeyed,  but  found  it  a  n^ere  bravado,  intended  to 
r^ise  th^  courage  of  their  new  allies,  and  thereby  bring 
(hem  into  the  gi^eater  dangier.  At  the  sanie  tinie  prince 
Rupert  sailed  froqi  the  Downs,  ]the  Dutch  put  out  to  sea^ 
the  wind  at  north-east,  and  a  fresh  gale..   This  brought 

iik  Y  S  C  U  H  2M 

thie  Dutch  fleet  pn  the  coast  of  Dunkirk,  aod  .carried  Jiis 
highness  towards  the  Isle  of  Wight ;  but  the  wind  suddeol^ 
shifting  to  the  south-west,  and  blowing  hard^  brougUt 
both  the  Dutch  and  the  duke  to  an  anchor*  Captain  Ba- 
con, in  the  Bristol,  first  discovered  the  enemy,  jand  by 
firing  his  guns,  gave  notice  of  it  to  the  English  fleet. 
Upon  this  a  council  of  war  was  called,  wherein  it  was  r^-* 
solyed  to  fight  the  enemy,  notwithstanding  their  great  su« 

Seriority.  After  the  departure  of  prince  Kupert,  the  duke 
ad  with  him  only  the  red  and  blue  squadrons,  making 
about  sixty  sail,  whereas  the  Dutch  fleet  consisted  of 
ninety-one  men  of  war,  carrying  4716  guns,  and  22,460 
men.  It  was  the  first  of  June  when  they  were  discerned^ 
and  the  duke  was  so  warm  for  engaging,  that  he  attacke^i 
the  enemy  before  they  bd-d  time  to  weigh  anchor*  and,  as 
de  Euyter  himself  says  in  his  letter,  they  were  obliged  to 
cut  their  cables ;  and  in  the  same  letter  he  owns,  that  to 
the  last  the  English  were  the  aggressors,  notwithstandiag 
their  inferiority  and  other  disadvantages.  This  da^y's  fight 
was  very  fierce  and  bloody ;  for  the  Dutch,  confidincr  ia 
their  numbers,  pressed  furiously  upon  the  English  neet^ 
while  the  English  officers,  being  men  of  determined  reso- 
lation^  foifght  with  such  courage  and  constancy,  that  they 
not  only  repulsed  the  Dutch,  but  renewed  the  attack,  and 
forced  the  enemy  to  maintain  the  fight  longer  than-  they 
were  inclined  to  do,  so  that  it  was  ten  in  the  evening  be- 
fore their  Cjannon  ^ere  silent  The  fpllqwipg  night  was 
^pent  in  repairing  the  dafnages  suffered  on  both  sides,,  and 
next  morning  the  fight  was  renewed  by  the  Engtisb  with 
fresh  vigour.  Admir^il .  Yan  Tromp,  with  *  vice-adpiiral 
Vander  HuUt,  being  on  board  one  ship,  rashly  engaged 
amon^  the  English,  and  were  in  the  utmost  dai^ger,  either 
of  being  taken  or  burnt.  The  Dutch  affairs,  according  to 
their  own  account,  were  now  in  a  desperate  condition; 
jbut  admiral  de  Ruyter  at  last  disengaged  them,  thougli 
pot  till  his  ship  was  disabled,  ahd  vice^adpiiral  Vander 
Hulst  killed.  This  only  changed  the  scene  ^  for  de  Ruy« 
ter  was  npw  as  hard  pushed  as  Tromp  had  hfspn  before ; 
but  a  reinforcement  arriving,  preserved  him  also,  and  so 
the  second  day's  fight  ended  earlier  than  the  first.  Th^ 
duke  finding  that  the  Dutch  had  received  a  reii^orcemeot^ 
and  that  his  sniall  fleet,  on  the  contrary,  was  much  weakr 
lened,  through  the  damages  sustained  by  some,  and  the 
}03s  s^nd  ab^nc^  of  others  of  his  shipsi  took,  tow^ds  th^ 

•534  A  Y  S  C  U  « 

....  '  ... 

'evening,  the  ^•esolution  to  retire,  and  endeavour  to  join 
-prince  Rupert,  who  was  coming  to  his  assistance.     The 
retreat  was  performed  in  good  order,  twenty-six  or  twenty- 
eight  men  of  war  that  had  suffered  least,  brought  up  the 
rear,  interposing  between  the  enemy  and   the   disabled 
ships,'  three  of  which,  being  very  much  shattered,  were 
burnt  by  the  English  themselves,  and  the  men  taken  on 
*  board  the  dther  ships.     The  Dutch  fleet  followed,  but  at  a 
distance.     As  they  thus  sailed  on,  it  happened  on  the  third 
day  that  sir  George  Ayscue,  admiral  of  the  white,  who 
commanded  the  Royal  Prince  (being  the  largest  and  hea- 
viest ship  of  the  whole  fleet)  unfortunately  struck  upon  the 
'Sand  called  the  Galloper,  where  being  threatened  by  the 
*enemy*s   fire-ships,   and  hopeless  of  assistance  from  his 
•friends  (whose  timely  return,  the  near  approach  of  the 
'enemy,  and  the  contrary  tide,  had  absolutely  rendered  im- 
possible), he  was  forced  to  surrender.     The  Dutch  admiral 
tde  Ruyter,  in  his  letter  to  the  States-general,  says,  in  few 
words,  that  sir  George  Ayscue,  adniiral  of  the  white,  hav- 
'ing  ran  upon  a  sand-bank,  fell  into  their  hand^,  and  that 
tafter  taking  out  the  commanders,  and  the  men  that  were 
left,  they  set  the  ship  on  fire.     But  the  large  relation, 
collected  by  order  of  the  States  out  of  all  the  letters  writ- 
ten  to  them  upon   that  occasion,    informs    us,  that  sir 
'George  Ayscue,  in  the  Royal  Prince,  ran  upon  the  GaU 
loper,  an  unhappy  accident^  say^  that  relation,  for  an  oflS.- 
•cer  who  bad  behaved  very  gallantly  during  the  whole  en- 
'gagement,  and  who  only  retired  in  obedience  to  his  admi- 
-raPs . orders.     The  unfortunate  admiral  made  signals  for 
assistance;  but  the  English  fleet'  continned  their  route; 
*so  that  he  was  left  quite  alone,  and  without  hope  of  suc- 
cour ;  in  which  situation  he  was  attacked  by  two  Dutch 
'flre-ships,  by  which;  without  doubt,  he  had  been  burnt, 
•if  Keutenant-adrniral  Tromp;  v^iio  was  on  board  the  ship  of 
rear-admiral  'Sweers,  had  not  made  a  signal  to  call  off  the 
•fire-ships,  perceiving  that  his  flag  was  already  struck,  and 
*a  signal  made  for  quarter,  upon  which  rear-admiral  Sweers, 
iby  order  of  Trorop,  went  on  board  the  English  ship,  and 
brought  off  sir  George  Ayscue,  his  officers,  and  some  of 
'his^  men,  on  board  his  own  vessel,  and  the  next  morning 
«ir  George  was  sent  to  the  Dutch  coast,  in  order  to  go  to 
the  Hague  in  a  galliot,  by  order  of  general  de  Ruyter. 
The  English  ship  was  afterwards  gotofi'the  sands,  notwith- 
standing which,  general  de  Ruyter  ordered  the  rest  of  the 

X  Y  s  c  U  E.  ais 

^rew  to  be  taken  out,  and  the  vessel  set  on  fire,  that  bii 
fleet  might  be  the  less  embarrassed,  which  was  accordingly 
done.  But  in  the  French  relation,  published  by  order  df 
that  court,  we  have  another  circumstance,  which  the  Dutch 
liave  thought  fit  to  omit,'  and  it  is  this,  that  the  crew  gave 
up  the  ship  against  the  admiral's  will,  wh6  had  given  orders 
for  setting  her  on  fire.-  There  were  some  circumstancet 
which  made  the  loss  of  this  ship,  in  this  manner,  vei^  dis- 
agreeable to  the  English  <!K)Uirt,  and  peibaps  this  may  be 
the  reiason  that  so  little  is  said  of  it  in  our  own  relations* 
In  all  probability  general  de  Ruyter  to6k  the  opportunity 
of  Bending  sir  George  Ayscue  to  the  Dutch  coast  the  next 
morning,  from  an  apprehension  that  he  might  be  retaken  in 
the  next  day's  fight. '  On  his  arrival  at  the  Hague  he  was 
Very  civilly  treated ;  but  to  raise  the  spirits  of  their  people, 
and  to  make  the  most  of-  this  dubious  kind  of  victory,  the 
states  ordered  sir  George  to  be  carried  as  it  were  in  tri- 
umph, through  the  several  towns  of  Holland,  and  then  con- 
fined him  in  the  castle  of  Louvestein,  so  famous  in  the  Dutch 
histories  for  having  been  the  prison  of  some  of  their  most 
eminent  patriots,  and  from  whence  the  party  which  opposed 
the  prince  of  Orange  were  styled  the  Louvestein  faction* 
As  sooii  as  sir  George  Ayscue  came  to  this  castle,  he  wrote 
a  letter  to  kitig  Charles  II.  to  acquaint  him  with  the  coiidi*' 
tion  he  was  in,  which  letter  is  still  preserved  in  the  life  of 
the  Dutch  admiral,  de  Ruyter.  How  long  he  remained 
there,  or  whether  he  continued  a  prisoner  to  the  end  of  the 
war/ is  uncertain,  but  it  id  said  that  he  afterwards  returned  to 
England,  and  spent  the  remainder  of  his  days  in  peace. 
Granger  observes  very  justly,  that  it  is  scarcely  possible  to 
give  a  higher  character  of  the  courage  of  this  brave  ad- 
miral, thanf.  to  say  that  he  was  a  match  for  Van  Tromp  or  de 
Buyter.  * 

AZARA  (Don  Joseph  Nicolas  d'),  a  Spanish  states* 
man  and  writer,  was  born  in  1731,  at  Barbansdes,  near  Bal« 
bastro  in  Aragon.  An  early  enthusiasm  for  the  fine  arts 
procured  him  the  friendship  of  the  celebrated  artist  Mengs^ 
who  was  first  painter  to  the  king  of  Spain.  After  the  death 
bf  Charles  III.  Azara  constructed,  in  honour  of  his  memory, 
a  tiemple,  in  an  antique  form,  in  the  church  of  St.  James* 
which,  although  not  faultless,  discovered  very  considerable 

1  Biog.  3riX 

836  A  Z  A  R  A.^ 

(3jlent$  and  taste  in  architecture.     He  was,  ii^weveri  sqoq 
employed  in  political  concerns,  and  was  sent  to  Rome,  un-' 
der  tl^  pontificate  of  Clement  XIII.  as  ecclesiastical  agent 
at  the  chancery  of  Rome.     He  was  afterwards  attached  ta 
tt^e  Spanish  embaiisy,  and  took  a  very  active  part  in  various 
important  negociations  between  the  courts  of  .Spain  aD4 
S^me.     In  1796  he  was  employed  in  a  more  difficult  un- 
dertaking! to  solicit  the  clemency  of  the  conqueror  of  Italy 
in  behalf  of  l^ome,  wher^  the  French  nation  h^ad  been  m^ 
suited,  9«id  he  at  least  acquired  the  esteem  of  general  Bua« 
fiaparte.     About  the  same  time  he  became  acquainted  with 
Joseph  Bonaparte,  then  French  ambassador  at  Rome,     fil- 
ing afterwards  sent  to  Paris,  in  a  diplomatic  character,  he 
y^as  favourably  recd^ved,  and  found  some  relief  frpm  th^  rer 
collection  that  he  bad  left  behind  him  his  valued  friends^ 
)ii3.  ^ne  library,  and  museum  of  paintings  and  antiques* 
I>i}ring  thijs  mission  he  experienced  alterns|te  favoujr  and 
disgrace,  being  recalled  by  his  court,  exiled  to  Barcelona, 
^i)d  isent  again  to  Paris  with  the  rank  of  ambassador.     His 
health,  hovioever,  was  ik>w  much  impaired,  and  ^^ea  b^  was 
Indulging  the  hope  of  being  able  to  return  ^o  Italy,  an4 
pa«a  the  rest  of  bis  titoe  in  the  enjoyment  of  hi^  friends 
and  favourite  pursuits,  his  constitution  suddenly  gave  way, 
apd  be  expired  January  26,  1797.    He  left  a  viqiy  con^i<- 
der^le  fortune  in  furniture,  pictures,  busts,  ^.  but  ap-» 
pears  to  have  lost  his  other  property.     He  translated,    1^ 
Middleton's  life  of  Cicero,  and  some  frs^ments  of  P|uiy 
and  Seneca>  under  the  title  of  ^f  Historia  delk  Vida  di  AJ. 
T.  Ciceroni,"  Madrid,   1790,  4  vols.  4to ;  and  also  pi^ib- 
Usbed,  2.  ^^  Introduzione  alia  storia  naturale  e  alia  Geo* 
grafia  fisica  di  $pagna,"   Parma,    1784,   2  vols.  9vo.     3. 
^^  Qpere  di  Antonio*Raffaele  Mengs,"  Parmay.  by  Bodoni, 
1780,  2  vols.  4to,  of  which  a  copious  account  may  be  seen 
in  the  .Monthly  Review,  vol.  LXV.  1781.     This  was  after* 
wards  translated  into  English,  and  published  1796|  2  vols» 

AZARIAS,  an  Italian  rabbi  of  the  sixteenth  century^ 
published  bis  works  in  one  volume,  at  Mantua,  in  )^74. 
The  book  is  entitled  "  Meor  ei^  ajim,"  or  "  Light  of  thjB 
t^yes.".  It  discusses  several  points  ^  history  apd  criticism, 
and  proves  that  the  author  is  much  better  acquainted  witlji 
Christian  learning  and  literary  matters  than  the  Jews  in  ge« 

' »  Diet.  Hist. 

A  Z  A  R  I  A  S.  237 

heral,  whose  reading  is  confined  to  their  own  authors.  He 
examines  abo  some  points  of  chronology,  and  has  trans- 
lated into  Hebrew,  a  piece  of  Aristeus*s  ponceruing  thd 
Sej^tuagint  version.  * 

AZON,  or  AZO  FORTIUS,  a  celebrated  laji^yer  of  the 
twelfth  century y  distinguished  himself  first  at  Bologna, 
id>out  1 1 93.  He  had  studied  under  John  Bosiani  of  Cre- 
nionay  and  acquired  such  reputation,  that  he  was  called 
•*  Master  of  the  Law,"  and  "  the  Source  of  Law."  The 
envy,  however,  which  such  merit  attracted,  made  him  leave 
Italy,  and  go  to  Montpellier,  where  he  succeeded  Placenti- 
nus.  He  was  afterwards  recalled  to  Bologna,  and  became 
yet  more  celebrated.  It  is  said  that  he  had  a  thousand 
auditors.  In  the  warmth  of  dispute  he  threw  a  candlestick 
at  the  head  of  his.  antagonist,  who  died  in  consequence. 
Azon  was  then  taken  up,  and  tried,  although  the  accident 
happened  without  any  evil  intent  The  action,  however, 
might  be  pardoned  according  to  the  intent  of  the. law  ad 
bestias  de  pcenisj  which  moderates  the  punishment  to  any 
person  who  excels  in  any  science  or  art.  Azon,  whether 
from  the  length  of  his  imprisonment,  or  from  his  mind  be- 
ing occupied  or  abstracted,  cried  out,  ad  bestiaSf  ad  bestias, 
meaning  that  his  acquittal  would  be  found  in  that  law.  But 
^is  being  reported  to  the  judges,  who  were  ignorant  of  it, 
ttey  imagined  that  he  insulted  them,  and  treated  them  like 
beasts,  and  not  only  condemned  him  to  death,  but  de- 
prived him  of  the  honour  of  burial.  This  sentence  was  ex-* 
ecuted  in  1200,  or  according  to  some,  in  1225.  Others 
deny  that  this  was  the  end  of  Azon,  aiid  treat  the  story  as 
what  it  very  much  resembles,  a  fiction.  Contius  published 
bis  "  Law  Commentaries"  in  1577.* 

AZORIU8  (John),  a  learned  Jesuit  of  the  sixteenth 
oentury,  was  a  native  of  Lucca,  in  the  diocese  of  Carttia- 
gena^  iii  Spain.  His  merit  preferred  him  to  eminence  in 
his  society,  whcfre  he  was  rector  of  several  colleges.  He 
professed  numanity  with  reputation  in  many  other  places, 
particularly  at  Alcala^  and  at  Rome,  where  he  died  in 
1603.  He  published  *^  lAstitutionum  Moralium,  tomi 
tres,'*  Rome,  1600,  fol.  often  reprinted  at  Leyden,  Venice, 
Cologne,  &c.  He  wrote  also  '^  In  CaiHica  Canticoram 
oommentaria  juxta  historicum  et  allegoricum  sensum," 
which  does  not  appear  to  have  been  printed. ' 

>  Moreri.  >  Moreri.— Fabr.B'i*)!.  Lat  Xtd.'—Saxu  OnomMticoii. 

>  Aiitoaio  Bibl  Hisp,-— Moreri, 


AZPILCUETA  (Martin  de),  cotmnonly  called  Navarre 
(doctor  Navarrus),  was  born  of  a  noble  family,  Dec.  13/ 
1491,  at  Varasayn,  near  Panapeluiia  in  Navarr^.     He  wa». 
£rst  educated,  and  took  the  habit,  in  the  monastery  of  re-* 
gular  canons  at  Roncevaux^  and  afterwards  studied  at  Al- 
cala  and  at  Ferrara,  where  he  made  such  progress  in  law, 
as  to  be  employed  in  teaching  that  science  s^t  Toulouse 
and  Cahors.     Some  time  after,  he  returned  to  Spain,  and 
was  appointed  6rst  professor  of  canon  law  at  Salamanca^  iiti 
office  he  filled  with  high  reputation  for  fourteen  years,  at 
the  end  of  which  John  IlL  king  of  Portugal,  chose  hiKi* 
law-professor  of  his  new-founded  university .  at  Coimbf^ 
and  gave  him  a  larger  salary  than  had  ever  been  enjoyed 
by  any  French  or  Spanish  professor^   After  filling  this  clkair 
also,  with  increasing  reputation,  for  sixteen  years,  he  was. 
permitted  to  resign,  and  went  first  into  Castile,  and  after-* 
wards  to   Rome,   on   purpose,  although  in  his  eightieth 
year,  to  plead  the  cau^e  of  Bartholomew  de  Caranza,  arch- 
bishop,  of  Toledo,  who  was  accused  of  heresy  before  the 
inquisition,  and  whose  cause,  first  argued  in  Spain,  was  by 
the  pope^s  order  removed  to  Rome.    Azpilcueta  exerted 
himself  to  the  utmost,  but  without  success,  which  we  can- 
not be  surprised  at  when  we  consider  that  the  inquisitors 
were  his  opponents ;  and  although  they  could  prove  nothing 
against  Caranza,  they  contrived  that  he  should  die  in  pri- 
son.    Azpilcueta,   however,  was   honourably  received  at 
Home ;  pope  Pius  V.  appointed   him  assistant  to  cardinal 
Francis  Alciat,  his  vice-penitentiary,  and  Gregory  XIII. 
.  never  passed  his  door  .without  a  visit,  or  met  him  in  the 
street,   without    enjoying  some    conversation  with    him. 
He  was  much  consulted,   and  universally  esteemed  for 
learning,  probity,  piety,  and  charity.     Antonio  informs  us 
that  he  used  to  ride  on  a  mule  through  the  city,  and  relieve 
^  every  poor  .person  be  met,  and  that  the  crea.turi|  of  itself 
would  stop  at  the  sight  of  a  poor  person  untU  jts  master. 
relieved  him.     He  died  June  21,  1586,  then  in  his  ninety* 
fourth  year.     His  works,  which  are  either,  on  jnorals  or 
common  law,  weje  published^  Rome^  1590,  3  vols.  Lyons^ 
1591;  Venice,  1602.*     .  ,    ■ 

^  AntoDio  Bibl.  Hisp.— Gen.  Diet. 

»   •   ♦  • 

(  239.  y 



AAN  (JoHi^  de),  nn  eminent  Dutch  pointer,  wtis  bom 
at  HaerleiDy  Feb.  20,  1633,  and  at  a  very  early  age  placed 
under,  the  care  of  his  uncle  Piemans,  who  painted  in  the 
manner  of  Velvet  Brueghel,  and  soon  inspired  his  nephew 
with  a  taste  for  the  art.  Baan  afterwards  studied  under 
Bakker  at  Amsterdam,  with  whom  he  practised  assiduously 
every  particular  from  which  he  could  receive  improvement, 
spending  the  whole  day  at  the  pencil,  and  the  evenings  in 
designing.  At  that  time  the  works  of  Vandyck  and  Kern- 
brand t. were  in  great  vx)gue,  and  after  much  consideration 
he  aj^pears  to  have  leaned  towards  an  imitation  of  Vandyck, 
whom,  some  thought,  he  equalled.  Houbraken  says  be 
was  invited  by  Charles  II.  to  come  to  £ngland,  where  be^  ^ 
made  portraits  of  the  king,  queen,  and  principal  nobility, 
at  court,  and  was  much  admired  for  the  elegance  of  his  at- 
titudes, and  for  his  clear,  natural,  and  lively  tone  of  colour- 
ing. After  continuing  some  time  in  England,  he  went  to 
the  Hague,  and  tliere  painted  a  noble  portrait  of  the  duke 
of  Zell,  for  which  he  received  a  thousand  Hungarian  du- 
cats, amounting  to  near  50QL  He  then  painted  for  the 
duke  of  Tuscany,  who  placed  his  portrait  among  those  of 
other  famous  painters  in  the  Florence  gallery.  When  Louis 
XIV.  was  at  Utrecht,  he  sent  for  him,  but  Baan  declined* 
the  invitation  for  political  reasons.  This  did  not  lessen 
him,  however,  in  the  opinion  of  that  monarch,  who  fire- 
'queutly  consulted  him  on  the  purchase  of  pictures.  These 
marks  of  distinction,  and  his  fame  as  a  painter,  created  faini 
many  enemies,  one  of  whom,  an  artist  of  Friesland,  formed 
the  execrable  desigivof  assassinating  him,  and  came  to  Am- 
sterdam for  that  purpose.  After  being  long  disappointed 
in  an  opportunity  in  the  streets,  he  asked  permission  to  see 
Baan^s  paintings,  and  while  the  latter  was  showing  them, 
drew  )a poijgnard  to  stab  him,  but. a  friend  of  Baan's,  who 
happebed  to  enter  the  room  at  the  instant,  laid  hold  of  his 
arm ;  the  yillaio,  •  ho wey^r^  escaped,  and  conld  not  afce^ - 

-240  S  A-A  N. 

wards  be  found.     Baan  was  of  an  amiable  disrprositionV  so^ 
cial  and  obliging.     He  died  at  Amitei'daai  in  1702. ' 

BAAN  (Jacob  de),  son  of  the  above,  was  born  at  the 
Hague  in  1673,  learned  the  art  of  painting  from  his  father^ 
and  became  very  early  an  artist  of  distinction.  In  1693  he 
came  to  England,  and  painted  several  excellent  portraits 
for  the  nobility,  particularly  one  of  the  duke  of  Gloucester. 
He  was  much  solicited  to  remain  in  England,  but  had  pre* 
determined  to  visit  Rome,  where,  and  at  Florence,  his  ta* 
lents  procured  him  great  fame,  and  nmch  money,  the  lat- 
ter t)f  which  he  had  not  the  prudencJe  to  keefp.  His  pictures 
are  excellently  handled,  and  he  approached  near  to  the 
merit  of  his  father  in  portraits,  and  in  other  branches,  of 
tlie  art  he  probably  wouM  have  far  surpassed  him,  if  he  faadf 
appropriated  more  of  his  time  to  his  studies,  and  had  not 
died  at  so  early  a  period  of  fife.  He  only  reached  birf 
twenty-seventh  year. ' 

BABIN  (Francis),  a  native  of  Angers,  born  in  1651, 
was  canon,  grand  vicar,  and  dean,  of  the  faculty  of  theo-'- 
logy  in  that  city,  and  much  noted  for  his  learning  and  vir-' 
tues.  He  arranged  and  transcribed,  into  18  voh.  the^ 
•'Conferences"  of  the  diocese  of  Angers,  a  work  muclf 
esteemed  in  France.  His  style  is  clear,  neat,  and  method*' 
ical,  without  any  of  the  jargon  of  the  schools.  La  Blandi* 
niere,  who  continued  this  work  by  adding  ten  volumes,  doe^ 
not  deserve  so  much  praise.  Babin  published  also,  in 
1679,  btit  without  bis  name,  **  An  account  of  the  proceed- 
ings of  the  university  of  Angers,  respecting  Jansenism  anct 
Cartesian Jsm,"  4td.  He  died  Dec.  19,  1734,  in  his  eighty- 
third  year.  *  . 

-BABIN6TON  (Gekvase),  a  learned  English  prelate' 
in  the^ehd  of  the  sixteenth  and  beginning  of  the  sev^- 
teetith  century*,  was  bom  in  NottinghaAishtre,  according  t^ 
FuHeif,  but  in  IXevonshire,  according  to  Izacke  and  Prince/ 
After  having  received  die  first  rudiments  of  learning,  he 
was  sent  to  Trinity  college,  Cambridge,  of  which  he  be- 
came fellow.  On  the  1531  of  July,  1578,  he^  was  iricorpo-* 
med  M.  A.  at  Oxford,  as  be  stood  irt  his  own  tiniversity? 
After  study iiig  other  branches  of  leariring,  he  applied  W 
divinity,  and  became  a  favourite  preacher  in  Cambridge',* 
the  place  of  his  residence.  When  he  was  D.  D.  he  wst 
jAaade  domestic  chapkin  tb  Henry  earl  of  Pembroke^  pre- 

1  ^reri.-.P8kiiigtpii,^l)ict  Itist,^  t  Jbidi , 

*  Moreri.— Journal  <!•  Trevoux,  1*743,  p.  1I575, 

ndent  of  tbd  council  in  the  marches  of  WaTes,  and  is  sup« 
posed  to  have  assisted  lady  Mary  Sidney,  countess  of  Pem- 
broke, in  her  version  of  the  psalrbs  into  English  metfel    By 
bis  lordship's  interest,  however,  he  was  constituted  trbasu- 
rerbf  the  church  of  Landaff,  and  in  1588  was  installed 
into  the  prebend  of  Wellington,  in  the  cathedml  of  Here- 
ford.    Through  his  patrou*s  further  interest,  he  was  ad- 
vanced to  the  bishopric  of  Landaff,.  and  was  consecrated 
Aug.  29,  1591.     In  Feb.  1594,  he  was  translated'  to  thie  see^ 
•     of  Exeter,  to  which  he  did  an  irreparable  injuty  'by  alienat- 
ing from  it  the  rich  manor  of  Creditdn  in'  Devonshire.'     la 
1597  he  was  translated   to  Worcester,   and  was  Kkewis6' 
made  one  of  the  queen's  council  for  the  marches' of  Wales* • 
To  the  library  of  Worcester  cathedral  he  ^as  a  very  gre,at' 
benefactor,  for  he  not  only  fitted  and  repsiired  the  edifice, 
but  also  bequeathed  to  it  all  his  books.    After  having  con- 
jtinued  bishop  of  Worcester  near  thirteen  years,  he  died*  of 
the  jaundice,  May  17,  1610,  and  was  buried  in  the  cathe-^ 
dral  of  Worcester,  without  any  monument 

As.  to  his  character,  it  is  agreed,  that  in  the  midst  of  all 
his  preferments  he  was  neither  tainted  with  idleness,  pride, 
'  nor  covetousness,  and  was  not  only  diligent  in  preaching- 
but  in  writing  books,  for  the  understanding  of  the  holy 
$criptures.  He  was  an  excellent  and  animating  preacher. 
His  works  were  printed  first  in '4to;  then,  with  additions, 
in  folio,  in  1615;  ahd  a'gairi  in  1637,  under  this  title: 
"  Th6  works  of  Gervase  Babington,  &c:  containing  com- 
fortable notes  upon  the  five  books  of  Moses.'  Ais  also  an 
exposition  upon  the  Creed,  the  Commandments,  the  Lord's 
Prayer.'  With  a  conference  betwixt  Mail's  fVailtyand  faith  j 
and  three  Sermons.''^  His  style  is  good,  although  not  with- 
out the  quaintnesses  peculiar  to  the  times.  -  ]\Iiles  Smith, 
afterwards  bishop  of  Gloucester,  wrote  a  preface  to  ^ this 

BABRIA8,  or  BABR1U8,  was  a  Gteck  poet  who  turned 
Esop^s  fables  into  choliambiCs,  that  is,  verse9with  an  iambic 
foot  in  the  Aftb  place,  and  a  spondee  in  the  sixth  or  last. 
.  Suidas  frequently  quotes  him,  but  the  age  and  comitry  m 
which  he  lived  are  unknown.  Avienus  the  fabulist,  in  Prseif; 
JFab*  seegis  to  intimate,  that  Babrius^  was.  prior  to  Phsdr^Sy 
who  wrote  under  the  r^ign  of  ijLugustus  or  Tiberius.     Mr. 

1  Bk>9.  Brit.-^FaUer'«  Abd  Redivtvai.— Prtoce>s  Worthiet.— .Wood's  Ftsti^ 
▼ol.  I.— U»rrtDi{ton's  Br^of  View.-^S^pe'g  Life  of  Wbdtgift,  p.  Q^Z,  ^,  5XS, 
«74,  579. 


24S^  IB  A  BR  1  A  S. 

Tjmrhitti  the  learned  author  of  tbe  ^^  Di$sertalio  de  9a- 
brxoi'^i  publisfa^d  at  Londkm  in  1776)  produces  a  passage 
from  the  Boi^^ric  lexicon  of  AppUoniusy  ^hick  appears  to 
be  &  quojtation  f roni  Babrius^  ^d  as  Apolloniys  is  supposed 
tp  have  Ut^^  ^bout  the  time  of  Augustuf^  or  9bme^hai  ear-, 
lier,  Babriufl  must  have  written  before  tl^at  period.  From, 
the  fragments  published  in  the  above-mentioned  work,  Ba** 
brius  appeals  tO)  have  been  i^  valuable  writer  >  liis  repre- 
8jentatio9s  ar^  natural,  his  expressiojns  lively,  and  hU  versi^ 
fication  haivnonious.  > 

BABYLAJS^  a  Christian  blsh<q>  and  martyr,  of  tbe  third 
century,  became  hishop  of  Ant^ocl^  in  the  year  238,  and^ 
govemjed  that  see  thirteen  years.  It  is  said  he  died  fiir 
maintaining  the  Christian  faith,  but  authors  are  not  agreed- 
about  the  time  or  manner  of  his  martyrdom.  £usebius| 
a^d  St.  Jerom  say^  that  upon  his  professing  himself  a  Chris-*, 
tian,  ia  the  reign  of  Deciys,  he  was  put  in  prison  ^^d  died| 
there*  St.  Chrysostom,^  vrho  lyrote  a  panc^ric  upon  Ba-, 
by  las,  relates  that  be  was  brought  out  of  pcispn  and  publiclj^ 
executed.  This  is  supposed  to  have,  taken  place  in  tbe 
year  ^50.  His  relica  were  highly  respected  a,^  Antioch^ 
yhere  two  churches  were  l;>uilt  m  honour  of  his  meijoory^j 
and  it  is  said,  that  when  his  relics,  wer^  brought  tfaiith^r^  tho 
ciracle  of  Apollo  waa  struck  dumb. ' 

BACCALAE.Y-&ANNA  (Don  Vincent),  marquis  of 
St  Philippo,  i^aa  born  in  Sardinia,  of  in  ancient  family, 
originally  Spanish,  ^d  rendened  his  name  known,  upt  only 
by  his  mining,  bat  by  his  important  employments  und^^ 
Charles  II.  and  l^hilip  V.  After  the  death  of  Charles  IL 
Jdp  served  under  the  duke  pf  ilnjou  his  su.ccessor^  and  du-r 
ting  the  revolj;  in^  Sardinia  conducted  himself  with  wisckm 
and  Ipyalty.  *  Philip  Y.  sewarded  Us  services  by  creatiug 
^im  a  ^arquis.  Hedied  stMadrid  in  1726,  much  esteemed. 
His  learned  '^  History  of  the  Monarchy  of  the  Hebrews'*, 
waa  translated  into  Fr^ench,  and  published  in  2  vols.  4tp, 
and  4  vols.  Syo.  He  wrote  also  ^^  Memoirs  of  ^e  historjf 
of  Philip  v.  frotfi  1699  to  1725,'*  which  abound  rather  toa 
much  in  military  relations,  but  the  whole  is  said  to  be  scru^^ 
pulously  exact  in  point  of  fact.  ^ 
•  ■• 

>.  Diflsertatio  de  Babrio,  fabulariiiD.iBsopearam  scripton^,  lu;.  8yo«  17*76.— > 
SaxU  Onomatticony  who  does  not  appear  to  hate  teen  the  Oifteirtatio.-^Ftfhrift'. 
Bibl.  Qmc, 

.*  i)i«t..Iiiit^rique* 


BA€CHINI  (BEKKAK0IN,  dr  Bjbn£PicT)>  a  reffy  learned 
Italian  sobolar*  of  the  seventeenth  century,  was  born  Aug^ 
Si,  1651,  at  Borgo-san^Donuio,  in  the  ducby  of  Panna^ 
In  1653  bis  father  went  to  reside  at  Parma>  wbere  be  sptreA 
flo  expence  in  the  education  of  Ibis  son,  although  bis  for^ 
tune  was  considerably  reduced  by  family  imprudence^  For 
five  years  be  studied  the  classics,  under  the  tuition  of  the 
Jesuks,  and  in  his  sixteenth  year  /entered  the  order  of  St; 
Benedict,  dn  which  occasion  he  adopted  the  naiae  of  that 
saint,  in  lieu  of  Bemardine,  his  baptismal  name.  Soon 
after,  his  father  died,  leaving  his  widow  and  three  childrett 
with  very  little  provision.  Ehucchini,  however^  pursued  bk 
studies,  and  took  lessons  in  scholastic  philosophy  fifom 
Maurice  Zapata;  bat  by  the  advice  of  Chrysogonus  Fa<i> 
bius,  master  of  the  novices  of  his  convent^  be  studied  ma^ 
tbematics,  as  the  foundation  of  a  more  useful  species  of 
knowledge  than  the  physics  and  metaphysics  of  the  aii#> 
cients.  He  afterwards  applied  to  divinity  with  equal  judg« 
ment,  confining  his  researches  to  the  fathers^  councils^  ai^4 
ecclesiastical  history.  When  he  had  completed  bis  coujv^ 
his  abb£  wished  faim  to  teach  pbiloaopby,  but  he  bad  no 
inclination  to  teach  that  scholastic  philosophy  which  be  did 
not  think  worth  learning ; .  and  bavikig  obtained  leave^  on 
account  of  his  health,  to  retire  to  a  moniuteryin  the  cottn* 
try,  he  reaMined  there  two  y^irs,.  during  which  be  studieA 
the  scienoeof  music,  and  on  bis  recovery  began  to  preachy 
agreeably  to  the  desire  o£  bis  superiors.  In  1677,  Axeio*> 
ni,  abbd  of  St*  Benedict  at  Ferrara^  having  appointed  him 
bis  seevetary,  he  was  obliged  to  foUow  htm  to  Aref  zo>  Ye* 
nice,  Piaeentia>  Padua,  and  Parma.  While  at  Placenda^ 
in  1679,  be  pronounced  a  funeral  oration  on  Margaret  de 
Medicis,  mother  of  the  duke  of  Parma,  which  was  printed 
th^re.  In  1681  he  formed  an  acquaintance  with  Maglia^ 
beccbi)  the  cardinal  Noti%  and  many  other  eminent  men  of 
|he  age..  In  1683,  on,  acceunt  of  his  healthy  he  solicited 
permission  to  resign  bis  office  as  secretary  to  the  abb6,  and 
as  public  pveacher,  which  was  granted;  and  having  haa 
time,  again  in  bis  own  hands,  be  began  to  arrange  the  li^* 
brarybdoiigingto  bis  monastery,  and  to  consult  tibe  fiitbers 
and  sacred  critics,  and  studied  with  assiduity  and  succesa 
the  Greek  and  Hebrew  languages.  In  1685  he  was  ap^ 
pointed  counsellor  of  the  inquisition  at  Parma,  and  next 
year  had  a  visit  of  three'  days  from  father  Mabillon  and  fa- 
^r# Germain,  and  about  the  same  time  began  to  ooadttflt 

a  2 

244  B  A  C  C  H  I  K  I. 

the  '^  Diofnale  de  Letterati.''  In  this  he  was  encouraged 
and  assisted  by  Gaudentio  Robert!,  who -was  eminent  in. pcM^ 
lite  literature.  Bacchini  accordingly  began  the  JParma 
journal,  in  imitation  of  that  published  at  Rome,  and  conti^ 
nued  it  monthlyi  but  without  his  name,  until  1690.  .But 
afterwards,,  when  at  Modena,  he  resumed  it  for  1 692  and 
1693,'  after  which,  the  death  of  Roberti,  who  defrayed  all 
^  t}ie  expence,  obliged,  him. again  to  discontinue  it.  In  1 69 5^ 
liowever,  Capponi  epgaged  to  furnish  the  books  and  all  ne* 
cessary  expences^^d  he  edited  it  for  1696. and  1697,  whea^ 
it  was  concluded.  The  whole  make  nine  small  volumes 
4to,  the  first  five  printed  at  Parma,,  and  the  rest  at  Modena/ 

In  the  mean  time,  in  1688,  the  duke  of  Parma  appointed 
him  his  theologian,  at  the  request  of  Roberti ;  and  the  same 
year,  at  the  solicitation  of  Leo  Strozza,  he  wrote  his  dis-» 
sertation  on  the  ancient  sistrum,  a  musical  instrument, 
whicJi  was  published  under  the  title,  ^*  De  Sistrorum  figu- 
iris  ae  differentia  ad  illustriss.  D.  D.  Leonem  Strozza,  ob 
jSistri  Romani  efBgiem  communicatum,  dissertatio,"  Bono* 
nia,  1691,  4to.  The  deaxh.of  tlie  abbe  Arcioni,  and  some 
disputes  with  his, brethren  at  Panua,  rendering  it  neceasMry 
lor  him  to  leave  that  city,  the  duke  of  Modena  invited  liim 
chitber  in  1690,  and  soon  after  he  was  appointed  .first*  ex* 
aniiner,  and  then  one  of  the  counsellors  of  die  inqnisition* 
Me  had  also  the  appointment  of  professor  of  sacred'  litera* 
ture  at  Bologna,  but  on  account  of  the  distance  he  gave  but 
few  lectures,  although  he  retained  the  title  of  professor* 
On  the  death  of  the  duke  of  Modena,  Sept  1694,  his  uncle 
the  cardinal  d'£st  succeeded  him,  .and  became  a  yet  more 
liberal  patron  to  Bacchini^ 

In  1696  he  published  his  monastic  history^  under  .the 
title  of  <<  Deir  Istoria  del  Monasterio  di  S.  Benedetto  di 
Polirone  nella  State  di  Mantoua  Libri  cinque,'' .  Modena^ 
1696,  4 to.  This  was  to  have  been  succeeded  by  .a  second 
volume,  but  some  unwelcome  truths  in  the  first,  having 
given  oiFence,  what  be  had  prepared  remained  in  matu** 
script.  The  same  year  he  tnrvelled  over  various  parts  of 
Italy,  visiting  chiefly  the  libraries  and  the  learnedf  who  re** 
ceived  him  witii  the  respect  due  to  bis  talent^.  At  Florence 
lie  p^sed  some  days  with  his  friend  Magliabeccbl;  at  Moujst 
Ca^sin,  and  at  Su  Severin,  the  libraries  were  laid  open,  witlt. 
permission,  to  copy  what  he  pleased ;  and  the  cardinal 
d'Agttiire  wished  much  to  have  procured  him  a  place  in  the 
.VaUcan  library ,  b^tt  being  unsuccessful^  Sacchioi  retu^ed 

B  A  C  C  H  I  N  L  24a 

ta  Mod^na,  where  the  duke  made  him  his  librarian.  While 
puttiiig  tlie  booics  in  order  here,  he  found  the  lives  of  the 
btshops  of  Ravenna  by  Agnelli  (see  Aonelli],.  which  he 
comnutted  to  the  press,  with  chronological  disseitations  and 
remarks^  and  the  whole  was  ready  for  pablicalion  in  1702| 
but  the  censors  at  Rome  hesitated  »o  long  in  granting  their 
permission,  that  it  was  not  published  before  1708.  In  the 
course  of  preparing  this  work,  he  wrote  a  dissertation  on 
ecclesiastical  hierarchy,  entitled  "  l>e  £cclesiasticae  Hie* 
i^rehtsB  origine  dissertatio,''  Mutitia  (ie.  Modena),  1703, 
4to.  In  1704  he  was  elected  prior  of  the  monastery  of 
Modena,  and  in  1705  he  published,  under  the  name  of  the 
abb^.and  monks  of  the  monastery  of  Parma,  **  Isidori  Cia- 
rii  ex  Monacbo  Episcopi  Fulginatis  EpistolsB  ad  amicos, 
bacteuus  ineditas,''  Modena,  1705.  Two  years  after,  he 
was  made  chancellor  of  his  order,  and  in  1708  was  elected, 
in  the  general  chapter,  abb6  of  the  monastery  of  St.  Mary 
^t  Ragusa.  In  1711  and  1719,  other  promotions  of  a  simi* 
lar  kind  were  conferred  upon  him,  but  he  was  obliged  ta 
^remove  from  place  to  place  on  account  of  his  health,  in- 
juoed  *by  a  complication  of  disorders,  which  at  last  proved 

.  fatal;  at  Bologna,  Sept.  1^  1721.  Bacehini)  according  to 
the  report  of  all  his  biographers,  was  one  of  the  mo^t  learned 

'  vneit  ojThis  time;  few  equalled  and  none  surpassed  him  in 
Italy.  '  His  learning  was  universal,  and  his  taste  exquisite. 
When. young  hewas  much  admired  for  his  pulpit  eloquence, 
and  it  was  thought  would  have  proved  one  of  the  first 
preachers  of  bis  time,  if  his  delicate  temperament  could 
have  permitted  that  exertion.  He  was'  critically  skilled  in 
X>reek  'find  Hebrew,  ancient  and  modem  philosophy,  and 
inathfsmatics,  bujb  wa^  perhaps  most  deeply  conversant  in 
sacred  and  prof{9,ne  history  ^nd  chronology^  and  he  was  re- 
/ua^kably  expert  in  decyphering  ancient  manuscripts.  Few 
nien,  it  may  be  added,  were  moi*e  admired  in  their  time,  or 

.  could  enumerate  among  their  friends  so  many  men  of  high 
jranl^  and  learning ;  of  the  latter,  Bacchini  lived  in  habits  of 
intimacy  with  Ciampini,  Magliabecchi,  MuratOri,  Gimma, 
Fontamni,  Mabillon,  M ontfaucon,  and  the  marquis  Scipio 
JVlaffei,  and  in  all  his  intercourse  with  the  great  orth^  le0.rned| 

be  preserves  the  character  of  a  modest  a^id  humble  mail.  ] 

.  r 

^  Life  19  Latin  by  feimself,  in  the  Venice  journal,  vol.  XXXIV.— Nlceron,  vol. 
XII.— Fabroni  Vitae  Italoriim,  vol.  VII.  who  gives  the  most  comptete  collectioii 
o#' bis^forks,  pabltshed  and  in  manuscript.— Ma2zucheUi;  vol.  II. — Saxii  Onq*- 
masUtiOu.:— I)upin.^-Chaufepie« 

U€  6  A  C  C  H  Y  L  I  D  £  S. 

BACCHYLIDES,  the  Greek  lyric  poet,  was  borii  ai 
Jolis,  a  town  in  the  isle  of  Ceos.  He  was  the  nephew  of 
Simonides,  and  the  contemporary  and  rival  of  Pindar*. 
Both  snng.the  victories  of  Hiero  at  the  public  games.  Be<* 
sides  odes  to  athletic  victors,  be  was  author  of  love  verses^ 
l^osodies,  dithynunbics,  hymns,  &c.  The  emperor  Ju-* 
lian  was  a  great  admirer  of  his  writings,  and  Hiero  pre- 
ferred him  to  Pindar.  He  flourished  .452  B.  C.  and  was 
the  last  of  the  nine  lyric  famous  in  Greece.  There 
are  some  fragments  of  his  still  in  being,  printed  along  with 
those  of  Akseus,  at  the  end  of  an  edition  of  Pindar,  An^ 
twerp,  1567,  16mo.* 

BACCI  (Andrew),  an  eminent  Italian  physician,  wai 
bom  at  St.  Elpidio,  in  the  march  of  Ancona.  He  became 
professor  of  medicine  at  Rome,  and  first  physician  to  pope 
Sixtus  V.  and  was  celebrated  for  great  skill :  and  his  works 
prove  that  he  had  great  learning.  The  time  of  his  death 
is  uncertain,  but  he  was  alive  in  1 596.  His  works  are^ 
J.  "DeThermis,  libri  septero,"  Venice^  1571,  1588,  foh 
and  at  Padua,  1711.  The  first  is  a  rare  book,  and  the  last 
has  the  addition  of  an  eighth  book.  That  printed  in  1 623 
Id  mutilated.  3.  ^'  De  Naturali  Vinorum  Historia,''  Rome, 
1596,  fol.  a  Tery  scarce  book,  of  which,  however,  there  is 
a  copy  in  the  British  Museum.  3.  **  De  Venenis  et  Aoti* 
dotis  Prolegomena,'*  Rome,  1586,  4to.  4.  **  De  Gemrais 
ac  lapidibus  pretiosis  in  S,  Scriptura  relatis,"  Rome,  1577, 
4to,  and  Franc.  1 643,  8vo,  by  Gabelchoterus.  5.  <<  Ta- 
bula simplieiom  Medicamentorum,**  Rome,  1577>  4td. 
6.  **  De  Conviviis  Antiquorunl/'  * 

BACH  (John  Sebastian),  an  eminent  German  muei^ 
^ian,  was  born  at  Eisenach  in  1685,  and  made  such  pro« 
ficieney  in  his  art  that  at  the  age  of  eighteen,  he  was  ap-> 
pointed  organist  of  the  new  church  of  Amstadt  In  170S, 
he  settled  at  Weimar,  where  he  was  appointed  court  musi- 
cian and  director  of  the  duke^s  concert,  and  in  a  trial  of 
skill,  he  obtained  a  victory  over  the  celebrated  French  or* 
ganist,  who  had  previously  challenged  and  conquered  all 
the  organists  of  France  and  Italy.  This  happened  at  Dres* 
^len,  to  which  Bach  went  on  purpose  to  contend  with  this 

^  Moreri.— Fabr.  Bibl.  Grac— ^xii  Onomast. 

s  Morcru^Srythrvi    PmM»Uieca.-*liiU«r   Bikl.   Ji6iL-Jtf«^et.«-Saxii 

BACH.    '  ^4t 

ttiiusical  Goliath.  He  afterwards  became  master  of  thb 
thapel  to  the  prince  of  Anhait  Cothen,  and  to  the  duke  of 
Weissenfets.  As  a  performer  oh  the  organ,  as  well  as  '^ 
bomposer  for  that  instrument,  he  long  stood  unrivalled. 
He  died  at  Leipsic  in  17 $4,  and  left  four  sons  all  eminent 
ihiisicians,  of  whom  some  account  is  given  hy  Dr.  Burtiey 
in  his  History  of  Music,  vol.  IV.  and  in  his  Musical  Tomr 
?n  Germany.* 

BACHAUMdNT  (Louis  Petit  de),  a  French  miscel- 
laneoti^  writer,  iv^  a  native  of  Paris,  and  a  man  of  ge- 
neral ktidwhsdge.  '  In  1762,  he  comnienced  a  journ^ 
**  Historique  et  Litteralre,**  and  after  his  death  in  177 i, 
one  of  his  friends  collected  his  manuscript  notes,  arid  pub- 
lished them  in  1777,  in  6  to4s.  l^mo,  under  the  title  df 
^  Memdites  Secrets,"  which  Kave  been  continued  since  as 
far  sd  tliit*ty  volumes.  There  is  much  political  histoiy  m 
these  memoirs,  with  many  private  anecdotes  of  the  prirt- 
icipal  personages  concerned :  they  contstin  lilso  driticisni^, 
|K>etry,  temporary  history,  and  such  materials  as  generally 
fill  our  magazines  and  ireviews,  but  with  a  good  dea4  of 
ihith,  they  contain  a  certain  pro{>ortion  of  scandal.  B^^ 
chauixioht  tdib  piiBlisbed  *^  Lettre  Critique  sur  le  Louvre, 
L^Ojieri,  la  Pl^cfe  Louis  XV.  et  les  Salles  de  Spectacle,^* 
1752,  8vo ;  :*«  Essai  dur  la  pelntiir^,  la  sculpture,*  et  Parchi- 
tecture,^*  1752,  8vo ;  and  an  edition  of  Qntntilian,  with  a 
trandation  by  O^doyn,  and  a  Jife  of  the  translator,  1752, 
4  vols.  12mo.^ 

'  BACHELlEtt  (NldilOLAS),  cffTholonsei  but  originally 
^f  Lu^ca^  studied  scul^ure*  and  architecture  at  Rome 
under  Michael  Arigelo.  On  returning  to  his  native  coun- 
try, h6  rtitrodtced  it  true  taste  in  those  arts,  instead  of  the 
birbarous  manner  which  had  till  theit  prevailed.  His  works 
in  sculpture  that  still  subsist  in  several  churches  of  that 
ci^,  always  excite  admiration,  though  some  of  them  have 
since  been  ^ilt,  which  has  deprived  them  of  that  grace  and 
delicacy  v^hich  Bacheli^r  had  given  them.  He  was  still 
exercising  hi^  art  in  1553.* 

BACHIUS  (John  Augustus),  an  eminent  fawyer  and 
critic,  was  bom  in  1721  iat  Hoh'endorp,  and  sent  in  his 
twelfth  year  to  Liipsic,  where  he  was  etjudated  under 
i^esner  and  Ernest,  wbo  was  particularly  fond  of  him,  ancl 

»  BuAicy's  Hist!;  Tof.  111.  ana  fr.  t  Diet.  Higt.*  »  jStorcri. 

24S  B  A  C  .H  I  U  S. 

encouraged  bis  studies  witb  a  fatherly  care^  Having  goi^ 
tbroygh  a  course  of  classical  learning,  philosophy,  and  aia« 
tbeinatics,  he  applied, to  the  study  of  law,  audio  1750,  he 
yrsis  created  doctor  in  that  faculty  and  professor  of  law^  tq 
which  in  1753,j¥^  added  the  place  of  ecclesiastical  assessor 
at  Leipsic.  Ail  these  offices  he  .discharged  with  the  iif^est 
public  replication  and  personal  ^steem^  but  was  cut  on  by 
a  premature  death  in  1756.  He  was  a  man  of  e:( tensive 
Jeamiog,-  critically  acquainted  with  Greek  and  Latiu^.and 
W^U  versed,  in  history  and  antiquities.  His  principal  pub^ 
)ications  were,  1.  *' Dissertatio  de  Mysteriis  JLleusinis^^^ 
Xreipsic,  1745,  4to.  2..  "  Divus  Trajanus,  sive  de  legir 
l^us  Tr^ani  commentarius,"  1747,  8vo.  3.  "  Historia  ju- 
psprudeotisB  Roman a^,  I7^^i  ^^^'  ^'  ^  ■  X^nophontis  Oe* 
conomioum/'  1749,  8vp.  ^.  **  Brissonlus  de  formuUs>'* 
1754,  fol.  6.  "  J3ergeri  oecor^omia  Juris,"  1755,.  4tq. 
7*  ^^Opuscula  ^d  historiamet  jurisprudentiam  spectantia," 
collected  ^nd  publis^hed  by  Christ,  ^dpljph.  Klo|z^  Hallcn 
1767,  8vo.>        .         .    ^       . 

BACHOVIUS  (Reiner),  was  born  ^t  Cologne  in  1554, 
and  brought.up  to  business.  He  went  to  Leipsic,  where 
be  married ;  but  bis  tranquillity  was  soon  disturbed,  owing 
;io  hjs  having  e^^changed  the  opinions  of  Luther  for  those 
of  Calvin.  At  first  there  were  nothing  but  8uspiqiqi\s 
against  him,  and  his  (snemi^s  ^er^  ^tisfied  witb  removing 
him  from  his  public  employjoients ;  but  the  times  chang- 
ing, he  obtained  the  onice  of  senator,  and  afterwards  in 
the  year  1585  that  of  Ecbevin,  and  about  three  years  after 
that  of  consul.  The  Elector  Christian  I.  dying  in  159^1 
Bachovius  was  iipportun^  profess  Lutberanism,  and  on 
Refusing,  they  obliged  hiifi  to  quit  bis  posts.  He  bad  jqo 
Regard,  Of  the  advice  which  was  given  him  to  retire,  though 
they  represented  to  him  th^  danger  of  a  prison ;  be  thought 
.  th^t  this  flight  would  give  occasion  to  bis  enemies  to  tell 
the  world,  that  he  was  uot  copscious  of  his  innocence ;  but 
jn  the  year  1593  he  was  forced  to  give  v^ay  to  t];ie  popular 
commotions,  and  to  depart  from  Leipsic.  H^  went  first  tp 
Serveste,  nnd  the  y^ar  followiiig  to  the  Palatinate,  not  with-* 
put  the  loss  of  almost  all  his  efiC^cts.  He  found  a  kind  prq* 
.Rector  in  the  elector  Palatini,  and  he  executed  s;everal 
pffices  of  profit  and  l^pnour  at  Heidelberg  till  his  dipatb^ 

1  l^lu  de  ViUs  PbilQlogorum>  vol.  I.  i^nd  UI,«-'Six\i  (^iiomait. 


v^hich  bappened  the  27rii  of  February,  1614.     He  pvhr 
lished  a  coiDmentary  on  the  <:atechisin  of  the  Palatioale.  * 
.    BACHOVIUS  (llEiNER  or    Reinharp),    a  very  able 
lawyer  of  the  seventeenth  century,  was  the  son  of  ithe 
preceding,  and  was  born  at  Heidelberg,  and  probably  edu-* 
cated  there.     He  was,  however,  celebrated  for  his  knoW* 
Jedge  of  the  civil  lave,  when  Heidelberg  was  taVcn  by  count 
Tilly  in  1622,  and  the  university  dissolved.     This  obliged 
bim  to  leave  the  place,  but  he  appears  to  have  .returned 
,sooH  after,  and  to  have  endeavoured  to  support  himself 
for  some  time  by  giving  private  lessons  to  the  few  pupils 
whom  the  siege  had  not  driven  away.     In  1624',  he  pub- 
lished his    ^*  Exercitationes  ad  partem  posteriorem  Cbi« 
liados  Antonii  Fabri,  de  erroribus  interpretum,  et  de  inter* 
piretibus  juris,''    fol.    The  same  year  he  entered  into  a 
^  correspondence  with  the  learned  Cuneus  of  Leyden,  to 
whom  he  communicated  his  intention  of  leaving  Heidel* 
berg,  as  the  university,  then  about  to  be  restored,  was  to 
be  composed  of  catholics,  while  be  was  disposed  towards 
tlie  principles  of  the  reformed  religion.    He  intimated  also 
to  Cuneus  that  he  had  no  higher  ambition,  should  he  come 
to  Leyden^  than  to  give  private  lessons. .  During  this  cor- 
respondencp  an  pffer  wa?  made  to  Cuneus  of  a  professors 
ship  ii?  the  ^ademy  of  Franeker,  and  as  he  could  not  ac-rr 
cept  it,  he  took  this  opportunity  of  recommending  Bacho* 
vius,  but  the  latter  had  rendered  himself  obnoxious  there 
by  ^writing  against  Mark  Lycklama,  formerly  one  of  the 
professors,  ^nd  still  one  of  the  isurators  of  the  academy. 

In  1627,  Bacbovius  pyblished  his  treatise  *^  De.PigilD* 
ribus  et  Hyp^othecis ;"  atd  about  the  same  time,  Otto  Ta-» 
bor,  a  young  Lutheran,  and  a  student  at  Strasburgh,  sent 
bim  a  treatise  on  law  which  he  had  written,  and  requested 
bis  advicp  concernipg  it.  Bacbovius,  on  reading  the  ma- 
nuscripty  conceived  a  very  high  opinion  of  the  author,  and 
imparted  to  him  bis  wish  to  come  to  Strasburgh,  provided 
he  could  gain  a  subsistence  by  private  teaching,  and  at  the 
same  time  assured  him  that  although  he  was  of  the  re- 
formed religion,  he  shoi^ld  give  no  person  any  reason  to 
pomplain  on  that  head,  as  his  opinions. were  rather  of  the 
Lutheran  than  the  C^alyinistic  system.  The  academy  bav« 
'    )og  beard  of  bis  intentions,  desired  Tabor  to  assure  him  that 

'  ^  (B«n.  J>ict.— Mor^ri,-— "Melchior  Adaip  jri  Vitis  Jurrsc««suU, 

fiS5  B  A  C  H  O  ▼  I  U  S. 

lie  should  iKieet  with  a  kind  reception,  but  they  afterwafdl 
so  entirely  changed  their  sentiments,  that  when  he  arrived^ 
the  law  professors  forbid  his  private  teaching,  much  to  the 
disappointment  of  many  of  the  students.  He  then  returned 
to  Spires,  and  afterwards  to  Heidelbei^,  wherie  he  pro-* 
fbssed  his  return  to  the  Catholic  religion,  and  the  univer* 
sity  being  restored,  was  again  appointed  to  a  professor^s 
chair.  What  became  of  him  afterwards  is  not  known. 
Besides  the  works  alrei^ly  mentioned,  he  published  <^  Di^« 
|)utatidnum  Miscellanearum  de  variis  Juris  Civilis  materiis^ 
llbcr  linus,"  Heid.  1604^  8vo  ;  "  Not®  in  Paratitla  We- 
setnbeeii  super  Pandectas,^'  Cologne,  1611,  4to;  '^  Exa« 
itten  iiationalium  Antonii  Fabri,"  1612,  8vo ;  "  Notae  et 
animadrersioties  ad  disputationes  Hieronymi-Trentleni^'* 
f  rancfort,  1617,  4to ;  the  fourth  edition  of  this  work,  print- 
ed at  Cologne  in  168S,  was  enlarged  to  3  vols.  4to  ;  *^Ob- 
servatioties  ad  Joannis  Paponis  arresta;"  Francf.  1628^  foK 
*'  In  Institntionuid  Justiniani  jus  LibrosIV.  Commentarii 
Theorici  et  Practici,**  Francf.  1628,  4to.  Four  of  his  let- 
ters to  Cuneus  are  i»  Burman^s  edition  of  Cuneus^s  Letters^ 
published  at  Leyden  in  1725,  8vo. ' 

BACICI  (John  Baptist  Gauli),  su^iamed  the  Painter, 
born  at  Genoa  in  1639,  went  to  Rome  about  his  fourteenth 
year,  where  he  placed  himself  with  a  dealer  in  pictures,  at 
whose  house  he  had  frequent  opportunities  of  seeing  Ber- 
inm,«of  whom  he  received  good  advice  in  his  art  and  as- 
isistance  in  his  fortune.  His  first  essays  were  the  strokes  of 
a  masterly  pencil,  and  he  was  thenceforward  employed  in 
capital  works ;  among  others  the  cupola  of  Jesus  at  Rome^ 
a  grand  and  complicated  performance,  which  it  is  impos- 
sible sufficiently  to  admire.  But  Bacici^s  chief  exc^lehce 
lay  in  portrait-painting.  He  drew  that  of  a  man  who  had 
been  dead  twenty  years.  He  began  by  chalking  out  a  head 
^rom  his  own  imagination ;  then,  retouching  his  work  by 
tittle  and  little,  according  to  the  suggestions  of  those  who 
had  seen  the  person  while  alive,  he  at  length  succeeded  in 
finishing  a  portrait  acknowledged  to  be  a  complete  resem- 
blance. Bacici  painted  with  so  much  ease,  that  his  hand  • 
in  a  considerable  degree  kept  pace  with  the  impetuosity 
of  his  genius.  His  ide^s  were  great  and  bold,  sometimes 
fantastical ;  his  figures  have  an  astonishing  relief.  He  was 
a  good  colourist,  and  excellent  in  foreshortening^  but  he 

1  Gen.  I]dct.«i->M9rer].«»NiceroB«  toL  XLI. 


B  A  C  I  C  L  251 

<  ... 

is  reproached  with  incorrectness  in  his  drawing,  and  a  bad 
tiuite  in  his  draperies.  Nevertheless  his  works  are  much 
esteemed.     He  died  in  1709. ' 

BACKER,  or  BARKER  (Jacob),  an  eminent  portrait 
and  historical  painter,  was  born  at  Harlingen,  in  1609,  but 
spent  the  greatiest  part  of  his  life  at  Amsterdam  :  and  by 
all  the  writers  on  this  subject,  he  is  mentioned  as  an  ex- 
traordinary painter,  particularly  of  portraits,  which  he 
executed  with  strength,  spirit,  and  a  graceful  resemblance. 
He  was  remarkable  for  an  uncommon  readiness  of  hand, 
and  freedom  of  pencil :  and  his  incredible  expedition  in 
his  manner  of  painting  appeared  in  the  portrait  of  a  lady 
from  Haerlem,  that  he  painted  at  half-length,  which  was 
begun  and  finished  *in  one  day,  though  he  adorned  the 
figure  with  rich  drapery,  and  several  ornamental  jewels. 
He  also  painted  historical  subjects  with  good  success  :  and 
in  that  style  there  is  a  fine  picture  of  Cimon  and  Iphigenia, 
which  is  accounted  by  the  connoisseurs  an  excellent  per- 
formance. In  designing  academy  figures,  bis  expression 
was  so  just,  and  his  outline  so  correct,  that  he  obtained  the 
prize  from  all  his  competitors :  and  his  works  are  still 
bought  up  at  very  high  prices  in  the  Low  Countries.  In 
the  collection  of  the  elector  Palatine,  there  is  an  excellent 
head  of  Brouwer,  painted  by  this  master :  and  in  the  Car- 
melites' church  at  Antwerp  is  preserved  a  capital  picture 
of  the  Last  Judgment,  which  is  well  designed  and  coloured, 
Backer  died  at  the  age  of  42,  in  1651,  but  according  to 
Descamps,  in  1641,  at  the  age  of  33.  ^ 

BACKER,  or  BAKKER  (James),  a  painter,  born  at 
Antwerp  in  1530,  learned  the  principles  of  painting  froni 
his  father,  who  was  a  much  inferior  artist.  After  his  father^ 
death,  be  lived  in  the  house  of  Jacomo  Palermo,  a  dealer 
in  pictures,  who  avariciously  took  care  to  keep  him  inces- 
santly employed,  and  sent  his  paintings  to  Paris  to  be  dis- 
posed of,  where  they  were  much  admired.  He  had  a  clean 
light  manner  of  pencilling,  and  a  tint  of  colour  that  vva^ 
extremely  agreeable.  The  judicious  were  very  eager  to. 
purchase  them  at  high  prices,  of  which,  however,  the  poor 
artist  was  not  suffered  to  avail  himself;  and  although  his 
merit  was  universally  allowed,  Palermo  took  care  that  his 
siame  and  his  circumstances  should  not  be  known.     He 

>  PilkiDgton  in  Gauli.— Diet  Hist.— 'Abre^je  des  Vies  des  Pt Intrei^  rol.  II. 

2St  B  A  C  K  E  E. 

died  in  this  obscure  and  depressed  condition  iii  1560,  only^ 
30  years  old.  * 

BACKHOUSE  (William),  a  younger  son  of  Samuel 
Backhouse  of  Swallowfield  in  Berkshire,  esq.  (who  died  in 
1626),  was  born  in  that  county  in  1593,  became  a  com^ 
xnoner  of  Christ  church,  Oxford,  in  1610,  in  bis  seven- 
teentb  year,  left  it  without  a  degree,  and  attp^cbed  himself 
to  the  study  of  chemistry  and  astroloey  then  so  much. in 
vogue.  He  adopted  the  celebrated  Ashmole  as  hii^  son, 
and  imparted  to  him  those  absurd  secrets  which  were  to 
produce  wonders.  Mr.  Backhouse  died  May  30,  1662,  ^^nd 
was  buried  in  Swallowfield  church.  He  published  a  transla- 
tion from  the  French  of  "  The  pleasant  Fountain  of  Know- 
ledge," 16^4,  8vo  :  this  was  written  by  John  de  la  poqn- 
taino  in  1413;  "The  Complaint  of  Nature,'.'  find  "The 
Golden  Fleece,"  a  translation  from  Solomon  Trisniosin, 
ynaster  to  Paracelsus.  Mr.  Aubrey  speaks  of  tbi&  gentle- 
man in  his  Collection  of  Hermetic  Philosophy,  chap.  XII.  * 

BACKHUYSKN  (J^UDOtPU),  a  very  celebrated  Dutch 
painter,  was  born  in  1631,  in  the  city  of  JEmbden  ;  his  fa- 
thef  was  secretary  of  state,  and  his  grandfather  had  held  a 
post  in  administration.  The  first  sixteen  years  of  his  life 
were  employed  in  studies  suitable  to  the  intentions  of  his 
family,  which  were  to  breed  him  up  to  commerce,  and  for 
that  purpose  he  was  sent  to  Amsterdam,  where  it  would 
appear  he  first  caught  an  inclination  for  painting.  The 
earliest  instructions  he  received  in  this  art  were  from  Al- 
bert Van  Evcrdingen,  but  he  acquired  his  principal  knowr 
ledge  by  frequenting  the  paintjng-rooms  of  different  great 
masters,  and  observing  their  various  metl^ods  of  touching 
and  colouriug.  One  of  these  m^stevs  was  Henry  Dubbels, 
whose  knowledge  of  his  art  was  very  extensive,  and  who 
was  very  communicative  of  what  he  knew.  From  hipi 
Backhuysen  obtained  more  real  benefit,  than  from  all  the 
painters  of  his  time,  and  he  had  not  availed  himself  long 
of  such  an  instructor  before  he  became  the  subject  qf  ge- 
neral admiration,  so  that  even  his  drawings  were  sought 
after,  and  one  of  his  earliest  performance^  was  sold  for  que 
hundred  florins. — It  was  observed  of  him,  that  while  he  was 
painting,  he  would  not  suffer  evjen  his  most  intimate  friends 
to  have  acc,ess  |o  him,  Ipst  his  fancy  rnight  be  disturbed^ 
and  the  ideas  he  had  formed  in  his  mind  might  be  iuter^ 

1  Ibid.  »  AtK  Ox.  vol.  II. 

B  A  C  K  H  U  Y  S  E  N.  t53 

mpted.  He  studied  nature'  ftttentively  in  all  her  forms  ; 
in  gales^  cairns,  storms^  clouds,  rocks,  skies,  Itgiits  and 
shadows :  aiid  he  expressed  every  subject  with  so  sweet  a 
pencil,  and  soch  transparence  and  lustre,  as  placed  htm' 
above  all  the  artists  of  his  time  in  that  style,  except  tile 
younger  Vandervelde*  It  was  a  frequent  custom  with 
Backhuysen  whenever  he  could  procure  resolute  mariners, 
to  go'out  to  sea  in  a  storm,  in  order  to  store  his  mfnd  with 
grand  images,  directly  copied  from  nature,  of  such  scenes 
as  woftld  have  filled  any  other  head  and  heart  with  terror 
and  dismay :  and  the  moment  he  landed,  Ue  always  impa- 
tiently ran  to  his  palette,  to  secure*  those  incidents  <rf  which 
the  traces  might,  by  delay,  be  obliterated.  He  perfectly 
understood  the  management  of  the  cbiaro-scuro,  and 
strictly  observed  the  truth  of  perspective.  His  works  may 
be  easily  distinguished  by  an  observant  eye,  from  the 
freedom  and  neatness  of  his  touch,  from  the  clearness  and 
natural  agitation  or  quiescence  of  the  water,  from  a  pecu- 
liar tint  in  his  clouds  and  skies,  and  also  from  the  exact 
proportions  of  his  ships,  and  the  gracefulness  of  their  posi- 

Fdr  the  burgomasters  of  Amsterdam  he  painted  a  pic- 
ture, with  a  multitude  of  large  vessels,  and  a  view  of  the 
city  at  a  distance,  for  which  they  gave  him  thirteen  hun- 
dr^  guilders,  and  a  considerable  present.  This  picture 
they  afterwards  presented  to  the  king  of  Fratice,  who 
placed  it  in  the  Louvre.  No  painter  was  ever  more  ho- 
noured by  the  visits  of  kings  and  princes  than  Backhuysen  ; 
the  king  of  Prussia  was  one  of  the  pumber;  and  the  czar 
Peter  took  delist  to  see  him  paint,  and  often  endeavoured 
to  .draw,  after  vessels  which  he  had  designed,  '  Backhuy^ 
sen  was  remarkably  assiduous ;  and  yet  it  seeim  astonishing 
to  consider  the  number  of  pictures  which  he  finished,  ^la 
the  exquisite  manner  in  which  they  are  painted.  He  is 
said  to  have  had  some  taste  for  poetry,  and  such  was  his 
industry  that  at  bis  leisure  hours  he  taughir  writing  in  the 
families  of  the  principal  merchants.  He  was  the  greater 
part  of  his  life  much  afflicted  with  the  stone  and  gravel,  yet 
reached  a  very  advanced  age,  as  his  death  did  not  happen 
till  1709.  Strutt  places  him  among  bis  engravers,  as  faav«> 
ing  published  some.^ etchings  of  the  Y,  a  small  arm  of 
the  sea  near  Amsterdam.  ^ 

>  D'ArfenTille.-^PiikiD|^oa,«-Strttt^ 



BACON  (I.ADY  Ann£)i  the  second  dauf htet  of  $ir  Aa« 
tHopy  Copke,  was  bom  about  the  year  1529.  She  WM 
liberally  educated  by  her  father,  and  haying  added  much 
acqiiired  knowledge  to  her  natural  endowments^  she  b^-^ 
came  highly  distinguished  among  the  learned  pefsooagea 
q!  the  time^  and,  it  is  even  said, .  was  constituted  governess 
toking  Edward  VI.  She  was^  however,  eminent  for  piety^ 
virtue,  and  learning,  and  well  versed  in  the  Greek,  Latin^ 
and  Italian  tongues.  She  gave  an  early  specimen  of  her 
iud^slry,  piety,  and  learning,  by  translating  out  of  italiaa 
into  English  twenty-*iive  sernions,  written  by  BarnardiiHi 
Ochine,  concerning  '^  The  Predestination  and  Election  of 
^od ;,''  this  was  published  about  the  year  1550  in  Svo. 
When  the  learned  bishop  Jewel  wrote  his  ^'  Apology  £b£ 
the  Church  of  England,^'  which  had  a  conuderable  effect 
i^  quieting  the  clamours  of  the  Roman  Catholie  wiritera 
Against  the  reformed  religion,  this  lady  undertook  t»  trsna^ 
late  it  from  the  Latin  into  English,  that  it  might  be  accesHf 
^ible  to  the  common  people,  and  considering  the  style,  of 
the  ^ge,  her  translation  is  both  filithful  an4  elegant  A&« 
Strype  informs  us  that  after  she  had  finished  the  trahslatioa 
she  sent  the  copy  %o  the  ajUth€Mr,  accompanied  with  .an 
f  pintle  to  him  in  Greek;,  which  he  answered  in  the  samer 
language,  and  was  so  satisfied  with  her  translation  that  he 
4id  ^ot  ^\tex  a  .^ngle  word.  The  archbishop  Parker^  to 
whom  she  had  likewise  submitted  her  work,  bestowed  the 
highest  praise  on  it,  which'  he  confirmed  by  a  compliment 
9f  much  elegance.  He  retujrned  it  to  her  printed,  <<  know-* 
ing,'*  as  he  said  ia  his  letter  to  her,  ^^  that^e  had  thereby 
4one  for  the  biest,  afid  in  this  point  used  a  reasonable  pot 
liey ;  that  is,  to  prevent  such  excuses  as  her  modesty  woiiU 
have  made  m  stay  of  pubUshiAg  it^^  It  was  printed  in 
)a$4,  4to,  and  in  1600,  l2mo.  That  bee  literary  reputa<* 
tion  extended  beyond  her  own  country  is  evident  from 
Beza'a  dedication  to  her  of  his  Meditations.  lu  Birch^^ 
<^  iMemoirs  of  ^e  reign  of  queen  Elizabeth,'*  her  namei 
frequently  occurs,  wd  lie  has  given  some  of  her  letters  at 
£jU  lengeh^  and  extracts  from  rodiers,  which  confirm  heir 
character  for  learning.  Her  temper  in  her  latter  yeaim 
appears  to  have  been  affected  by  ill  health*  At  what  time 
ahe  w^  ouMTied  t;a  sir  Kicholas  Bacon  cannot  be  ascer^ 
tainied.  It  is  a  more  important  record,  however,  that  she 
was  mother  of  the  illustrious  sir  Francis  Bacon,  lord  Veru- 
lam,    Th^  time  of  her  death,  too,  has  escaped  the  re« 

B  A  C  O  N*  ^55 

9afijr(!hes  of  her  biograpbera.  She  appears  to  have  hee^ 
l{mg  in  1596,  and  Ballard  comectures  thaf  she  died  abou^ 
the  b^gihniqg  of  the  reign  q;i  James  I.  at  Gorh^ii^l^iiry^ 
i^ear  St.  Alban's,  and^  according  to  Dr.  Rawley,  was  buriefl 
ax  &u  Michael's  church  in  that  town^  but  neither ,  n^ooM* 
ment  nor  inscription  have,  been  discovered. ' 

3ACQN  (Francis),  Viscount  St.  A^^ban's,  an4  higU- 

cbancellor  of  England  in  the  reign  of  Jaqies  L  justly  styled, 

the  glory  and  ornament  of  his  age  i^nd  nation,  waa  the  sgoj 

of  sir  Mcholas  Bacon,  and  Anue,  the  subject  of  the  pre*. 

ce(}iag  article,  and  was  born  at  York  House,  in  tl^e  Strand^ 

qn  the  22d  of  January  156D-i.     He  gave  early  proofs  of  ^ 

s.urprizing  strength  and  pregnancy  of  genius,  and  when  ^ 

mei^e  boy,  was  distinguished  by  persons  of  worth  find  dig^ 

nity  fiar  something  far  beyond  his  years.  Queen  Elizabeth^ 

1^  very  acute  discerner  of  mei'it,  was  so  charmed  with  the 

solidity  of  his  sense  and  the  gravity  of  his  behayioiir,  thai} 

she  would  often  call  him  ^'  her  young  lord  ke^er,*'  aq 

office  which  be  eventually  reached,  although  not  in  her 

roigOi     When  qu^ified  for  academical  l&tudies,  he  wasisent^ 

tp^e  ufidiKersity  of  Cambridge,  where,  June^  10,  1573,  het 

was  entered  of  Trinity  college,  u^der  Dr.  John  Whitgiftj^ 

i^tencards  archbishop,  of  Cai;Lterbury.     Such  was  bis  pro-i 

gress  under,  this  able  tutor,  and  such  the  vigour  of  his  in^ 

telleot,.  that  before  h^  had  completed  his  sixteenth  year, 

kp  had  not  only  run  through  the  whole  circle  of  the  liberal 

arts,  .as  they  were  then  taught,  but  began  to  perceive  the^ 

imperfections  of.  the  reigning  philo^opby,  and  meditated 

that  phi^ige  of  lyfstem  which  has  since  immortalized  hif 

i)ame|  and  has  pUced  knowledge  upon  its  most  firm  foun^ 

4a,tiODu     Extraordinary  as  this  may  appear,  he  was  beard 

Qven  a^  ^^  early  ^ge,  to  object  to  the  Aristotelian  system, 

^^ea\y  qne-t^ga  in  repute,^  aijid  to  say,  tba^t  hisi^^  excep*« 

tlpos  against  th^  great  philosopher  were  not  founded  upoa 

t|ie  wortblessnef s  of  the  author,  to  whom  he  would  ever  as^ 

oabe.aU  high  attributes,  but  for  the  unfruitfulness  pf  the 

way. :.  beinj^  a 'phildsophy  only  for  disputations^  and  conteai^ 

I^QiMI,  buj^  barren  in  the  production  of  works  for  the  benefit; 

ofxbe  life  of  man*'- 

:   Si^ch.^^ady  jjudgn\ent  determined  his  father  to  send  hin^ 

ta^Jfrnofepr  that  ^;  flight  iipprove  hiouelf  under  that  able 

*  .'  <'•  • 

^«  Biilard^g  MemoiV,— Bigj.  Britrtol.  IV.  art.  Cooke,  , p.  79,  note— Strype'* 
Life  of  Parker,  p..l7S. 


256  BACON. 

and  botiest  statesman,  sir  Amias  Powlet,  then  the  qacen^s 
ambassador  at  Paris,  and  his  behaviour  while  nitaef  the^ 
roof  of  that  minister,  was  so  pradent  as  to  inddce  sir  Amias^ 
to  intrust  him  with  a  commission  of  importance  to  th^ 
queen,  which  required  both  secrecy  and  dispatch :  and  tht* 
he  executed  so  as  to  gain  much  credit  both  t6  the  ambas- 
sador and  to  himself.     He  afterw*ards  returned  to  Paris, 
but  made  occasional  excursions  into  the  provinces,  where 
his  attention  appears  to  have  been  principaHy  directed  to- 
wards men  and  manners.     He  applied  also  with,  great  as'^ 
siduity  to  such  studies  as  he  conceived  came  within  hi^s 
father's  intention,  and  when  he  was  but  nineteen,  wrote  a 
very  ingenious  work,  entitled,  "  A  succinct  view  of  the 
state  of  Europe,"  which,  it  is  plain,  be  had  surveyed' not 
only  with  the  eye  of  a  politician,  but  also  of  a  philosopher. 
This  work,  it  is  probable,  he  improved  on  his  return,  when 
he  was  settled   in   Gray's  Inn.     While  thus    employed 
abroad,  the  death  of  his  father  obliged  him  to  return,  and 
apply  to  some  profession  for  his  maintenance,  as  the  mo- 
ney he  inherited  formed  a  very  narrow  provision.    Accord- 
ingly? on  his  return,  he  resolved  on  the  study  of  the  cofti- 
inon  law,  and  for  that  purpose  entered  himself  of  the  ho- 
nourable society  of  Gray's  Inn,  where  his  superior  talents 
rendered  him  the  ornament  of  the  house,  and  thie  gentle- 
^ness  and  affability  of  his  deportment  procured  him  the  af«-x 
fection  of  all  its  members.  The  place  itself  was  so  agreeable 
to  him,  that  he  erected  there  a  very  elegant  structure, 
which  many  years  Jtfter  was  knowix  by  the  name  of  "  Lord 
Bacon^s  Lodgings,"  which  he  inhabited  occasionally  thrbugli 
the  greatest  part  of  his  life.     During  the  first  years  of  his 
residence  here,  he  did  not  confine  his  studies  entirely  to 
law,  but  indulged  his  excursive  genius  in  a  survey  of  the 
whole  circle  of  science.     It  was  here,  and  at  that  earljr 
age,  where  he  formed,  at  least,  if  he  did  not  mature,  tfaie 
plan  of  that  great  philosophical  work,  which  has  distitt* 
guisbed  his  name  with  such  superior  honour.     Whether 
this  first  plan,  or  outlines,  have  descended  tons,  is  a  point 
upon  which  his*  biographers  are  not  agreed.     It  was  pfO*' 
bably,  however,  the  "  Temporis  Partus  Masculus,"  sqme 
part  of  which  is  preserved  by  Gruter  in  the  Latin  wodts  of 
Bacon,  which  he  published.    The  eurioua  reader  tfiay  fe« 
ceive  much  satisfaction  on  this  subject  from  note  D.  of  tho 
Life  of  Bacon  in  the  ^*  Biographia  Britannica.''  ' 

His  progress  in  his  professional  studies/ )K>w^er^  iwi 

BACON.  257 

fiever  tntemipted,  and  bis  practice  became  considerable. 
in  \5S9,  he  discharged  the  office  of  reader  at  Gray's  InOi 
i^nd  such  was  his  fame^  that  the  queen  honoured  him  by 
94>pointing  him  her  counsel  learned  in  the  law  extraor* 
dinary,  but  whatever  reputation  he  derived  frdifk  this  ap« 
]>pintment,  and  to  a  young  man  of  only  twenty-eight  years 
of  age,  it  must  have  been  of  great  importance,  it  is  said 
he  detived  from  her  majesty  very  little  accession  of  fortune. 
As  a  candidate  for  court-prefennent,  and  a  lawyer  already 
distinguished  by  acknowledged  talents,  it  might  be  expected 
thai  the  road  to  advancement  would  have  been  easy,  espect« 
ally  if  we  consider  his  &mily  interest,  as  the  son  of  a  lord* 
keeper,  and  nephew  to  Wiliiam  lord  Burleigh,  and  first  cou« 
sin  ^o  sir  Robert  Cecil,  principal  secretary  of  state.  But  it 
appears  that  bis  merit  rendered  his  court-patrons  somewhat 
jealous,  and  that  h-is  interest,  clashing  with  that  of  the  two 
Cecils,  and  the  ^aris  of  Leicester  and  Essex,  who  formed 
the  two  principal  parties  in  queen  Elizabetfa^s  reign,  was 
rather  an  obstruction  to  him,  as  he  forsook  its  natural  chan« 
nel  in  the  Cecils,  and  attached  himself  and  his  brother 
Anthony  to  the  earl  of  Essex.  Sir  Robert  Cecil  is  conse* 
queiitly  represented  as  preventing  his  attaining  any  very 
high  s^pointment,  although,  that  he  might  not  seem  to 
slight  so  near  a  relation,  he  procured  him  the  reversion  of 
the  place  of  register  of  the  court  of  Star-chamber,  which, 
however,  he  did  not  enjoy  until  the  next  reign,  nearly 
twenty  years  after.  This  made  him  say,  with  some  pleasantry, 
that  *^  it  was  like  another  man's  ground  buttalling  upon 
his  bouse,  which  might  mend  his  prospect,  but  did  not  fill 
hiS'faam.''  It  was  in  gi^atitude  for  obtaining  for  him  this 
ceyersion  that,  in  1592,  he  published  ^^  Certain  observa* 
tioos  upon  a  libel  entitled  A  Declaration  of  the  true  causes 
o|4he  great  Troubles,''  in  which  he  warmly  vindicates  the 
lord  treasurer  particularly,  and  his  own  father;  and  the 
s^tof  queen  Elizabeth's  ministers  occasionally.  This  is 
]^(Miglit'  to  have  been  his  first  political  production. 
.^••Sis  lather  patron,  Robert  earl  of  Essex,  proved  atvarm, 
V  ajpid  indefatigable  friend,  and  earnestly  strove  to 
vqueeu*s  solicitor,  in  1594,  although  unsuccess^ 
fuUjV  .#c^;:J^  superior  influence  of  the  Cecils.  He  en- 
^lfftV^rec(^,-however,.  to  make  him  amends  for  his  disap<- 
pointment  out  qC  his  own  fortune.  This,  it  might  be  sv^ 
l^ocuedjr^^djWftnded  on  the  part  of  Mr.  Bacon,  a  high  sense 
of  obligation,  and  such  he  probably  felt  at  the  time ;  bat 
Vol.  III.  S 

5R*  B  A  C  Q  N. 

it  is  much  to  be  Iswented,  tbat  he  aft^rwardk^  s^uUied  H^ 
character  by  taking  a  most  forw£ird  and  acUve  pa^  in 
bringing  that  unfof  lunate  noblemao  to  tb^  block  ;  for  bet 
Bot  only  appeared  against  hini  a»  a  lawyer  for  the  ^rowa^ 
but  after  hia  death,  endeavoured  to  perpetuate  tbe  »hanie 
of  it,  by  drawing  a  declaration  of  the  treasons  of  the  eaii 
of  Essex,  which  was  calculated  to  justify  the  goveraoae^t 
in-  a  very  unpopular  measi:^re,  and  to  turn  the  public  ce9-« 
aure  from  those  who  had  ruined  the  earl  of  Essex,  aind  had 
sever  dene  Mr.  Bacon  any  good.  It  is  but  fair,  however^ 
that  we  should  give  the  outUne  of  the  apology  whiicbbe 
found  it  necessary  to  m%ke  for  bis  conduct.  It  s^nipunta 
to  this,  that  he  had  given  tbe  earl  good  advice,  wbich  h<i 
did  not  foihow :  that  upon  this  a  coldness  ensued,  which 
kept  them  at  a  greater  distance  than  formerly  :  that,  how^ 
ever,  he.  continued  to  give  his  advice  t»  the  earl,  and  la-« 
boured  all  he  could  to  serve  him  with  tbe  queen  :  that  in 
respect  to  his  last  unfortunate  aot^  which  was,  in  tn^,  no 
better  than  an  act  of  madness,  be  had  no  knowledge  ov 
iioiajce  whatever :  that  he  did  no  more  than  he  was  19  dutji 
bound  to  do  for  the  service  of  the  queen,  in  the  way  of  his 
ftoSemotn  :  and  that  tbe  declaration  was  put  upon  him  aU 
tered,  after  he  had  drawn  it,  boith  by  tbe  ministers  and 
tbe  queen  herself.  Such  an  apology,  however,  did  not 
satisfy  the  public  at  that  time,  and  tbe  utmost  investigation 
of  the  affair  since  has  only  tended  to  soften  some  parts  of 
his  conduct,  without  amounting  to  a  complete  justi&ca«» 

Enemies  he  certainly  had,  ^^ther  from  this  cause,  or 
from  a  jealousy  of  his  high  talents ;  a^d  amoog  other  ac«i 
cusations,  they  represented  him  as  a  man^  who,  by  apply-* 
i»g  too  much  of  his  time  to  other  branches  of  knowledge^ 
could  not  but  neglect  that  of  his  profession  ;  but  this  ap<* 
pears  to  have  been  a  foolish  calumny.  Most  of  his  works 
on  law  were  written,  although  not  published,  in  this  reign« 
About  the  year  1596,  he  finished  his  *^  Maxims  of  the 
Law."  As  tbese  are  now  published,  tliey  make  only  tbe 
first  part  of  what  are  styled  '^  The  Elements  of  tbe  CQm<< 
mon  Law  of  England.'*  The  second  treatise  was  entitled 
•>  The  Use  of  tbe  Law  for  preservation  of  our  persons, 
goods,  apd  good  name,  according  to  the  laws  and  cus-> 
toms  of  this  land,''  a  work  of  great  value  to  students.  His 
^  Maxims,  of  Law"  he  dedicated  to  queen  Elizabecb,  hut^ 
foe.  wjiatever  season,  the  work  was  not  published  in  his  life-* . 



time.  •  The  ne&t  jrear  he  pfibliriieid  a  work  ot  anothet  kUid^ 
entitled  '<  Essays,  of  Counisels  Civil  and  Moral."     Tbii^ 
work  is  well  knowfi^  aiid  ba^  been  oft^ti  reprinted. ..  Th^ 
author  appears  to  have  bad  a  hi^  opinion  of  its  titility  | 
zaA  of  the  e:seeUent  morality  and  wisdem  it  idcalcated 
there  probably  never  has  been  but  one  opinioti.     Some  Of 
these  essays  had  been  handed  about  in  maimsoript,  which 
he  assigns  as  the  reason  why  be  collected  and  published 
them  in  a  correct  form.    About  the  close  of  the  succeed*- 
ingyear,  1598,  he  composed  his  **  History  of  the  Aliema^ 
tion  Office,^ '  which  was  not  published  till  many  years  after 
bis  decease,  indeed  not  until  the  publication  of  his  works 
in  1740^  when  it  was  copied  from  a  MS.  in  the  Inner  Tern*' 
pie  library.     It  is  needless  to  mention  some  smaller  in- 
.  stances  of  his  abilities  in  the  law,  which,  nevertheless,  weir^ 
received  by  the  learned  society  of  which  he  was  a  member^ 
with  alt  possible  marks  of  veneratioti  and  esteem,  smd  which^ 
they  have  preserved  with  t^e  rereYenoe  due  to  so  eminent 
an  ornament  of  their  house.     As  a  farther  proof  of  their  re-> 
spect,  they  chose  him  double  reader  in  the  year  1 600,  which 
office  he  discharged  with  his  usual  ability.  He  distinguishedl 
himself  likewise,  during  the  latter  part  of  the  ^ueen^sf 
rrign,  in  the  house  of  commons^  where  he  spoke  ofteti^ 
and  with  so  much  impartiality  as  to  give  occasional  um- 
brage to  the  ministers.     To  the  queen,  however,  he  pre-* 
ser^d  a  steady  loyalty,  and  after  her  decease,  composed 
a  memorial  of  the  happiness  of  her  reign,  which  did  equal 
honour  to  her  administration,  and  to  the  capacitiy  of  itiS 
author.     He  transmitted  a  copy  of  this  to  Tbuavms,  who 
made  use  of  it  in  his  history,  but  Mr.  Bacon  contented 
himself  with  enjoining  that  it  should  be  printed  after  his 
decease.     It  is  a  work  of  much  elegance  and  ab^ky. 

On  the  accession  of  king  James  I.  Mr.  Bacon  appears  t0> 
have- paid  court  tO  him,  by  the  kitervenitibft  of  some  of  \m 
English  and  some  of  his  Scotch  friends,  and  by  drawing  up 
the  form  of  a  proclamationv  which,  though  it  wasnotusedy 
was  considered  as  an  instance  of  his  duty  and  attachments 
Accordingly,  on  July  23,  1603,  he  was  introduced  fo  the 
king  at  Wfafttehall,  and  received  the  honour  of  knighthood* 
He  was  also  continued  in  the  same  office  be  held  under 
the  queen,  but  a  representation  respecting  the  grievous 
exactions  ef  purveyors,  which  the  house  of  commons  em« 
ployed  him.  to  draw  up,  attracted  the  king's  more  particu<« 
br  attention  ^  and  on  Augr  25, 1604,  his  majesty  constituted 

s  2 

2eO:  BACON, 

hiixii  b;  patent,  otte  of  his  counsel  learned  in  the  law;  wkb« 
a  fee  of  forty  pounds  a  year,  which  is  said  to  have  been 
the  first  act  of  royal  power  of  that  nature.  He  granted 
him  the  same  day,  by  another  patent,  a  pension  of  sixty 
pounds-  a  year,  for  special  services  received  from  his  bro-* 
tber  Anthony  Bacon  and  himself.  His  farther  promotion^ 
however^  was  still  retarded  by  his  old  antagonist,  sir  Ro«^ 
bert  Cecil,  now  created  Q^ri  of  Salisbury,  and  by  sir  Ed- 
ward Coke,  the  attorney-general,  who  affected  to  under* 
value  his  talents,  and  who  certainly  had  reason  to  fetir  hi^ 
reputation.  To  these,  however,  he  contrived  to  carry  him- 
self with  decent  respect,  although  not  without  occasional 
e;(postulations  with  both. 

.  In  the  mean  time  he  gave  evidence  of  the  steady  prose- 
cution, of  his  studies  by  publishing,  in  1605,  the  first  spe- 
cimen of  his  great  work,  in  his  bopk  "  Of  tbe  Advance- 
ment of  Learning,''  a  performance  of  much  value  even  iu 
its  detached  state.  He  continued,  .however,^  bis  diligence 
in.  parliament,  and  among  other  topics,  endeavoured '  to 
^^ond.the  views  tbe  king  had  entertained  of  an  union  be- 
tween. England  and  Scotland ;  but  his  efforts  for  the  crown. 
were  more  successful  in  Westminster-hall  than  in  that  as- 
sembly. About  this  time  he  married  Alice,  daughter  of 
Benedict  Barnham,  esq.  alderman  of  London,  a  lady  who 
brought  him  an  ample  fortune,  but  by  whom  be  never  had 
any  children.  In  1607,  he  succeeded  in  his  application 
for  the  solicitorship,  on  a  vacancy,  and  with  that  his  prac- 
tice encreased  most  extensively,  there  being  few  causes  of 
importance  in  which  he  was  not  concerned.  He  assured 
the  king,  before  he  obtained  this  employment,  that  it 
iRTOuld  give  him  such  an  increase  of  capacity,  though  not 
of  zeal,  to  serve  his  majesty,  that  what  he  had  done  in 
tomes  past  should  seem,  as  nothing,  in  comparison  with  the 
services  tie  should  render  for  the  future ;  and  in  this  re- 
spect be  is.  said  to  have  kept  his  word,  for  in  the  session 
of  parliament  held  in  the  year  in  which  he  was  made  soli-* 
citor,  he  ran  through  a  gre&t  variety  of  business,  and.  that 
-of  a  nature  which  required  ^a  man  not  only  of  great  abili- 
ties but  of  great  policy,  and  of  equal  reputation.  He  was, 
in  the  first  place,  employed  by  the  house  of  commons  to 
represent  to  the  king  the  grievances  under  which  the  na- 
tion labonred ;  and  though  the  paper  relating  to  them  wasi 
couched  in  terms  not  very  agreeable  to  the  king^s  temper, 
6ir  f  rancisi  by.  his:  accompanying  address^  so  abated  tbeur 

BACON,  261 

karshoess  as  to  perform  this  difficult  commission  with  uiii« 
Tersal  applause.  He  was  likewise  employed  by  the  house 
at  a  coxifereuce  with  the  lords,  to  persuade  them  to  join 

'  in  an  application  to  die  crown,  for  the  taking  away  the  an- 
cient  tenures,  and  iallowing  a  certain  and  competent  reve* 
nue  in  lieu  of  them ;  and  in  his  speech  on  this  occasion,  sir 
Francis  Bacon  set  the  affair  in  so  clear  a  light,  as  excited 
that  spirit,  which  at  length  procured  the  dissolution  of  the 
court  of  Wards,  a  point  of  the  highest  consequence  to  the 
liberties  of  this  kingdom.  He  likewise  satisiSied  the  house 
at  a  time  when  they  were  much  out  of  temper  at  the  man* 
ner  in  which  the  king's  messages  were  conveyed  to  them  ; 
and  procured  their  acquiescence  in  the  supplies  by  a 
welt-timed  speech,  which  must  have  convinced  the  king 
of  wliat  importance  his  services  were  likely  to  prove; 
Amidst  all  these  political  and  professional  engagements; 
he  found  leisure  to  digest  the  plan  of  the  second  part  of 
his  great  work,  which  he  tran«nitted  to  some  judicious 
friends  for  their  opinion.  This  piece  was  entitled  ^^  Co* 
gitata  et  Visa/'  and  contained  the  grounds-work  or  plan  of 
his  '*  Novum  Organum,'*  so  essential  a  part  of  his  "  In-* 
stauration,*'  that  it  sometimes  bears  that  title.  Bishop 
Andrews  and  sir  Thomas  Bodley  were  two  of  the  personal 
whose  advice  he  solicited  on  this  occasion,  and  their  an- 
swers are  printed  ;n  his  works,  where  we  have  likewise  a 
small  discourse  in  English,  under  the  Latin  title  of  ^^  Fi- 
lum  Labyrinthi,"  which  was  the  original  draught  of  the 
^*  Cogitata  et  Visa.'*  While  availing  himself  of  the  opi- 
nions of  his  learned  contemporaries,  he  published  in  1610^ 
his  celebrated  treatise  "  Of  the  Wisdom  of  the  Ancients," 
a  work  which  received  and  has  ever  retained  thejustestap* 
plause.  It  is  not  easy  to  say  which  is  most  conspicuous  in 
this,  his  diligence  in  procuring  the  materials,  or  his  judg* 
ment  in  disposing  of  them. 

At  this  time  bis  favour  with  the  king,  and  his  general 
popularity  were  very  high,  yet  we  do  not  find  that  he 
availed  himself  much  of  either,  in  the  advancement  of  his 
personal  fortune,  excepting  that  in  1611  he  procured  the 
office  of  judge  of  the  marshals  court,  jointly  with  sir  Tho- 
mas Vavasor,  then  knight-marshal.     In  this  character  he' 

^presided,  though  for  a  very  short  time,  in  the  court  newly 
erected,  under  the  title  of  the  Palace-court  for  the  verge 
pf  the  king's  house,  in  which  station  he  has  left  us  a  very 
U^arned  and  methodical  charge  to  the  jury  there  upon  a 

WS  B  AC  ON. 

<ommis8ioo  of  oyer  and  terminer^  printed  in  his  works.  *  If 
his  biogmphers  inay  be  credited,  he  enjoyed  at  this  time 
0.n  income  of  nearly  five  thousand  pounds  a-year,  arising 
partly  from  his  personal  estates,  and  partly  from  his  official 
emoluments ;  and  although  he  was  liberal  and  even  pro- 
fuse in  his  mode  of  living,  yet  as  his  public  stations  re» 
quired  no  great  display  of  magnificence,  his  circuinstance^ 
must  have  been  such  as  to  remove  him  from  the  ambition 
of  availing  himself  of  the  many  opportunities  of  aggran* 
dissement  which  his  favour  with  the  king  afforded.  It  was 
not  till  16X3,  that  he  succeeded  to  the  office  of  attorney- 
general,  of  which  he  had  had  a  promise,  when  sir  Henry 
Hobart  was  made  chief  justice  of  the  common-pleas.  In 
this  office  he  was,  contrary  to  the  usual  practice,  and  in 
consideration  of  his  eminent  services,  allowed  to  take  his 
^at  in  the  house  of  commons.  He  appears  indeed  to 
have  received  favours  of  distinction  on  all  occasions,  that 
ivere  before  unknown.  Even  in  the  court  of  star-chamber, 
when  a  solemn  decree  was  made  against  duelling,  his 
f pQech,  which  gave  occasion  to  the  decree,  was,  contrary  to 
custom,  printed  with  it 

,  Such)  indeed,  was  the  weight  of  his  character,  that  he 
^tood  in  no  need  of  support  from  the  king's  ministers ;  the 
earl  of  Salisbury  was  now  dead,  and  it  does  not  appear  that 
be  had  any  dependance  on  the  earl  of  Somerset,  the  reign* 
ing  favourite,  but  kept  at  a  distance  from  him  when  he 
wa^  in  his  highest  power.  Matters,  however,  were  so  mis- 
managed by  Somerset,  that  the  attorney-general  had  much 
difficulty  and  less  success  in  preserving  the  king's  interest 
in  the  bouse  of  commons,  where  an  opposition  arose  to 
bis  m^esty's  measures  so  violent,  that  the  parliament  was 
dissolved,  and  not  called  again  for  a  considerable  time. 
Voluntary  subscriptions  were  set  on  foot  to  supply  the 
wants  of  government;  and  thi&  being  in  some  instances 
Yesi^ted;  the  attorney-general  had  to  prosecute  a  Mr.  Oli- 
ver St.  John,  who  was  among  the  most  refractory.  But 
"tfhese  are  circumstances  which  properly  belong  to  the 
^stqry  of  this  reign. 

In  the  mean  time,  Somerset  was  falling  in  the  king^a 
estimation,  and  his  place  was  supplied  by  Mr.  Geoi^e 
ViUiers,  afterwards  the  duke  of  Buckingham.  The  rise  of 
this  favourite  was  rapid  and  surprizing ;  and  air  Francis 
Bacon  is  said  to  have  conceived  a  good  opinion  of  him, 
iteoame  hb  friend^  and  certainly  gave  him  very  salutaiy 

BACON.  »8 

advice.  His  promotion  wts  followed  by  tlie  triail  of  the 
earl  and  countess  of  Somerset^  for  being  accessary  to  the 
murder  of  sir  Thomas  Overbury.  In  this  affair^  sir  Fran->- 
cis  appears  to  have  acted  an  impartial  part  in  the  dischai^e 
of  bis  duty  as  attorney-general.  The  king  who  appeared 
deeply  interested  in  bringing  these  offenders  to  justice^  was 
as  eager  afterwards  to  grant  them  a  pardon  ;  but  sir.  Fran- 
cis interfered  in  neither  case  farther  than  the  duties  of  his 
office  required. 

He  became  now  of  so  much  importance  in  the  state, 
that  it  was  necesi^ary  he  should  be  sworn  of  the  privy* 
council,  which,  like  his  other  distinguishing  honours,  had 
not  been  usual  for  a  man  in  his  station.  It  was  accom- 
plished, however,  by  the  interposition  of  his  friend^  sir 
George  Villiers,  a  circumstance  which  seems  to  imply 
that  the  king's  consent  only  was  wanting ;  but  why  so  use- 
ful a  servant  as  sir  Francis  should  be  in  any  measure  de- 
pendant on  this  young  favourite  for  that,  is  not  very  clearly 
explained.  Certain  it  is  that  his  majesty's  chief  depend- 
ance  was  on  his  integrity  and  abilities,  and  he  experienced 
the  advantage  of  both,  in  the  affair  of  a  contest  between 
the  two  courts  of  cjhancery  and  king's  bench,  as  to  the 
point  of  jurisdiction.  Sir  Francis  appears  to  have  given 
the  opinion  upon  which  the  king  acted  when  he  pronoun- 
ced a  kind  of  judgment  in  the  court  of  star-chamber,  in 
favour  of  the  lord-chancellor  Egerton,  and  against  bis  an- 
tagonist sir  Edward  Coke. 

Sir  Francis  held  the  office  of  attorney-general  for  three 
years^  during  which  he  behaved  himself  with  such  pru-. 
dence  and  moderation,  and  went  through  so  many  difficult 
and  perplexed  affairs,  with  such  evenness  and  integrity^ 
that  it  does  not  appear  his  conduct  was  ever  called  in  ques- 
tion, nOr  has  malice  itself  dared  to  utter  any  thing  to  his 
reproach.  On  the  7th  of  March,  1616-17,  on  the  resig- 
nation of  the  lord-chancellot,  he  was  promoted  to  that 
high  office,  which,  indeed,  he  had  solicited  on  a  former 
Occasion,  when  there  was  a  prospect  of  a  vacancy.  It  is 
said  that  when  bis  majesty  delivered  the  seals  to  him,  be 
gave  him  three  cautions,  first,  that  he  should  not  seal  any 
Sling  but  after  mature  deliberation;  secondly,  that  ha 
should  give  righteous  judgments  between  parties;  and 
lastly,  that  he  should  net  extend  the  royal  prerogative  too 
far.  These  precepts  he  made  the  ground-work  of  a  long 
tod  learned  speech  which  he  delivered  .in  court|  on  the 

S64  BACON* 

7th  of  May  foIlowiDg,  the  day  on  which  he  took  possesion 
of  his  high  office.  He  now  began  to  experience  the  truth 
of  the  observation  that  the  highest  seats  are  the  most  ex* 
posed ;  for  within  a  little  time  after  the  king's  setting  out 
for  Scotland,  which  took  place  a  few  days  after  his  ap- 
pointment to  the  seals,  the  Spanish  n^atch  was,  by  direc-> 
tion  of  his  majesty,  brought  upon  the  carpet,  and  cost  sir 
Francis  very  great  trouble.  The  conduct  of  the  favourite 
Buckingham  also  occasioned  him  much  perplexity,  al-» 
though  die  cause  was  of  no  more  importance  than  a  projected 
marriage  between  sir  John  Villiers,  brother  to  the  fa-» 
vourite,  and  a  daughter  of  sir  Edward  Coke,  which  the 
lord  keeper  opposed,  and  of  which .  opposition  Bucking-i* 
ham  himself  afterwards  entertained  a  more  favourable 

In  the  mean  time  the  chancellor  continued  to  suprein- 
tend  the  king's  affairs  in  general,  and  particularly  the  con-r 
cerns  of  the  civil  list.  There  are  many  of  his  letters  ex- 
tant, both  to  the  king  and  to  Buckingham^  upon  this  sub-^ 
ject,  which  demonstrate  an  independence  of  mind,  and 
an  intrepidity  in  the  discharge  of  his  duty,  very  remote 
from  the  servile  temper  of  which  bis  enemies  have  accused, 
him*  In  the  beginning  of  January  1618,  he  had  the  title 
given  him  of  lord  high  chancellor  of  England ;  and  in  July 
of  the  same  year,  he  was  created  baron  of  Verulam  in  the 
county  of  Hertford.  This  new  honour  excited  his  lord- 
ship to  new  services,  and  it  appears  from  his  own  writings^ 
that  he  was  very  attentive  to  evexy  thing  that  might  con- 
duce, either  to  the  immediate  benefit  of  the  king,  or  to 
the  general  good  of  his  subjects.  Some  of  his  particular 
transactions  are  detailed  in  the  history  of  the  times,  and  uC 
his  life  in  the  Biographia ;  but  it  wouM  swell  \tbis  article 
beyond  all  useful  bounds  were  we  to  enter  upon  these. 
With  regard  to  his  more  personal  history,  it  may,  however, 
be  neces»airy  to  subjoin  that  while  high  chancellor,  he  pro- 
cured from  the  king  the  farm  of  the  alienation*office, 
which  was  of  considerable  benefit,  and  proved  a  great  part 
of  his  subsistence,  after  he  lost  his  office.  He  likewise 
procured  York-house  for ,  his  residence,  for  which  he 
seems  to  have  had  an  affection,  as  beiug  the  place  of  his 
birth,  and  where  his  father  had  lived  all  the  time  he  pos- 
sessed the  high  office  of  lord  keeper  of  the  great  seal. 

With  his  colleagues  in  administration,  or  in  the  law  de- 
partments, he  appears  to  have  endeavoured  to  live  upoi^ 

BACON.  $65 

^Qoi  terms.  Buckingham  he  contrived  to  keep  in  apparent 
hum6ur,  although  he  frequently  refused  to  put  the  seal  to 
what  he  thought  improper  grants;  and  he  even  agreed 
better  with  sir  Edward  Coke  than  was  expected^  always 
representing  that  judge  to  the  king  in  the  most  favourable 
light.  About  this  time,  however,  an  attempt  was  made 
to  the  prejudice  of  the  chancellor,  which  might  have  given 
him  some  warning  of  his  fall.  One  Wrenbam,  against 
whom  he  had  made  a  decree,  surmising  he  had  wrong  done 
him,  the  general  case  with  clients  who  lose  their  cause, 
presented  a  libellous  petition  to  the  king  against  him,  the 
suggestions  of  which  were  thoroughly  examined,  and  it 
clearly  appeared  that  the  chancellor  had  acted  as  became 
him,  and  that  he  had  in  truth  been  very  much  injured  by 
this  Wrenham  ;  the  suggestions,  however,  appear  to  have 
produced  those  effects  on  some  minds  which  afterwards 
were  displayed  more  conspicuously. 

In  the  midst  of  these  important  occupations,  he  was  so 
far  from  neglecting  his  philosophical  studies,  that  in  the 
month  of  October  1620,  he  sent  to  the  king  his  great  work, 
the  **  Novum  Organum,"  the  design  of  which  was,  to 
execute  the  second  part  of  the  "  Instauration,"  by  ad- 
vancing a  more  perfect  method  of  using  the  rational  fa- 
culty than  men  were  before  acquainted  with,  in  order  to 
raise  and  improve  the  understanding,  as  far  as  its  present 
imperfect  state  admits,  and  enable  it  to  conquer  and  in- 
terpret the  difficulties  and  obscurities  of  nature.  Tliis 
work  his  majesty  received  as  graciously  as  he  could  wish, 
and  wrotQ  him  a  letter  upon  it,  which  certainly  does  ho- 
nour to  both  their  memories.  He  received  also  the  com« 
pliments  of  many  learned  men  on  the  same  subject,  and 
had  every  reason  to  be  satisfied  with  the  general  reception 
of  a  work,  which  cost  him  so  much  time  and  pains«  Such 
is  said  to  have  been  his  anxiety  for  its  perfection,  that  he 
revised  and  altered  twelve  copies  before  he  brought  it  to 
the  state  in  which  it  was  published. 

The  end  of  his  political  life,  however,  was  now  ap- 
proaching, and  was  precipitated  by  means  in  which  he  had 
a  considerable  share,  by  advising  his  majesty  to  call  a  par« 
liament,  and  grant  redress  of  public  abuses.  In  the  course 
of  investigating  these,  on  the  1 5th  of  March  1620-1,  the 
comaiittee  app9iiited  to  inquire  into  tae  abuses  in  the 
courts  of  justice,  reported  that  two  charges  of  corruption 
&^d  been  brought  against  the  lord  chancellor  3  a  farther 

S6«  BACON. 

inquiry  was  ordetreiJ  fey  the  house  of  commons,   which 
produced  stronger  circumstances,  and  the  complaint  was 
sent  up  to  the  house  of  lords.     When  it  came  to  be  de- 
bated there,  Buckingham  presented  a  letter  from  the  lord 
chancellor,  who  was  then  sick,  in  which  he  desired  four 
things  of  their  lordships :  first,  -that  they  would  maintain 
him  in  their  good  opinion  till  his  cause  was  heard ;  se« 
condly,  that  they  would  give  him  a  convenient  time,  a« 
well  in  regard  of  his  ill  state  of  health,  as  of  the  import*^ 
ance  of  the  charge,  to  make  his  defence,    thirdly,  that 
they  would  allow  him  to  except  against  the  credit  of  the 
witnesses  against  him,  to  cross-examine  them,  and  to  pro- 
duce evidence  in  his  own  defence ;  and  fourthly,  that  in 
case  there  came  any  tnore  petitions  of  the  like  nature,  that 
their  lordships  would  not  take  any  prejudice  at  their  num- 
ber, considering  they  were  a^inst  a  judge  that  made  two 
thousand  orders  and  decrees  ip  a  year.     Their  lordships 
returned  a  respectful  answer  to  this  letter ;  but  within  a 
few  days,  their  own  committee  reported  above  twenty  in- 
stances, in  which  he  had  taken  bribes  to  the  amount  of 
several  thousands  of  pounds.     Of  all  this,  the  proof  was 
so  clear,  as  to  determine  the  chancellor  to  relinquish  his 
intended  defence,  and  to  throw  himself  upon  the  mercy 
of  the  house.     This  not  being  explicit,  he  «ent  a  second 
full  and  particular  confession  and  submission  to  the  bouse^ 
in  which  ht  acknowledged  most,  but  extenuated  some,  of 
the  many  instances  of  corruption  with  which  he  had  been 
charged,  and  once  more  threw  himself  entirely  on  the 
mercy  of  his  peers.     The  lords  having  heard  this  paper 
read,  a  committee  of  lords  were  sent  to  him,  who  told  him 
that  the  lords  do  Conceive  it  to  be  an  ingenuous  and  full 
confession,  and  demanded  of  him,  whether  it  be  his  own 
hand  that  is  subscribed  to  the  same  ?  and  whether  he  will 
$tand  to  it  or  not?     To  which  the  lord  chancellor  an- 
swered, **  My  lords,  it  is  my  act,  my  hand,  my  heart.     I 
beseech  your  lordships  to  be  merciful  to  a  broken  reed.'* 

In  consequence  of  these  proceedings,  his%rdship  de- 
livered up  the  great  seal  to  his  majesty,  and  the  house  of 
peers  adjudged,  that  lord  viscount  St.  Albans,  lord  chan- 
cellor of  England,  shall  undergo  fine  and  ransom  of  forty- 
thousand  pounds,  that  he  shall  be  imprisoned  'in  the  Tower* 
during  the  king's  pleasure,  that  he  shall  for  ever  be  in- 
Capable  of  any  office  or  employment  in  the  state  or  com- 
tnonwealtb,  and  that  he  shall  never  $it  in  parliattiefit^i  or 

BACON.  1Q67 

tame  within  the  verge  of  the  court.  After  a  sliort  con- 
^uemeot  in  the  Tower,  however,  he  y«ra$  discharged,  and 
in.  some  measure  regained  his  favour  with  the  king,  who,  on 
^fae  prorogation  of  parUament^  was  pleased  to  consult  him^ 
as  to  the  proper  methods  of  reforming  the  courts  of  justice, 
and  taking  away  other  grievances  which  that,  parliament 
.had  inquired  into ;  and  bis  lordship  accordingly  drew  up 
»  memorial,  which  is  extant  in  his  works.  Other  marks  of 
favour  and  indulgence  were  shewn  him^  which,  amidst  the 
•anguish  of  a  blasted  character,  so  far  appeased  his  troubled 
mind,^  that  be  resumed  his  studies  with  his  accustomed 
vigour.  In  the  spring  of  the  succeeding  year,  1622,  he 
published  his  history  of  Henry  VII.  which  has  not  added 
so  much  to  his  reputation  as  bis  other  works.  When  the 
aiew  parliament  was  called,  in  which  the  house  of  com- 
mons shewed  great  zeal  for  his  majesty^s  service,  be  com- 
posed "  Considerations  of  a  war  with  Spain,"  and  like-* 
wise  /*  Heads  of  a  Speech"  for  his  friend  sir  Edward 
Sackville,  upon  the  same  subject ;  and  these  services  were 
so  well  received,  that  upon  an  application  to  the  king  for  . 
a  full  pardon,  he  easily  obtained  it.  In  the  warrant  di- 
rected for  this  purpose  to  the  attorney-general,  his  ma- 
jesty took  notice  of  his  lordship^s  having  already  satisfied 
justice  by  his  sufferings,  and  that  himself  being  always  in- 
clined to  temper  justice  with  mercy,  and  likewise  calling 
to  remembrance  his  former  good  services,  and  how  well 
and  profitably  he  had  spent  his  time  since  bis  troubles,  he 
was  graciously  pleased  to  remove  from  him  that  blot  of 
ignominy  which  yet  remained  upon  him,  (^  incapacity  and 
-disablement,  and. to  remit  to  him  all  penalties  whatsoever, 
inflicted  by  that  sentence. 

.  In  consequence  of  this  pardon,  his  lordship  was  sum^ 
moned  to  the  second  parliament  in  the  succeeding  reign  of 
Charles  I.  but  his  infirmities  did  not  allow  him  to  take  his 
seat.  He  foresaw  that  his  end  was  drawing  near^  although 
he  escaped  the  great  plague,  in  the  spring  of  1625.  Hav« 
ing^  sufEcientiy  established  the  fame  of  his  learning  and 
iibtlitieS)  by  his  writings  published  by  himself,  he  com- 
mitted, by  his  will,  several  of  his  Latin  and  philosophical 
compositions,  to  the  care  of  sir  William  Boswell,  bis  ma- 
jesty's agent  in  Holland,  where  they  were  afterwards  pub- 
lisjied  by  Gruter.  His  orations  and  letters  he  commended 
to  sir  Humphrey  May,  chancellor  of  the  Duchy,  and  the 
bishop  of.  .lincoln  (Williams)^  who  succeeded  him  as  lord 

268  BACON 

keeper,  and  acknowledged  the  honour  of  that  trust,  which 
letters  he  enjoined  to  be  preserved,  but  not  to  be  divuigedt 
as  touching  too  much  on  persons  and  matters  of  state,  fiy 
this  judicious  care  of  his,  ipost  of  his  papers  were  pre"- 
served,  and  the  greatest  part  of  them  at  diifereift  times 
have  been  printed  and  published.  The  severe  winter 
which  followed  the  infectious  summei:of  1625,  brought  him 
very  low ;  but  the  spring  reviving  his  spirits,  he  made  a 
little  excursion  into  the  country,  in  order  to  try  some  ex* 
periments  in  natural  philosophy ;  in  which  journey  he  was 
taken  so  ill,  that  he  was  obliged  to  stop  at  the  earl  of 
Arundel^s  house  at  Highgate,  about  a  week,  and  there  he 
expired,  April  9,  1626,  and  Mfas  privately  buried  in  tb^ 
chapel  of  St.  Michael's  church,  within  the  precincts  of 
Old  Verulam  ;  where  a  monument  was  erected  to  his  me* 
moiy  by  sir  Thomas  Meautys,  his  faithful  friend  and  in« 
defatigable  servant  in  all  his  troubles. 

The  political  character  of  lord  Bacon  is  sufficiency  de** 
termined  by  those  events  in  his  life,  about  which  there  can 
now  be  no  dispute.  However,  we  may  lament  the  fall  of 
5uch  a  man,  it  appears  too  plain  that  it  was  owing  entirely 
to  his  own  misconduct,  and  neither  to  the  intrigues  of  his 
enemies,  or  the  temper  of  the  times.  He  remains  an  aw- 
ful example  of  the  brightest  character  upon  record,  sul^ 
lied  by  the  vices  of  ambition  and  ostentation  ;  for  the  latter 
betrayed  him  into  expences  which  he  w^s  glad  to  defray 
without  consideration  of  the  means,  nor  is  it  much  pallia- 
tion of  his  great  offence,  that  he  was  neither  covetous  nor 

If,  however,  we  contemplate  his  personal  character 
and  his  mental  powers,  he  must  appear  to  be  one  of  the 
greatest  and  wisest  men  that  ever  contributed  to  humaq 
knowledge.  The  only  thing,  says  Brucker,  to  be  re* 
gretted  in  the  writings  of  Bacon  is,  that  he  has. increased 
the  difficulties  necessarily  attending  his  original  and  pro* 
found  researches,  by  too  freely  making  use  of  newterms^ 
and  by  loading  his  arrangement  with  an  excessive  multi«> 
plicity  and  minuteness  of  divisions.  But  an  attentive  and 
accurate  reader,  already  not  unacquainted  with  philosophi- 
cal subjects,  will  meet  with  no  insuperable  difficulties  iii 
studying  his  works,  and,  if  he  be  not  a  wonderful  profit 
cient  in  science,  will  reap  much  benefit  as  well  as  plea- 
sure frcnn  the  perusal.  In  fine,  adds  this  judicious  writer, 
lord  Bacon,  by  the  universal  consent  of  the  learned  yroAd% 

B  A  C  O  Ni  209 

U  to  be  ranked  in  the  first  class  of  modern  philosophers. 
He  unquestionably  belonged  to  that  superior  order  of  men^ 
who,  by  enlarging  the  boundaries  of  human  knowledge^ 
have  been  benefactors  to  mankind ;  and  he  may  not  im- 
properly be  styled,  on  account  of  the  new  track  of  science 
which  he  employed,  the  Columbus  of  the  philosophical 

.  His  works,  collected  into  five  vols.  4to.  were  beautifully 
and  accurately  printed  by  Bowyer  and  Strahaii,  in  1765, 
and  have  been  lately  reprinted  in  8vo.  A  life  of  lord  Bacon 
is  still  a  desideratum  in  English  literature  ^  that,  in  the 
Biographia  Britannica,  from  which  the  present  article  is 
taken,  contains  an  useful  collection  of  facts  and  references 
to  authorities^,  but  is  ill  digested^  and  forms  no  regular 
plan.  * 

BACON  (John),  an  eminent  English  sculptor,  de- 
'SceEided  of.  an  ancient  family  in  Somersetshire,  was  the 
son  of  Thomas  Bacon,  a  cloth-worker  in  Southwark,  and 
Uorn  Nov.  24,  1740.  At  the  age  of  fourteen^  be  was 
l^ound  apprentice  to  Mr.  Crispe  of  Bow  church-yard,  where 
he  was  employed  in  painting  on  porcelain,  and  forming  the 
ipodels  of  shepherds,  shepherdesses,  and  other  ornamental 
pieces  for  his  master's  china  manufactory  at  Lambeth,  and 
such  was  his  skill  and  industry  in  this  humble  employment, 
that  he  wa)^  at  this  early  age  enabled  to  gratify  his  filial 
piety,  by  supporting  his  parents  from  the  produce  of  hi$- 
labours,  although  at  the  expence  t}f  those  enjoyments 
whieh  children  of  less  affection  and  thought  cannot  easily 
resign. .  While  employed  at  this  manufactory,  he  had  an 
opportunity  of  seeing  the  models  of  different  sculptors 
which  were  sent  there  to  be  burnt,  and  from  them  he  im- 
proved his  own  skill  in  so  high  a  degree,  that  at  no  distant 
period  he  became  a  candidate  for  public  premiums,  and  it 
appears  from  the  books  published  annually  by  the  Society 
for  the  encouragement  of  the  ax^s,  that,  between  the  years 
1763  and  1766  inclusive,  the  first  premiums  in  those  classes, 
for  which  he  contended,  were  no  less  than  nine  times  ad- 
judged to  him.  The  first  of  these  attempts  was  made  in  the 
year  1758,  in  a  small  figure  of  Peace,  after  the  manner 
of  the  antique.  During  his  apprenticeship  also,  he  formed 
a  design  of  making  statues  in  artificial  stone,  which  he 

^  Biog.    Brit9niiiGa.«^Lif«  of,    by    Mallett— Gen.    Diet— Brucker.-**9axii 

27a  BACON. 

afteri>rards  so  perfected  as  |o  recover  the  manttfeicforj  at 
Lambeth,  now  earried  on  by  Mrs.  doade,  and  Which  be** 
fore  Mr.  Bacon  undert6ok  the  management  of  ity  ha^  fal- 
len into  very  low  circumstances* 

About  the  year  1763,  he  first  attempted  working  in 
marble,  and  having  never  seen  that  operation  performed, 
he  was  led  to  invent  an  instrument  for  transferring  the' 
form  of  the  model  to  the  marble  (technically  Called,' ^«N 
ting  out  the  points),  whiclj  instrument,  from  its  superiov^ 
effect,  has  since  been  adopted  by  many  other  scnlptors- 
in  England  and  France.  His  first  regular  instructions, 
however,  in  his  favourite  pursuit,  were  received  al;  the 
Royal  Academy,  in  1763,  the  year  of  its  institution^  and 
such  were  their  effect  on  a  mind  already  so  well  prepaired* 
by  nature,  that  the  first  gold  medal  for  sculpture  giv6n  by* 
the  academy,  was  decreed  to  him  ;  and  two  years  after,  he 
was  elected  an  associate.  His  fame  was  at  this  time  wel^ 
known  by  his  statue  of  Mars,  which  induced  the  late  arch*- 
bishop  of  York,  Dr.  Markham,  to  employ  him  to  execute  % 
bust  of  his  Majesty  for  the  hall  of  Christ  Church  college,- 
Oxford.  His  majesty  not  only  condescended  to  sit  to  hini' 
npon  this  occasion,  li>ut  honoured  him  with  his  pati*onage, 
and  ordered  another  bast,  intended  as  a  present  to  the  uni-- 
versity  of  Gottingen.  He  was  soon  after  employed  by  the 
dean  and  scholars  of  Christ  Church  to  form  several  busts  for* 
them,  particularly  those  of  general  Guise,  the  bishop  oi 
Durham,  and  the  primate  of  Ireland. 

In  1 773,  he  presented  to  the  Society  for  the  encotarage--' 
ment  of  arts,  two  statues  in  plaster,  which  by  a  vote  of 
that  society,  were  directed  to  b^  placed  in  their  great 
room,  and  he  received  on  the  same  occasion  their  goldf 
medal.  His  first  work  in  sculpture*  is  in  Christ  Chtrrchi 
college,  already  mentioned  :  the  first  figures  he  executed 
in  marble,  are  at  the  duke  of  Richmond's  at  Groodwood  : 
and  his  first  monument  was  that  of  Mrs,  Withers,  in  St. 
Mary's,  Worcester.  In  1777,  be  was  employed  to  pre* 
pare  a  model  of  a  monument  to  be  erected  in  Guy*s  hos« 
pital,  Southwark,  to  the  memory  of  the  founder.  It  was 
this  work  that  chiefiy  recommended  him  to-  the  exeoutton 
of  lord  Chatham's  monument  in  Guildhall.  His  other 
works,  about  this  period,  were  the  monument  of  Mrsv 
Draper;  a  marble  statue  of  Mars,  for  lord  Yarborough ; 
two  groupes  for  the  top  of  Somerset-house ;  the  monumen% 
of  lord  Halifax  in  Westminster  abbey  \  the  statue  of  judge 

BACON.  271. 

Blaebstone  tax  All  Souls  college,  Oxford,  and  that  of' 
Henry  VI.  for  tbe  Anti-chapel  at  Etooi.  It  is  not  bur  in- 
tention, however,  nor  would  our  limits  permit,  ta  enume«^ 
mte  all  the  works  executed  by  this  artist,  within  twenty 
yeffcps  after  he  attained  his  just  and  high  fame.  There  are 
few  of  our  cathedrals  or  public  edifices  without  some  spe- 
ciiaen  of  his  skill,  but  it  would  he  unpardonable  to  omit 
one  of  his  grandest  efforts,  the  monciment  of  lord  Chat^- 
ham,  in  Westminster  abbey,  which  was  begun  in  1778^  and* 
finished  in  1783.  It  is  alone  a  proof  of  the  excellence  he 
had  attained,  without  the  aid  of  foreign  travel  and  observa* 
tioffik ;  and  how  various  that  excellence  was,  may  be  further 
proved  from  the  bronze  groupe  in  the  square  in  Somerset*^ 
place;  the  monuments  of  lady  Miller  at  Bath;  of  lord 
Rodney  at  Jamaica  y  of  lord  Heathfield  at  Buckland ;  of 
the  earl  and  countess  of  EiHngham  at  Jamaica ;  of  Howard 
and  Johoson  in  St.  PauPs,  &c.  &c. 

In  almost  the  vigour  of  life,  and  when  his  fame  was  at 
its  height,  this  artist  was  suddenly  attacked  with  an  in-^ 
flanunation  in  his  bowels,  so  violent  and  remediless,  as  to 
occasion  his  death,  Aug.  7,  1799,  in  the  59th  year  of  hi» 
age.  He  left  two  sons  and  three  daughters  by  his  first? 
wife,  and  three  sons  by  his  last.  His  second  son,  Joht>,^ 
became  the  inheritor  of  a  considerable  part  of  his  property, 
and  has  already  fully  proved  himself  the  legitimate  succes* 
sor  to  his  talents. 

Mr«  Baeon^s  private  character  is  entitled  to  much  praise. 
He  was  a  ma^  of  unfeigned  piety  and  extensive  benevo-^ 
leBce*  Prosperity  had  aot  corrupted  him,  although  it  ap» 
peiuied  to  superficial  observers  that  he  was  cautious  in  mat- 
teiH  of  expence,  which  they  wefe  3pt  to  impute  to  motives 
which  never  entered  into  his  mind.  The  want  of  educa* 
tion,.  he  supplied  by  useful  reading,  and  without  the  more 
ostensible  attainments  of  a  scholar,  his  conversation  as  far 
as  it  regarded  common  life  and  common  topics,  had  none 
of  those  deficiencies  which  academical  education  is  sup* 
posed  to  supply.  In  his  temper,  the  irritability  of  the  ar- 
tist was  corrected  by  much  meekness  and  forbearance,  and 
he  had'  that  noble  candour  which  never  denies  just  praise^ 
to  a  rival  or  contemporary.  With  respect  to  his  attaiiv*- 
ments  in  his  profession,  they  might  be  said  to  be  all  his 
own.  Having  arrived  at  the  highest  rank  of  English  ar-r 
tists  in  sculpture,  he  has  amply  pi^oved  that  foreign  travel 
confers  a  merit  which  is  rather  useful  than  necessary ;  ai 

272  BACON* 

distinction  which  will  not  be  misunderstood  by  those  who 
know  to  what  caprices  the  success  of  modern  artists  is  often 

BACON  (Sir  Nathaniel),  knight  of  the  batby  and  an. 
eitcellent  painter,  was  one  of  the  sons  of  the  lord-keeper 
sir  Nicholas  Bacon,  and  half-brother  to  the  viscount  St.  Al- 
ban's.  He  travelled  into  Italy,  and  studied  painting  there; 
but  his  manner  and  colouring  approach  nearer  to  the  style 
of  the  Flemish  school.  Mr.  Walpole  observes,  that  at  Cul- 
ford,  where  he  lived,  are  preserved  some  of  his  works ;  and 
at  Gorhambury,  his  father's  seat,  is  a  large  picture  in  oil 
by  him,  of  a  cook  maid  with  dead  fowls,  admirably  painted, 
with  great  nature,  neatness,  and  lustre  of  colouring.  la 
the  same  house  is  a  whole  length  of  him  by  himself,  draw- 
ing on  a  paper :  his  sword  and  pallet  hung  up,  and  a  half 
length  of  his  mother  by  him.  At  Redgrave-hall,  in  Suf- 
folk, were  two  more  pieces  by  the  same  baiid,  which  after* 
wards  passed  into  the  possession  of  Mr.  Rowland  Holt ;  the 
one,  Ceres  with  fruit  and  flowers;  the  other,  Hercules 
and  the  Hydra.  In  Tradescant's  museum  was  a  small 
landscape,  painted  and  given  to  him  by  sir  Nathaniel  Ba* 
con.  In  the  chancel  of  Culford,  in  Suffolk,  are  a  monu*^ 
uient  and  bust  of  him,  with  his  pallet  and  pencils.  Ano* 
tber  monument  was  erected  to  his  memory  at  StifFkey  in 
Norfolk,  the  inscription  upon  which  is  published  by  Mr« 
Masters.  The  same  writer  informs  us,  that  sir  Nathaniel 
was  famed  for  painting  plants,  and  well  skilled  in  their  virtues. 
He  married  first,  Anne,  the  daughter  of  sir  Thomas  Gresbam^ 
and  secondly,  Dorothy,  daughter  of  sir  Arthur  Hopton. 
By  the  former  he  had  three  ^daughters,  the  eldest  of  whom 
married  John  Townsend  of  Rainbam,  ancestor  of  the  pre- 
sent liiarquis  Townsend.  The  monument  above-mention- 
ed was  erected  by  himsel£  in  1*615,  the  69th  year  of  hi» 
age,  but  has  not  the  date  of  his  death.  * 

BACON  (Sir  Nicholas),  lord  keeper  of  the  great  seal 
in  the  reign  of  queen  Elizabeth,  descended  from  an  an- 
cient and  honourable  family  in  Suffolk.  His  father  was 
Roberi:  Bacon  of  Drinkston  in  that  county,  esq.  and  tu& 
mother  was  Isabel,  the  daughter  of  John  Gage  of  Paken** 
ham  in  the  said  county,  esq.     Nicholas,  their  second  son, 

>  Cecil's  Memoirs  of  John  Bacon,  R.  A.— Gent.  Mag.  1799:  also  vol.  LXVI. 

*  Bio?.  Brit.  vol.  I.  p.  448.-- Walpole'i  Anecdotes  tf  Paintei«.— Mastw'a 
Hiit,  of  C.  C.  C.  C. 

BACON.  in 

was  bom  in  1510,  tt  Chislehurst  in  Kent.  After  having 
receiTed  the  first  rudiments  of  learning,  probably  at  home, 
or  in  the  neighbourhood,  he  was  sent  when  very  young  to 
Corpus  Christi  college  in  Cambridge,  where  having  im<* 
proved  in  all  branches  of  useful  knowledge,  he  went  to 
France,  in  order  %o  give  the  last  polish  to  his  education. 
On  his  return  he  settled  in  Gray*s-Inn,  and  applied  him-^ 
Self  with  such  assiduity  to  the  study  of  the  law,  that  on  the 
dissolution  of  the  monastery  of  St.  Edmund* s-JBury  in  Suf^ 
f(Dlk,  he  had  a  grant  from  king  Henry  VIII.  in  the  thirty<- 
sixth  year  of  his  reign,  of  the  manors  of  Redgrave,  Botes* 
dale,  and  Gillinghaoi,  with  the  park  of  Redgrave,  and  si:it 
acres  of  land  in  Wbrtham,  as  also  the  tithes  of  Redgrave 
to  hold  in  capite  by  knight^s  service,  a  proof  of  the  esti* 
mation  in  which  he  was  held  by  his  majesty.  In  the  thirty- 
eighth  of  the  same  king,  he  was  promoted  to  the  office  of 
attorney  in  the  court  of  wards,  a  place  both  of  honour  and 
profit,  and  his  patent  was  renewed  in  the  first  year  of  Ed- 
ward VL ;  and  in  1 552,  which  was  the  last  year  of  his  reign, 
Mr.  Bacon  was  elected  treasurer  of  Gray's-Inn.  His  great 
moderation  and  consummate  prudence,  preserved  him 
through  the  dangerous  reign  of  queen  Mary.  In  the  ver^ 
dawn  of  that  of  Elizabeth  he  was  knighted,  and  the  great 
seal  of  England  being  taken  from  Nicdiolas  Heath,  arch»i 
bishop  of  York,  was  delivered  to  sir  Nicholas  Bacon,  oh. 
the  22dof  December  1558,  with  the  title  of  lord  keeper!. 
H^  was  also  of  the  privy  council  to  her  majesty,  who  had 
much  regard  to  his  advice.  The  parliament  met  Jan.'  ^3, 
but  was  prorogued  on  account  of  the  queen^s  indisposi* 
tiflte  to  the  25  th,  when  the  lord  keeper  opened  the  session 
with-  a  most  eloquent  and  solid  speech.  Some  of  the 
queea^s  counsellors  thought  it  necessary  that  the  attain- 
der of  the  queeri^s  mother  should  be  taken  off ;  but  the 
lord  keeper  thought  the  crown  purged  all  defects,  and  in 
compliance  with  his  advice,  two  laws  were  made,  one  for 
recognizing  the  queen's  title,  the  other  for  restoring  her 
in. blood  as  heir  to  her  mother.  The  prii^cipal  btrsiness  of 
tiiit  -session  was  the  settlement  of  religion,  in  which  no 
man  bad  a  greater  share  than  the  keeper,  and  he  acted 
iinth  such  prudence  as  never  to  incur  the  hatred  of  any 
{MUty.  On  this  account  be  was,  together  with  the  arch- 
bishop of  York,  appointed  moderator  in  a  dispute  between 
eight  Protestant  divines,  and  eight  Popish  bishops ;  and 
the  latter  behaving  very  unfairly  in  the  opinion  of  both 
Vol.  III.  T 

274  BACON. 

the  moderators,  and  desiring,  to  airoid  a  fair  disputation^ 
to  go  away,  the  lord  keeper  put  that  qnesUon  to  each  of 
them,  and  when  all  except  one  insisted  on  going,  his  lord- 
ship dismissed  them  with  this  memorasidum,  **  For  that  je 
;would  not  that  we  should  hear  you^  perhaps  you  may  short* 
ly  hear  of  us ;"  and  accordingly  for  this  contempt,  the 
bishops  of  Winchester  add  Lincoln  were  committed  to  th^ 
tower,  and  the  rest  were  bound  to  appear  before  the  coun« 
cil,  and  not  to  quit  the  cities  of  London  and  Westminster 
without  leave.    The  whole  business  of  the  session,  than 
which  there  was  none  of  greater  importance  during  that 
reigu,  was  chiefly  managed  by  his  lordship,  according  to 
his  wise  maxim,  ^*  Let  us  stay  a  little^  that  we  may  havcf 
idone  the  sooner.^'     From  this  time  he  stood  as  high  in  thef 
favour  of  the  queen  as  any  of  her  ministers,  and  maintained 
a  cordial  interest  with  other  great  men,  particularly  with 
those  eminent  persons,  who  had  married  into  the  same 
family  with  himself,  viz.  Cecil,  Hobby,  Rowlet,  and  KiUi-f 
grew.    By  their  assistance  he  preserved  his  credit  at  courts 
though  he  sometimes  differed  in  opinion  from  the  mighty 
favourite  Leicester,  who  yet  once  bad  fair  his  ruin,  when 
certain  intrigues  were  carried  on  respecting  the  succession; 
Some  statesmen,  and  particiilarly  the  earl  of  Leicester^ 
pretended  to  favour  the  title  of  the  queen  of  Scots,  but 
etchers  were  more  inclined  to  the  house  of  Suffolk.     The 
queen  sometimes   affected  a  neotrality,    and  sometimes 
shewed  a  tenderness  for  the  title  of  the  Scottish  que'en. 
In  1564,  when  these  disputes  were  at  the  height,  Mr.  Jolm 
Hales,  clerk  of  the  Hanaper,  published  a  treatise  which 
seems  to  have  been  written  a  considerable  time  before^ 
in  favour  of.  the  Suffolk  line,  and  against  the  title  of  the 
queen  of  Scots.     This  book  was  complained  of  by  the 
bishop  of  Ross,  ambassador  from  the  queen  of  Scots,  and 
Ross  being  warmly  supported  by  the  earl  of  Leicester, 
Hales  was  committed  to  prison,  and  so  strict  an  inqoiry 
made  after  all  who  had  express^  any  favour  for  this  piece, 
that  at  last  the  lord-keeper  came  to  be  suspected,  whidi 
drew  upon  him  the  queen's  displeasure,  and  he  was  for- 
bidden the  court,  removed  from  his  seat  at  council,  and 
prohibited  from  meddling  with  any  affairs  but  those  of  the 
chancery  :  nay,  Camden  says  he  was  confined  *.     At  last^ 

*  The  lord-keeper  could  not  have  Scots,  because  it  clearly  appears  from 
incurred  the  queen's  displeasure,  from  <*  A  Discourse  upon  certain  poioU 
Hill  dislike  to  the  titie  of  the  qaeen  of    teucbinj^the  Inheritance  of  the  Crown, 

BACON.  275 

Lovfeyer,  Cecil,  who  is  suspected  to  have  had  some  share 
in  the  above  treatise,  with  much  difficulty  restored  him  to 
the  queea's  good  opinion,  as  appears  by  her  setting  him  at 
the  head  of  that  commission,  granted  in  the  year  1568,  for 
bearing  the  difference  between  the  queen  of  Scots,  and  her 
rebellious  subjects ;  and  in  1571,  we  find  him  ;^ain  acting 
in  the  like  capacity,  though  very  little  was  done  before  the 
commissioners  at  either  time,  which  was  what  queen  Eliza<» 
beth  chiefly  desired,  and  the  covering  her  inclination#with 
a  decent  appearance  of  justice,  was  perhaps  not  a  little 
pwing  to  the  address  of  the  lord-keeper.  Afterwards  he 
continued  at  the  head  of  h^r  majesty's  councils,  and  had  n 
great  hand  in  preventing,  by  his  moderation,  some  vio- 
lent measures  afterwards  proposed.  The  share,  however^ 
that  he  had  in  the  business  of  the  duke  of  Norfolk,  and  his 
great  care  for  promoting  the  Protestant  religion,  created 
him  inany  bitter  enemies  among  the  Papists  both  at  home 
aod  abroad,  who  though  they  were  able  to  do  him  no  great 
hurt,  yet  published  some  libels,  particularly  <^  A  Detec- 
tion of  certain  practices,  &c.'*  printed  in  Scotland,  about 
1570,  and  ^' A  treatise  of  Treason,*'  both  which  gave  him 
considerable  uneasiness,  although  the  queen  expressed  her 
opinion,  by  a  proclamation,  ordering  them  to  be  burnt. 
As  a  statesman,  be  was  remarkable  for  a  clear  head,  and 
acute  understanding;  and  while  it  was  thought  of  some 
other  great  men  that  they  seemed  wiser  than  they  were^ 
yet  the  common  voice  of  the  nation  pronounced,  that  sir 
Nicholas  Bacon  was  wiser  than  he  seemed.  Hb  great  skill 
lay  in  balancing  factious,  and  it  is  thought  he  taught  the 
queen  that  secret,  the  more  necessary  to  her  because  the 
last  of  her  family,  and  consequently  without  many  of  the 
usual  supports  of  princes.  In  the  chancery  *he  distin- 
guished himself  by  a  very  moderate  use  of  power,  and  the 
respect  he  shewed  to  the  common  law.  At  his  own  request, 
an  act  of  parliament  was  made,  to  settle  and  establish  the 
power  of  a  lord-keeper,  though  he  might  probably  have 
taken  away  all  need  of  this,  by  procuring  the  title  of  lord 
chancellor :  but  according  to  his  motto,  which  was  Me- 
diocrafirma^  he  was  content  to  be  safe,  and  did  not  desire 

conceJTed  by  sir  Anthony  Brown,  and  tbe  queeu  of  Scots.  This  discourse 
answered  by  sir  Nicholas  Bacon/*  that  was  published  in  1723,  by  Nath. 
the  latter  was  decidedly  for  the  title  of     Boothe,  esq.  of  Gray's  Inn. 

T  2 

27*  fe  A  C  O  N- 

to  be  great  '^.  In  t!«ft  court,  and  in  the  star-chamber,  be 
made  tide,  on  proper  occasions,  of  set  speeches,  in  ,^hicb 
be  was  peculiarly  happy,  and  gained  the  reputation  of  a 
witty  and  a  weighty  speaker.  His  great  parts  and  great  pre- 
ferment were  far  frpm  raising  him  in  his  owp  opinion,  as 
appears  from  the  modest  answer  he  gave  queen  Elizabetb, 
when  she  told  him  his  house  at  Redgrave  was  too  little 
for  him,  "  Not  so,  madam,"  returned  he,  "  but  your  ma- 
jesty •has  made  me  too  great  for  jny  house.'*  Yet  to  shew 
bis  respect  for  her  majesty's  judgment,  he  afterwards  added 
wings  to  this  house.  His  modesty  in  this  respect  was  so 
much  the  greater,  since  he  had  a  great  passion  for  building,' 
and  a  very  fine  taste,  as  appeared  by  his  house  and  gar*- 
dens  at  Gorhambury  near  St.  Alban's,  now  the  seat  of  lord 
viscount  Grimston.  Towards  the  latter  end  of  his  life,  he 
became  very  corpulent,  which  made  queen  Elizabeth  say 
merrily,  that  "  sir  Nicholas's  soul  lodged  well.  To^hira- 
si^lf,  however,  his  bulk  was  very  inconvenient ;  after  walk- 
ing from  Westminster-hall  to  the  star-chamber,  vdiich  was 
but  a  very  little  way,  he  was  usually  so  much  out  of  breath, 
that  the  lawyers  forbore  speaking  at  the  bar  till  he  recor 
covered  himself,  and  gave  them  notice  by  knocking  with 
his  staff.  After  having  held  the  great  seal  more  tban 
twenty  years,  this  able  statesman  and  faithful  counsellor 
was  suddenly  removed  from  this  life,  as  Mallett  informs  us, 
by  the  following  accident:  "  He  was  under  the  hands  of 
his  barber,  and  the  vreather  being  sultry,  had  ordered  a 
window  before  him  to  be  thrown  open.  As  he  was  be- 
come very  corpulent,  he  presently  fell  asleep,  in  the  cur- 

*  After  he  had  been  some  raonths  act  of  parliament,  which  declares, 
in  office,  as 'keeper  of  the  great  seal,  *'That  the  common  law  always  was, 
he  began  to  doubt  to  what  degree  his  that  the  keeper  of  the  great  seal  always 
authority  Extended,  which  seems  to  had,  as  of  right  belonging  to  his  office, 
have  been  owing  to  the  general  terms  the  same  authority,  jurisdiction,  exc- 
used upon  the  delivery  of  the  great  cution  of  laws,  and  all  other  customs, 
seal,  <JF  which  we  have  various  in-  as  the  lord  chancellor  of  England  law« 
fences  in  Rymer's  Fcedera.  Upon  fully  used/'  What  the  true  reaiOB 
this,  he  first  applied  himself  to  the  was  that  made  his  lordship  so  uneasy, 
queen,  from  whom  he  procured  a  pa-  is  not  perhaps  known  to  posterity. 
tent,  beafmg  date  at  Westminster,  the  But  air  Henry  Spelman  lias  obsenredt 
14th  of  April,  in  the  first  year  of  her  that  for  tl^e  benefit  of  that  wise  conn* 
reign,  whereby  she  declares  him  to  seller  sir  Nicholas  Bacon,  the  autho- 
have  as  full  powers  as  if  he  were  rity  of  the  keeper  of  the  great  seal 
ehancelloT  of  England,  and  ratifies  all  was  by  this  law  declared  to  be  in  alt 
that  be  had  already  done.  This^  how-  respects  the  same  with  that  of  th» 
ever,  did  not  fully  satisfy  him ;  but  chancellor. 
four  years  afterwards  he  procured  an 

BACON.  877 


rent  of  fresh  air  that  was  blowing  io  upon  him^  and  awaked 
after  some  time  distempered  all  over.  *  Why,'  said  he  tp 
the  servant,  ^  did  you  suffer  me  to  sleep  thus  exposed  ?' 
The  fellow  replied,  ^  That  he  durst  not  presume  to  disturb 
him.'  •  Then,'  said  the  lord  keeper,  *  by  your  civility  I 
lose  my  life,'  and  so  removed  into  bis  bed-chamber,  wher^ 
be  died  a  few  days  after."  But  this  story  seems  doubtful, 
for  all  writers  agree,  that  sir  Nicholas  Bacon  died  Feb.  20, 
lt79,  when  the  weather  could  not  be  very  sultry.  On  the 
9th  of  March  following  he  was  buried  with  great  solemnity, 
under  a  sumptuous  monumeut  erected  by  himself  in  St 
Paul's  church,  with  an  inscription  written  by  the  celebrated 
Buchanan.  Camden's  character  of  him  is  just  and  plain : 
**  Vir  prsepinguis,  ingenio  acerrimo,  singulari  prudentia, 
3umma  eloquentia,  tenaci  memoria,  et  sacris  conciliis  alte- 
rum  coluxnen;''  2.  e.  A  man  of  a  gross:  body,  but  most  quick 
wit,  singular  prudence,  supreme  eloquence,  happy  memory, 
and  for  judgment  the  other  pillar  of  the  state.  His  son'^ 
character  of  him  is  more  striking.  He  was  '^  a  plain  man, 
direct  and  constant,  without  all  finesse  and  doubieness,; 
and  one  that  was  of  a  mind  that  a  man,  in  his  private  pro<- 
ceedings  and  estate,  and  in  the  proceedings  of  state,  should 
rest  upon  the  soundness  and  strength  of  bis  own  courses,  ' 
and  not  uppn  practice  to  circumvent  others,  according  to 
the  sentence  of  Solomon,  ^  Vir  prudens  advertit  ad  gres- 
6us  suos ;  stultus  autem  divertit  ad  dolos ;'  insomuch  thfit 
the  bishop  of  Ross,  a  subtle  and  observing  man,  said  of  him, 
that  he  could  fasten  no  words  upon  him,  and  that  it  wfis 
impossible  to  come  within  him,  because  he  offered  no  play ; 
and  the  queen  mother  of  France,  a  very  politic  princess, 
said  of  him,  that  he  should  have  been  of  the  council  of 
Spain,  because  he  despised  the  occurrents,  and  rested 
upon  the  first  plot."  Nor  is  Puttenham's  short  account  to 
be  overlooked :  ^'  I  have  come  to  the  lord  keeper,  and 
found  him  sitting  in  his  gallery  alone,  with  the  works  q( 
Quintilian  before  him.  Indeed  he  was  a  most  eloquent 
m^fl,  of  rare  wisdom  and  learning,  as  ever  I  knew  England 
to  breed,  and  one  that  joyed  as  much  in  learned  anen  and 
good  wits,  from  whose  lippes  I  have  seen  to  proceed  more 
grave  and  natural  eloquence  than  from  all  the  oraton  pf 
Oxford  and  Cambridge." 

He  was  not  happier  in  bis  fortune  than  in  his  family. 
His  first  wife  was  Jane,  daughter  of  William  Fernley,  of 
West  Creting  iu  the  county  gf  Suff9lk,  esq.  by  whom  be 

278  B  A  C  0  N: 

had  issue  three  sons  and  three  daughters.     The  sons  were, 
1.  Sir  Nicholas.     2.  Nathaniel  Bacon,  of  whom  we  have 
just  given  some  account.     3.  Edward  Bacon,  of  Shrub- 
Jand-ball  in  Suffolk,  esq.  in  right  of  his  wife  Helen,  daugh- 
ter and  heir  of  Thomas  Littel  of  the  same  place,  esq.  and 
of  Bray,  in  the  county  of  Berks,  by  Elizabeth  his  wife, 
daughter  and  coheir  to  sir  Robert  Litton,  of  Knebworth  ia 
the  county  of  Hertford,  knt.   from  whom  is  lineally  de- 
scended Nicholas  Bacon  of  Shrubland-hall,  esq.  and  frooi 
younger  sons  of  the  said  Edward  are  the  Bacons  of  Ipswich 
in  Suffblk,   and   Earlham   in   Norfolk,   descended.      The 
daughters  were,    1.  Anne,  already  noticed.     2.  Jane,  mar- 
ried first  to  sir  Francis  Windham,  knt.  one  of  the  justices 
of  the  common  pleas;   second,  to  sir  Robert  Mansfield, 
knt.    And  3.  Elizabeth,  married  first  to  sir  Robert  d'Oy  ly  of 
Chislehampton  in  Oxfordshire,  knt.;  secondly,  to  sir  Henry 
Nevil,  knt;  and  thirdly,  to  sir  William  Periam,  knt.  lord 
chief  baron  of  the  exchequer.     After  her  decease  he  mar- 
ried Anne,  daughter  of  sir  Anthony  Cooke,  of  Giddy-hall  in 
the  county  of  Essex,  knt  by  whom  he  had  two  sons,  An- 
thony and  Francis,  the  illustrious  lord  Bacon.     Of  Anthony 
there  is  a  long,  but  imperfect  and  not  very  interesting   ac* 
count,  in  the  "  Biographia  Britannica." 

Sir  Nicholas  ranks  among  the  liberal  benefactors  to  the 
university  of  Cambridge,  and  particularly  to  Corpus  col- 
lege, in  which  he  was  educated.     He  presented  to  the 
public  library  one  hundred   and  three  Greek  and    Latin 
books,  and  on  the  college  he  bestowed  two  hundred  pounds 
towards  erecting  a  new  chapel,  and  engaged  other  friends 
to  contribute  to  the  same  purpose.     He  settled,  li)^ewise, 
upon  the  college,  an  annuity  of  twenty  pounds,   for  the 
maintenance  of  six  scholars,  who  are  to  be  chosen  out  of 
the  grammar  school  at  Redgrave,  near  Botesdale  in  Suf- 
folk.    This  School  was  founded  by  himself,  and  he  allotted 
thirty  pounds  per  annum  for  the  support  of  it ;  he  founded 
also  Cursitor's  or  Bacon^s  Inn  in  Chancery-lane ;  and  for 
the  furtherance  of  religion,  he  appointed  two  annual  ser- 
mons in  St.  Paul's  cathedral^  allotthig  fbur  marks  per  annum 
for  the  payment  of  the  preachers.     Nor  must  we  omit  some 
notice  of  his  intention,  in  Henry  VIII.'s  time,  to  found  a  se- 
minary of  ministers  of  state  out  of  the  revenues  of  the  dis- 
solved monasteries.     His  majesty  had  intended  to  fQund  a 
house  for  the  study  of  the  civil  law,  and  the  purity  of  the 
l;atin  and  French  tongues.     He  ordered,  therefore,   sir 

B.A  CON.  S7* 

Nicholas  Bacon,  and  two  others,  Tliomas  Denton,  and  Ro-' 
bert  Cary,  to  draw  out  the  plan  and  statutes  of  such  a  house^ 
which  they  accordingly  brought  to  the  king  in  writing.' 
The  intention  of  it  was,  that  th^e  should  be  frequent 
pleadings  and  other  exercises  in  the  Latin  and  French 
languages,  and  that  when  the  students  had  attained  toiome 
degree  of  ripeness,  they  should  be  sent  out  with  our  am*' 
bassadors,  and  trained  up  in  the  knowledge  of  foreign  af^ 
fairs,  by  which  means  the  institution  would  become  a  nur^ 
sery  for  public  ministers.  Others  of  the  students  were  to 
be  employed  in  writing  the  history  of  the  national  transac-^'  • 
tions  both  at  home  and  abroad,  including,  particularly,  em-^  * 
bassies,  treaties,  arraignments,  and  state  trials.  But  befer^ 
they  were  to  be  permitted  to  write  on  these  subjects,  they  were 
to  take  an  oath  betbre  the  lord  chancellor,  that  they  would 
do  it  truly,  without  respect  of  persons,  and  without  any 
corrupt  views,  Thi3  design,  however,  miscarried,  probably 
owing  to  Henry's  extravagant  dissipation  of  the  revenues 
of  the  dissolved  monasteries.  I 

,  Bishop  Tanner  has  enrolled  sir  Nicholas  Bacon  among 
tlie  writers  of  this  country,  on  account  of  the  following  t 
pieces,  preserved  in  different  manuscript  collections.    "  An  - 
oration  to  the  queen,  exhorting  her  to  Marriage;"    "a 
speech  to  the  lord  nlayor  of  London  ;"  ^*  a  speech  to  the  ■ 
Serjeant  called  to  a  judge ;"   *^  an  oration  touching  the  - 
queen's  Marriage  and  Succession  to  the  Crown ;"    "  his 
speech  to  the  queen,  when  she  made  him  lord  keeper  ;^'  - 
"  his  speech  in  the  star-chamber,  1568 ;"  "  his  speech  to 
sir  Thomas  Gargrave,  elected  speaker  for  the  commons  . 
bouse  pf  parliament ;''  ^^  his  speech  at  the  council  table, 
concerning  aid  required  by  the  Scots  to  expel  the  French 
out  of  Scotland ;"  "  his  speech  concerning  an  Interview 
between  queen  Elizabeth  and  the  Scottish  queen,  1572  ;'^ 
^'  his  speech  to  the  lords  and  commons  in  parliament,  in 
the  beginning  f'   ^^  his  speech  to  Mr.  Bell  when  he  was 
called  tQ  be  judge."     All  these  are  in  the  Norwich  manu- 
scripts of  More,  223  ;  and  are,  we  suppose,  at  present,  in 
the  public  -  library  of  Cambridge.     ^^  Several  speeches  of 
lord  keeper  sir  I^ichola^  Bacon,  from  i55S  to.  1571  incluf 
sive,"  in  Mr,  Ralph  Thoresby's  collection ;  "  a  discourse 
upon  pertain  points  tonchiug  the  Inheritance  of  the  Crown^^ 
conceived   by  sir  Anthony  Brown,  and   answered   by  sir 
I«Jicholas  Bacon/'  published  in  17?3.     ^*  Three  letters  to 
Pr.  Parker,"  in  Corpus  Christi  college,  Cambridge  j  meh^ 

$n  BAG  o  n: 


tioned  by  Strype,  in  his  life  of  the  archbishop.  One  of 
tbese^  entitled.  ^^  a  letter  of  Mr.  Nicholas  Bacun^  counsellor 
^t  l^w,  to  Parker,  clean  of  Stoke  college,  in  answer  to  cer« 
Vuo  cases  put  to  him  relating  to  the  said  college,''  Mr. 
Strype  has  published  at  length.  Hohnshed,  at  the  end  of' 
)u8  second  volumey  p«  1589,  ranki  sir  Nicholas  Bacon  in 
the  catalogue  erf  those  who  have  written  something  con<» 
cerning  Uie  history  of  England.  Mr.  Masters  refers  to  b, 
comment  of  sir  Nicholas's  on  the  twelve  minor  propbetSi 
dedicated  to  his  son  Anthony.  And  Mr.  Strype  has  printed 
an  excelleiit  letter  of  advice,  which  was  written  by  the  lord 
keeper,  a  little  before  bis  death,  to  the  queen,  on  the  situ-' 
atipn  of  her  affairs^  Many  of  his  apophthegms  are  among 
those  of  lord  Verulam,  and  many  of  his  speeches  are  in 
the  Parliamentary  History.' 

BACON  (PttANi/SL),  rector  of  Balden  in  Oxfordshire^ 
Md  vicar  of  Bramber  in  Sussex,  was  of  Magdalen  college, 
Oxford,  where  he  took  the  degree  of  M.  A.  April  17,  1722  $ 
B.D.  April  29,  1731 ;  D.D.  December  7,  1735.  He  pos-^- 
iesaed  an  exquisite  fund  of  humour,  was  a  famous  punster, 
and  wrote  an  admirable  poem  called  the  **  Artificial  Kite,*^ 
£r»t  printed  in  1719,  and  preserved  in  the  Gentleman^a 
Itfagazine  for  1758.  In  1757  he  published  five  dramatic 
performances,  viz.  !•  "  The  Taxes,"  2.  "  The  Insignifi^ 
cants.**  3.  «  The  trial  of  the  Time-fcillers."  4.  "  TTie 
Afcoml  Qjiack.'*  5.  <<  The  Oculist."  None  of  these,  how^ 
ever,  were  intended  for  the  theatre.  He  was  also  the 
aathor  of  a  very  humorous  ballad,  entitled  "  The  Snipe,'* 
lA  wfatcfa  the  friar  is  himself,  and  Peter  is  his  feIlow*colle^. 
gtttn,  Peter  Zinzam,  M.D.  who  died  Nov.  9,  1781.  This 
ballad  is  preserved  in  the  ^  Oxford  Sausage."  Dr.  Bacon 
4ied  ^  Balden,  Jan.  10,  17S3,  in  the  eighty --third  year  of 

BACON  ^Robert),  an  eminent  English  divine  of  the 
tbirtei^th  centnry,  was  born,  according  to  the  mpst  pro-* 
bable  coojeduves,  about  1168,  but  wher^  is  not  known. 
He  atttdjed,  however,  at  Oxford,  where  he  distinguished 
luni;»lf  by  the  quickness  of  bis  p^rts  and  his  assiduous  ap« 
pboation,    Whence,  according  to  ^e  custom  of  that  age» 

*  Bi^.  9tit:.*^Uof6FB  mtia  "Wimkm^Hfu  Wortihicg.— Fijillei't  Woi^tiMCs.-— 
ttiype's  Life  of  Parker,  p.  22,  259.-— Strype's  Aanak,  see  IndeM.-^Peck'n  Den* 
ierata,  vol.  I. — Tanner's  Bbliotheca.—- Master's  Hist.  ofC  C.  C.  C.  ke. 

'^  ^Qefii.  Na|f.  IT6$  an^  iVSS^  p.  99.waBioe.  J)r»iiatiea.-r-Poeti€al  Calendar^ 

bacon:  Ml 

he  femored  to  Paris,  and  acquired  soch  letrning  as  the  a^e 
afibrded.  After  his  return^  of  which  we  have  no  date,  be 
settled  at  Oxford,  and  read  divinity  lectures.  His  colleague 
ID  this  office  was  Dr.  Edmund  Rich,  in  our  histories  com^ 
'monly  styled  Edmund  Abingdon ;  a  man  famous  for  literal 
tdre,  and  yet,  in  tbe  opinion  of  Leiand,  inferior  to  our 
Bacon.  This  Or.  Rich  bad  been  chosen  by  the  canons  of 
Salisbury,  treasurer  of  their  church,  and  ill  1233,  becoming 
archbishop  of  Canterbury,  his  friend  Robert  Bacon  suc^ 
eeeded  him, as  treasurer  of  the  cathedral  church  of  Sidie* 
bury.  Tbe  same  year  he  gaic^ed  great  reputation  by  a 
sermon  preached  before  his  royal  iQiaster,  king  Henry  IlL 
at  Oxford,  whither  bis  majesty  came,  in  order  to  hold  a 
general  council  of  his  lords.  In  this  discourse,  Bacon 
plainly  told  the  king  the  mischiefs  to  which  himself  and 
bis  subjects  were  exposed,  by  his  reposing  too  great  a  con* 
fidence  in  Peter  de  Rupibus,  bishop  of  Winchester,  and 
jother  foreigners ;  and  this  honest  sermon  had  a  great  effect 
on  the  mind  of  his  master,  and  inclined  him  to  give  satis^ 
faction  to  his  nobility,  who  were  then,  generally  speaking,* 
disaffected.  This  seasonable  service  rendered  to  tbe  na<- 
tion,  did  more  to  secure  his  memory  from  oblivion,  than 
bis  many  years  laborious  reading,  or  even  his  learned 
.  After  the  promotion  of  Dr.  Rich  to  the  see  of  Canter« 
bury,  the  famous  Richard  Fishakel^  wbom  Leiand  calls 
Fizacrius,  read,  in  conjunction  witli  our  Bacon,  in  St. 
Edward's  schools,  for  many  years  together,  to  their  own 
great  honour,  and  to  the  benefit  of  all  their  hearers,  nor 
were  they  less  assiduous  in  preaching.  In  1240,  Bacon 
lost  his  great  patron  and  intimate  friend,  Edmund,  arch- 
bishop of  Canterbury,  and  perhaps  this  accident,  joined  to 
his  fervent  piety  and  love  of  retirement,  might  induce  Ba*^ 
con,  though  be  was  very  old,  to  enter  into  tbe  order  of  friars 
preachers,  of  which  onder  also  was  his  associate  Fishakeiw 
In  gratitude  to  the  memory  of  the  archbishop,  Bacon  wrote 
his  life,  which  was  highly  esteemed.  He  wrote  also  many 
pieces,  which  were  esteemed  in  his  day  to  be  learned  and 
useful.  These  were  a  book  of  **  Glosses  on  the  Holy 
Scriptures,"  another  "  On  the  Psalter,"  and  two  collec- 
tions of  "  Discourses"  and  **  Lectures."  At  length  wont 
out  with  so  long  a  course  of  studious  application^  he  died 
in  124S^  and  is  supposed  to  have  been  interred  ia  the  Do^ 
minican  convent  at  Oxford.    Fitcs,  Leis^nd,  Hearne,  Cave^ 

2B2  B  A  C  O  N. 

and  other  authors,  ba^e  confounded  this  Robert  Bacon  with 
Roger,  the  subject  of  the  following  article,  as  has  been  pro- 
perly explained  in  the  Biographia  Britanuica,  from  which 
this  article  is  taken.  Wood,  in  his  history  and  antiquities 
of  Oxford,  has  in  general  avoided  this  mistake. 

Dr.  Pegge,  whose  excellent  life  of  bishop  Grosseteste 
yfe  have  seen  si  nee.  the  above  article  was  written, .  thinks 
that  Robert  Bacon  was  either  elder  brother,  or  more  pro- 
bably, as  Leland  imagines,  uncle  of  Roger  Bacon.  Robert^ 
was  the  person  who  initiated  Edmund  archbishop  of  Can-* 
terbury  in  the  study  of  divinity,  but  Bulaeus,  in  his  his* . 
tory  of  the  university  of  Paris,  says  he  was  himself  the 
scholar  of  that  saint,  which  Dr.  Pegge  doubts.  However, 
he  wrote  ^^  Edmund^s  life,'^  and  is  noticed  by  Leland,  as. 
the  particular  acquaintance  and  intimate  of  bishop  Grosse-^ 
teste.  Matthew  of  Westminster  gives  him  and  Fishakel 
the  character  of  being  two  such  as  were  not  exceeded  by 
any  in  Christendom,  or  even  equalled,  especially  as  preach- 
jers.  Dr.  Pegge  observes,  that  this  character  is  the  more 
extraordinary  as  coming  from  a  monk,  and  that  from  the 
latter  part  of  it,  as  well  as  from  the  list  of  Robertas  produc-* 
tions,  it  appears  th^t  his  excellence  lay  in  theology,  a  par^ 
ticular  which  constitutes  an  essential  difference  in  the  cha- 
racter of  him  and  Roger  Bacon,  who  was  eminently  skilled 
in  the  mathematics  and  philosophy,  as  well  as  divinity,  and 
perhaps  more  so.  * 

BACON,  BAKON,  BACUN  (RoGEa),  a  learned  Eng- 
iish  monk  of  the  Franciscan  order,  who  flourished  in  the 
thirteenth  century,  was  born  ivear  Ilchester  in  Somerset-* 
shire,  in  1214,  and  was  descended  of  a  very  ancient  and 
honourable  family.  He  received  the  first  tincture  of  let- 
ters at  Oxford,  where  having  gone  through  grammar  and 
logic,  the  dawnings  of  his  genius  gained  him  the  favour 
and  patronage  of  the  greatest  lovers  of  learning,  and  such 
as  were  equally  distinguished  by  their  high  rank,  and  the 
excellence  of  their  knowledge.  It  is  not  very  clear,  says 
the  Biographia  Britannica,  whether  he  was  of  Merton  coK 
lege,  or  of  Brazen*nose  hall,  and  perhaps  he  studied  at 
neither,  but  spent  his  time  at  the  public  schools^  The  latr 
ter  is  indeed  more  probable  than  that  he  studied  at  Mertoh 
college,  which  did  not  then  exist.     It  appears,  however, 

»  Biog.  Brit. — ^Tanner's  Bibl.— Pegge's  Life  of  Grosseteste,  p.  251,  233.— ^PuU 
Ur's  Worthies. — ^Wood's  Hist,  and  Antiquities  of  O^fordj  Gulch's  edition.     ~ 

BACON.  V      283 

that  he  went  early  over  to  Paris,  where  he  made  still  greater 
progress  in  all  parts  of  learning,  and  was  looked  upon  as 
the  glory  of  that  university,  and  an  honour  to  his  <rountry.  . 
In  those  days  such  as  desired  to  distinguish  themselves  by 
an  early  and  effectual  application  jto  their  studies,  resort^ 
to  Paris,  where  not  only  many  of  the  greatest  men  in  Eu- 
rope resided  and  taught,  but  many  of  the  English  nation^ 
by  whom  Bacon  was  encouraged  and  caressed.     At  Paris 
he  did  not  confine  his  studies  to  any  particular  branch  of 
literature,  but  endeavoured  to  comprehend  the  sciences  in 
general,  fully  and  perfectly,  by  a  right  method  and  con- 
stant application.     When  he  bad  attained*  the  degree  of 
doctor,  he  returned  again  to  his  own  country,  and,  as  some 
jsay,  took  the  habit  of  the  Franciscan  order  in  1240,  when 
be  was  about  twenty-six  years  of  age ;    but  others  assert 
that  he  became  a.  monk  before  he  left  Fi*ance.     After  his 
return  to  Oxford,  he  was  considered,  by  the  greatest  men 
of  that  universit}^,  as  one  of  the  ablest  and  most  inde&ti- 
gable  inquirers  after  knowledge  that  the  world  had  ever 
produced ;  and  therefore  they  not  only  shewed  him  all  due 
respect,  but  likewise  conceiving  the  greatest  hopes  from 
his  improvements  in  the  method  of  study,  they  generously 
contributed  to  his  expences,  so  that  he  was  enabled  £o  lay 
out,  within  the  compass  of  twenty  years,  no  less  than  two 
thousand  pounds  in  collecting  curious  authors,  making  tri- 
als of  various  kinds,  and  in  the  construction  of  different  in- 
struments, for  the  improvement  of  useful  knowledge.    But  if 
this  assiduous  application  to  his  studies,  and  the  stupen- 
dous progress  he  made  in  them,  raised  his  credit  with  the 
heater  part  of  mankind,  it  excited  the  envy  of  some,  and 
a^prded  plausible  pretences  for  the  malicious  designs  of 
others.     It  is  very  easy  ^6  conceive,  that  the  experiments 
he  made  in  all  parts  of  natural  philosophy  and  the  mathe- 
matics, must  have  made  a  great  noise  in  an  ignorant  age, 
when  scarcely  two  or  three  men  in  a  whole  nation  were  to- 
lerably acquainted  with  those  studies,  and  when  all  the 
pretenders  to  knowledge  affected  to  cover  tlieir  own  igno- 
rance, by  throwing  the  most  scandalous  aspersions  on  those 
branches  of  science,  which  they  either  wanted  genius  to 
understand,  or  which  demanded  greater  application  to  ac- 
quire, than  they  were  willing  to  bestow.     They  gave  out, 
therefore,  that  mathemajtical  studies  were  in  some  measure 
^.llied  te  those  magics^l  arts  which  the  church  had  con- 
^emned^and  thereby  brought  suspicions  upon  menof  supe- 

284  B  A  c  o  i*r. 

rtor  learning.     It  was  owing  to  this  suspicion  that  Bacon 
ivras  restrained  from  reading  lectures  to  the  young  students: 
in  the  university,  and  at  length  closely  confined  and  almost 
utarved,  the  monks  being  afraid  lest  his  writings  should  ex- 
tend beyond  the  limits  of  his  convent,  and  be  seen  by  any 
besides  themselves  and  the  pope.     But  there  is  great  rea- 
son to  believe,  that  though  his  application  to  the  occult 
sciences  was  their  pretence,  the  true  cause  of  his  ill-usage 
was,  the  freedom  with  which  he  had  treated  the  clergy  in 
bis  writings,  in  which  he  spared  neither  their  ignorance 
nor  their  want  of  morals.     But  notwithstanding  this  harsh 
feature  in  the  character  of  the  times,  his  reputation  continued 
io  spread  over  the  whole  Christian  world,  and  even  pope 
dement  IV.  wrote  him  a  letter,  desiring  that  he  would  send 
him  all  his  works.     This  was  in  1266,  when  our  author  was 
in  the  flower  of  his  age,  and  to  gratify  his  holiness,  coi»> 
lected  together,  greatly  enlarged  and  ranged  in  some  order, 
^e  several  pieces  he  had  written  before  that  time,  and  sent 
them  the  next  year  by  his  favourite  disciple  John  of  Loo« 
don,  or  rather  of  Paris,  to  the  pope.     This  collection,  which  '■ 
is  the  same  that  himself  entitled  Opus  Majus,  or  his  great 
work,   is  yet  extant,   and  was  published  by  Dr.  Jebb,  in 
1773.     Dr.  Jebb  had  proposed  to  have  published  all  his 
works  about  three  years  before  his  edition  of  the  Opus  Ma- 
jus, but  while  he  was  engaged  in  that  design,  he  was  in- 
formed by  letters  from  his  brother  at  Dublin,  that  there 
was  a  manuscript  in  the  college  library  there,  which  con- 
tained a  great  many  treatises  generally  ascribed  to  Bacoii, 
and  disposed  in  such  order,  that  they  seemed  to  form  one 
complete  work,  but  the  title  was  wanting,  which  had  been 
carelessly  torn  off  from  the  rest  of  the  manuscript.     The   • 
doctor  soon  found  that  it  was  a  collection  of  those  tracts  - 
which  Bacon  bad  written  for  the  use  of  pope  Clement  IV*-  { 
and  to  which  he  had  given  the  title  of  Opus  Majus,  «ince  it   * 
appeared,  that  what  he  said  of  that  work  in  his  OpusTei^-    • 
tium,  addressed  to  the  same  pope,  exactly  suited  with  this;    ^ 
which  contained  an  account  of  almost  all  the  new  discove*-    ' 
ries  and  improvements  that  he  had  made  in  the  sciences. 
Upon  this  account  Dr.  Jebb  laid  aside  his  form^  design, 
and  resolved  to  publish  only  an  edition  of  this  Opus  Majus. 
The  tnwuscripts  which  he  tiiade  use  of  to  complete  this    ' 
iedttion,  are,   1 .  MS.  in  the  Cotton  library,  ifiscribf^  ^  JtA. 
D.  V."  which  contains  the  first  part  of  the  Of>i!i9  Majus» 
under  the  tide  of  a  ti^tise  ^  De  utilitAte  Scieotianim.^* 
2.  Another  MS.  in  the  same  library,  marked  <*  Tib.  C.  V.'* 

BACON.  385 

ccmtaimng  thie  fourth  part  of  the  Opus  Majus,  in  whi^h  ik 
shewn  the  use  of  the  mathematics  in  the  sciences  and  af^ 
fairs  of  the  world;  in  the  MS.  it  is  erroneously  called  th^ 
fifth  part.  3.  A  MS.  in  the  library  belonging  to  Gorpuj;^ 
Christ!  in  Cambridge,  containing  that  portion  of  the  foiirtli 
part  which  treats  of  geography.  4.  A  MS.  of  the  fifth  part, 
containing  a  treatise  upon  perspective,  in  the  earl  of  Ox^ 
ford^s  library.  5*  A  MS.  in  the  library  of  Magdalen  coU 
lege,  Cambridge,  comprehending  the  same  treatise  of 
perspective.  6.  Two  M8S.  in  the  king's  library,  commu^ 
aicated  to  the  editor  by  Dr.  Richard  Bentley,  one  of  which 
<{ontains  the  fourth  part  of  Opus  Majus,  and  the  other  thci 
fifth  part  It  is  said  that  this  learned  book  of  his  procured 
him  the  favour  of  Clement  IV.  and  also  some  encourage^ 
ttient  in  the  prosecution  of  his  studies ;  but  this  could  not 
have  lasted  long,  as  that  pope  died  soon  after,  and  then 
we  find  our  author  under  fresh  embarrassments  from  the 
sam6  causes  as  before }  bpt  he  became  in  more  danger,  ai 
the  general  of  his  order,  Jerom  de  Ascoli,  having  heard 
hilt  caus^,  ordered  him  to  be  imprisoned.  This  is  said 
t«»-have  happened  in  1278,  and  to  prevent  his  appeal-* 
ing  to  pope  Nicholas  III.  the  general  procured  a  confirm-^ 
ation  of  hii  sentence  from  Rome  immediately,  but  it  is  not 
very  e^sj  to  say  upon  what  pretences.  Yet  we  are  told  by 
others^  that  he  was  imprisoned  by  Reymundus  Galfredus^ 
who  was  general  of  his  order,  on  account  of  some  alche-* 
mistical  treatise  which  he  had  written,  and  that  Galfredus 
afterwards  set  him  at  liberty,  and  became  his,  scholar: 
However  obscure  these  circumstances  may  be,  it  is  certain 
that  his  sufferings  for  many  years  must  have  brought  him 
low,  iince  he  was  sixty-four  years  of  age  when  he  was  first 
ptit  ill  prison,  and  deprived  of  the  opportunity  of  prose^^ 
ituting  his  studies,  at  least  in  the  way  of  experiment.  That 
he  was  still  indulged  in  the  use  of  his  books,  appears  very 
clearly  from  the  great  use  he  made  of  them  in  the  learned 
works  he  composed* 

Pope  Nicholas  III.  dying  in  the  year  1280,  Simon  de 
Brie,  cardinal  of  St.  Cecilia,  was  elected  pope,  and  fbut 
years  aft^r,  was  succeeded  by  cardinal  Savelli,  who 
took  the  name  of  Honorius  IV.  in  the  year  1285.  Both 
reigns  were  full  of  troubles  and  very  short ;  so  that  in  all 
this  time  our  author  coUld  find  no  opportunity  of  applying 
to  the  holy  see  for  the  mitigation  of  the  sentence  pro* 
nounced  against  him.     But  when  he  had  been  ten  years 

,5S6  BACON. 

.in  prison,  Jerom  de  Ascoli,  who  had  condemned  bts  doe# 
trine^  was  chosen  pope,  and  assumed  the  name  of  Nicholas 
IV.  As  he  was  the  first  of  the  Franciscan  order  that  had 
,ever  arrived  at  this  dignity,  was  reputed  a  person  of  great 
probity  and  much  learning,  our  author,  notwithstanding 
what  had  before  liappened,  resolved  to  apply  to  him  for  his 
discharge ;  and  in  order  to  pacify  his  resentment,  and  at 
the  same  time  to  shew  both  the  innocence  and  the  useful- 
ness of  his  studies,  he  addressed  to  him  a  very  learned  and . 
curious  treatise,  ^'  On  the  means  of  avoiding  the  infirmities 
pf  Old  Age,''  printed  first  at  Oxford,  1590,  and  translated 
and  published  by  Dr.  Richard  Browne,  under  the  title  of 
f  *  The  cure  of  Old  Age  and  preservation  of  Youth,"  Lon-' 
don,  1683,  8vo.  It  does  not  appear,  however,  that  his  ^tp- 
plication  had  any  effect ;  on  the  contrary,  some  writers  say 
that  he  caused  him  to  be  more  closely  confined.  Bjut  to« 
wards  the  latter  end  of  his  reign,  Bacon,  by  the  interpo^i-. 
tion  of  some  noblemen,  obtained  his  release,  and  returned 
to  Oxford,  where,  at  the  request  of  bis  friends,  he  comr: 
posed  '^  A  compendium  of  Theology,"  which  seems  to 
have  been  his  last  work^  and  of  which  there  is  a  copy  in  th«^ 
royal  library.  He  spent  the  remainder  of  his  days  in 
peace,  and  dying  in  the  college  of  his  order,  oq  the  Hth  of 
June  1292,  as  some  say,  or  in  L2 94,  as  others  assert,  was 
interred  in  the  church  of  the  Franciscans.  The  iQonka 
gave  him  the  title  of  **  Doctor  Mirabilis,"  or  the  Wonder- 
ful Doctor,  which  he  deserved,  in  whatever  sense  the  ph^ise. 
is  taken. 

He  was  certainly  the  most  extraordinary  man  of  his  time^ 
He  was  a  perfect  master  of  the  Latin,  Greek,  and  Hebrexnr^ 
and  has  left  posterity  such  indubitable  marks  of  lu3; 
critical  skill  in  them,  as  might  have  secured  him  a  very' 
high  character,  if  he  had  never  distinguished  iiimself  iiv 
4ny  other  branch  of  literature.  In  all  branches  of  the  ma-r. 
thematics  he  was  well  versed,  and  there  is  scarcely  any* 
part  of  them,  on  which  he  has  not  written  with  a  solidity; 
and  clearness,  which  have  been  deservedly  admired  by  the 
greatest  masters  in  that  science.  In  mechanics  particularly,^ 
the  learned  Dr:  Freind  says,  that  a  greater  genius  bad  not 
arisen  since  the  days  of  Archimedes.  He  understoodlike-^. 
wise  the  whole  science  of  optics,  with  accuracy ;  and  ifr 
very  justly  allowed  to  have  understood,  both  the  theory, 
and  practice  of  those  discoveries,  which  have  bestowedr 
«uch  high  reputation  on  those  of  our  own  and  of  other  nar. 

BACON.  ^S1 

lions,  who  have  brought  them  into  common  use.  In  geo* 
grapby  also  he  was  admirably  well  skilled,  as  appears  from 
a  variety  of  passages  in  his  works,  which  was  the  reason 
that  induced  the  judicious  Hackluyt  to  transcribe  a  large 
discourse  out  of  his  writings,  into  his  CoUeiction  of  Voyages 
and  Travels.  But  his  skill  in  astronomy  was  still  more  re- 
markable, since  it  appears,  that  he  not  only  pointed  out 
that  error  which  occasioned  the  reformation  in  the  calen- 
dar,  and  the  distinction  between  the  old  stile  and  the  new, 
but  also  offered  a  much  more  effectual  and  perfect  reform- 
ation, than  that  which  was  made  in  the  time  of  pope  Cre- 
gory  XIII.  There  are  also  remaining  some  works  of  his 
relating  to  chronology,  which  would  have  been  thought 
worthy  of  very  particular  notice,  if  his  skill  in  other 
sciences  bad  not  made  his  proficiency  in  this  branch  of 
knowledge  the  less  remarkable.  The  history  of  the  four 
great  empires  of  the  world,  he  has  treated  very  accurately 
and  succinctly,  in  his  great  work  addressed  to  pope  Cle- 
ment IV.  He  was  so  thoroughly  acquainted  with  Che- 
mistry at  a  time  that  it  was  scarcely  known  in  Europe, 
and  principally  cultivated  among  the  Arabians,  that  Dr. 
Freind  ascribes  the  honour  of  introducing  it  to  him,  who 
speaks  in  some  part  or  other  of  his  works^  of  almost  every 
operation  now  used  in  chemistry.  Three  capital  discoveries 
made  by  him  deserve  to  be  particularly  considered.  The 
first  is,  the  invention  of  gun-powder,  which,  however  con- 
fidently ascribed  to  others,  was  unquestionably  known  to 
him,  both  as  to  its  ingredients  and  effects.  The  second  is 
that  which  commonly  goes  under  the  name  of  alchemy,  oc 
the  art  of  transmuting  metals,  of  which  he  has  left  many 
treatises,  some  published,  and  some  still  remaining  in  MS. 
which,  whatever  they  may  be  thought  of  now,  contain  a 
multitude  of  curious  and  useful  passages^  independently  of 
their  principal  subject.  The  third  discovery  in  chemistry, 
not  50  deserving  of  the  reader's  attention,  was  the.  tincture 
pf  gold  for  the  prolongation  of  life,  of  which  Dr.  Freind 
says,  he  has  given  hints  in  his  writings,  and  has  said 
enough  to  shew  that  he  was  no  pretender  to  this  art,  but 
understood  as  much  of  it  as  any  of  his  successors.  Tliat  he 
was  far  from  being  unskilled  in  the  art  of  physic,  we  might 
rationally  conclude,  from  his  extensive  knowledge  in  those 
sciences,  which  are  connected  with  it :  but  we  have  a  ma- 
nifest proof  of  his  perfect  acquaintance  with  the  most  ma<^ 
terial  and  useful  branches  of  physic,  in  his  Treatise  x>f  Old 


Age,  which,  aS  Df.  Fjreind,  whose  aathority  on  that  sub-* 
ject  cannot  ^vvell  be  disputed,  observes,  is  very  far  from 
being  ill  written ;  and  Dr.  Brown,  who  published  it  in 
Enghsh,  esteetned  it  one  of  the  best  performances  that  evef 
was  written.  In  this  work  he  has  collected  whatever  he 
had  met  with  upon  the  subject,  either  in  Greek  or  Arabian 
writers,  and  has  added  a  great  many  remarks  of  his  own. 
In  logie  and  metaphysics  he  was  excellently  well  versed^ 
as  appears  by  those  parts  of  his  works,  in  which  he  ha$ 
treated  of  these  subjects  :  neither  was  he  unskilled  in  phi-  * 
lology  and  the  politer  parts  of  learning.  In  ethics,  qr 
moral  philosophy,  he  has  laid  down  some  excellent  prin« 
ciples  for  the  conduct  of  human  life.  But,  as  his  profes- 
sion required  a  particular  application  to  theology,  it  ap- 
pears, that  he  made  all  his  other  studies  subservient  there- 
to. He  had  the  highest  deference  for  the  Holy  Scriptures, 
and  thought  that  in  them  were  contained  the  principles  of 
true  science,  and  of  all  useful  knowledge.  He  therefore 
pressed  the  study  of  them  in  their  original  languages,  and 
to  assiduous  application  to  the  several  branches  of  learn- 
ing, which  he  thought  necessary  for  the  thorough  under- 
istanding  of  them. 

As  to  the  Vulgar  imputation  on  his  character,  of  hi^ 
leaning  to  magic,  it  was  utterly  unfounded  ;  and  the  ridi- 
eulous  Story  of  his  making  a  brazen  head,  which  spoke  and 
answered  questions,  is  a  calumny  indirectly  fathered  upon 
him,  having  been  originally  imputed  to  Robert  GrOsseteste, 
bishop  of  Lincoln.  That  he  had  too  high  an  opinion  of 
judicial  astrology,  and  some  other  arts  of  that  nature,  was 
hot  so  properly  an  error  of  his  as  of  the  age  in  which  ht 
lived !  and  considering  how  few  errors,  among  the  many 
which  infected  that  age,  appear  in  his  writings,  it  may  be 
easily  forgiven.  As  his  whole  life  was  spent  in  labour  and 
study,  and  he  was  continually  employed,  either  in  writing 
for  the  information  of  the  world,  or  in  reading  and  making 
experiments^  that  might  enable  him  to  write  with  greater 
accuracy;  so  we  need  not  wonder  his  works  were  extremely 
numerous,  especially  when  it  is  considered,  that  on  the  one 
hand  his  studies  took  in  the  whole  circle  of  the  sciences, 
and  that  on  the  other,  the  numerous  treatises  ascribed  to 
him,  are,  often  in  fact,  but  so  many  chapters,  sections,  or 
divisions ;  and  sometimes  we  have  the  same  pieees  undeir 
two  or  three  different  names :  so  that  it  is  not  at  all  strange 
before  these  points  were  well  ticamiued^  that  the  acconnct 

B  A  CON.  289 

^e  have  of  his  writings  appeared  very  perplexed  and  con- 
fused. But  notwithstanding  this  seeming  perplexity  and 
confusion,  it  is  not  a  very  difficult  things  to  give  a  distinct 
account  of  his  writings,  the  greater  part  of  which  are  ex- 
tant, and  catalogued  in  the  Biographiii  Britannica,  and  it 
w^re  to  be  wished,  th?it  they  were  also  made  public.  He 
was  very  far  from  being  a  hasty,  incorrect,  or  desultory 
writer ;  on  the  contrary^  all  his  works  have  a  just  reference 
to  one  great  and  general  system,  which  he  has  executed  m 
all  its  parts  to  a  much  greater  degree  of  perfection,  than 
has  been  hitherto  supposed.  * 

BACONTHORP,  or  BACONDORP^  or  simply  BA- 
CON (John)>  surnamed  the  Resolute  Doctor^  and  one  of 
the  most  learned  men  of  his  time,  was  bom  about  the  end 
of  the  13th  century,  at  Baconthorp,  an  obscure  Village  in 
Norfolk,  from  which  he  took  his  name.  In  his  youth,  he 
was  a  monk  in  the  convent  of  Blackney,  a  small  town  in 
Norfolk,  about  five  miles  from  Walsingham.  After  some 
years  dedicated  to  learning  and  piety,  he  removed  to  "Ox- 
ford, and  from  thence  to  Paris^  where  he  was  honoured  with 
the  degrees  in  divinity  and  laws,  and  acquired  a  gretit  re- 
putation for  learning,  Jbeing  esteemed  the  head  of  the  fol- 
lowers of  the  philosopher  Averroes.  Upon  his  return  into 
England,  he  was  unanimously  chosen  the  twelfth  provin- 
cial of  the  English  Carmelites,  in  a  general  assembly  of 
that  order  held  at  London,  in  the  year  1329.  Four  years 
after  he  was  invited  by  letters  to  Rome  ;  where,  in  several 
disputations  on  the  subject  of  marriage^  he  gave  no  little 
offence,'  by  carrying  the  papal  authority  too  high  in  the 
•case  of  divorces ;  but  he  thought  fit  afterwards  to  retract 
his  opinion,  and  was  held  in  great  esteem  at  Rome,  and 
pther  parts  of  Italy.  His  biographers  report  that  he  was 
of  small  stature,  but  of  a  great  and  lofty  genius,  and  be- 
sides the  encomiums  bestowed  upon  him  by  his  own  coun- 
trymen, he  has  had  the  praises,  not  less  high,  of  Baptista 
Mantuanus,  and  Paulus  Panza.  Bale  seems  to  think  that 
he  anticipated  the  better  opinions  of  more  enlightened 
times.  Of  his  works,  which  are  numerous,  the  following 
^have   been  published;    f' Commentaria,   seu   Questionea 

t  Biog.  Brit.^Tanner*s  Bibl.— Pe^ge's  Life  oF  Grosscteste.— Fuller's  Wor- 
thies.*—Wood  »s  Hist,  aod  Antiquities  of  Oxford,  Qutch's"  editioo. — Leiand.— . 
Bale. — Pitts.— The  Biog.  Brit  errooeoasly  ascribes  to  btm  an  intimacy  with 
bishop  6rosseteit«»  which,  Dir.  Pegge  has  clearly  pcored,  belonged  to  Robert 
Bacon,  the  subject  of  the  preceding  article. 

■     Vat.  III.  U 

«^0  B  A  C  O  N  T  H  O  R  p. 

per  quatuor  libros  sententiarum,"  which  has  undergofj^ 
$ix  editions;  ^^  Compendium  legis  Christi,  etQuodlibeta,'* 
Venice,  1527.  Leland,  Bale,  and  Pitts  give  a  catalogue 
of  his  manuscripts.     He  died  at  London  in  1346. '    _  ' 

BACOUE  (Leo),  the  only  Protestant  who  went  back  to 
popery  ths^t  was  made  bishop  in*  the  reign  of  Louis  XIV: 
was  born  at  Castelgeloux,  in  Gascony.  After  having  quitted 
his  religion,  he  entered  himself  of  the  Franciscan  order, 
was  then  made  bishop  of  Glandeve,  and  afterwards  of  Pa- 
mlers,  where  he  died  in  1694,  at  the  age  of  ninety-four: 
His  Latin  poem  on  the  Education  of  a  Prince,  1671,  4to, 
procured  him  the  episcopal  dignity,  by  the  interest  of  the 
duke  of  Montausier.  This  poem  was  reprinted  in  8vo,  irt 
1685,  with  notes,  and  the  addition  of  some  odes  by  the 
same  author.  He  published  also  "  Carmen  panegyricum,'*^ 
Toulouse,  1667,  4to,  dedicated  to  pope  Clement  IX.  * 

BACQUET  (John),  king's  advocate  in  the  exchequer 
of  Paris,  flourished  about  the  close  of  the  sixteenth  cen- 
tury, and  was  profoundly  skilled  in  the  municipal  andl 
civil  law.  He  wrote  many  treatises  on  different  branches 
of  these  laws,  which  were  first  published  in  1608,  and 
again  in  4688,  with  the  commentaries  of  Claude  de  Fer- 
rieres,  A  third,  and  improved  edition  was  printed  at 
Lyons,  1744,  2  vols.  M.  He  died  in  April  1597,  of  grief 
for  the  death  of  his  son-in-law,  Charpentier,  a  professor 
of  medicine  in  the  university  of  Paris,  who  was  executed 
for  being  concerned  in  the  league,  or  insurrection  agains't 
the  succession  of  Henry  IV.  ^ 

BADCOCK  (Samuel),  an  English  diyine,  and  critical 
and  polemical  writer  of  considerable  eminence,  was  the 
son  of  a  butcher  at  South  Moulton,  in  Devonshire,  where 
he  was  born,  Feb.  2S,  1747.  His  relations  and  friends 
being  dissenters,  he  was  designed  by  them  for  the  minis- 
terial function  ;  and  after,  receiving  the  first  rudiments  of 
his  education  under  his  maternal  uncle,  Mr.  Blake,  a  dis« 
sentihg  minister  at  South  Moulton,  he  was  sent  to  the  dis- 
senting academy  at  St.  Mary  Ottery,  in-  the  same  county^ 
The  doctrines  taught  in  this  academy  were  those  of  the 
eld  Nonconformists  or  Puritans,  and  for  a.  considerabli^ 
time,  Mr.  Badcock  adhered  to  them  with  sincerity.  His 
proficiency  in  other  respects  was  such,  in  the  opinion  of 

*  Biog.  Britannica.-— Tanner  Bibl.-—Fiillcr'i  Wortkies. 

•  Moreri,— Pict.  Histr— Gen.  Diet.  *  Dttoreti^ 

B  A  D  O  O  C  K.  29t 

his  tntorS)  that  at  the  age  of  nineteen^  he. received  a  call 
to  be  the  pastor  of  a  dissenting  congregation  at  Winborne 
in  Dorsetshire,  from  which  he  was  invited  to  the  same 
office,  soon  after,  at  Barnstaple  in  Devonshire ;  where  his 
income  was  more  considerable,  and  which  place  was  aiore 
agreeable  to  him  as  it  was  but  a  few  miles  from  his  native 
town.  The  date  of  his  removal  here  is  said  to  be  ia  1769^ 
and  he  continued  to  be  the  pastor  of  this  congregation  for 
nine  or  ten  years. 

The  cause  of  his  removal  from  Barnstaple  has  been 
variously  represented.  On  the  one  hand,  it  is  said  that 
a  notorious  indiscretion  had  excited  the  resentment  of  his 
hearers,  but  that  he  amply  vindicated  his  character  in  this 
instance,  although  he  could  not  prevent  the  consequences 
of  their  displeasure.  On  the  other  hand,  it  appears 
that  a  change  in  his  religious  opinions  interrupted  the 
union  which  must  necessarily  subsist  between  a  pastor 
and  his  flock  in  dissenting  congregations,  where  the  for;- 
mer  depends  entirely  for  his  maintenance  on  the  good  will 
and  affection  'of  the  latter.  It  is  certain  that  after  he  had 
been  three  or  four  years  settled  at  Barnstaple,  he  met 
with  some  of  Dr.  Priesdey's  Socinian  productions,  with 
which  he  was  so  captivated  as  to  pay  a  visit  to  the  Doctor, 
at  Calne,  in  Wiltshire,  and  commenced  a  correspondence 
with  him^  from  which  it  is  evident  that  he  had  discarded 
the  opinion^,  not  only  of  his  Calvinistic  tutors,  but  those 
which  are  accounted  orthodox  by  the  generality  of 

On  his  quitting  Barnstaple,  he  removed  to  South  Moulton^ 
where  he  had  a  congregation  willing  enough  to  receive  his 
doctrines  as  he  pleased  to  dispense  them,  but  too  few  to 
be  able  to  provide  for  him  many  of  the  comforts  of  life. 
In  this  retirement,  his  mind,  ever  active,  and  well  stored 
with  miscellaneous  literature,  turned  its  views  to  some 
employment  in  the  learned  world.  During  the  progress 
of  the  London  Review,  which  terminated  in  1780,  he  oc-* 
casionally  corresponded  with  the  editor.  Dr.  Kenrick ; 
and  contended  with  that  sceptic,  a  man  of  no  mean  talents, 
on  different  points  of  Christianity.  He  occasionally  also. 
wrote  some  articles  in  that  Review,  which  are  yet  distin- 
guishable by  their  spirit  and  intelligence.  He  was  before 
this  period  an  occasional  correspondent  in  the  Westminster 
Magazine,  where,  in  1774,  he  wrote  "An  essay  on  mo- 
dem Education:  Anecdotes  of  Mr.  John  Wesley,  with 

U  2 

894  B  A  D  C  O  C  K. 

two  of  his  original  letters :  A  Shandean  letter :  A  d^^ 
scription  of  a  desperate  case :  The  Presbyterian  Parsoi/s 
Soliloquy  :  The  Expostulation  i  An  improved  copy,  oc- 
casioned by  a  most  horrid  murder :  An  essay  on  Infidelity : 
Extracts  of  a  letter  sent  by  a  clergyman  to  his  friend,  after 
having  met  with  ill  treatment  from  Lord  *■ —  (a  real 
letter  on  his  own  case) :  A  clerical  character,  aimed  at 
a  free-thinking  Lecturer,  who  made  some  noise  at  that 
time.  These,  it  must  be  confessed,  are  trifles,  but  dis- 
cover much  vivacity  of  imagination,  and  a  turn  for  poetry 
which  might  have  been  cultivated  with  advantage. 

We  find    Mr.  Badcock    afterwards  frequently   corre- 
isponding  with  the  Gentleman's  Magazine ;    the  London 
Magazine,  where  for  some  time  he  had  a  regular  engage- 
ment ;  the  General  Evening  Post ;  and  St.  James's  Chro- 
nicle.    But  the  great  scene  of  his  literary  warfare,  wias 
in  the  Monthly  Review,  in  which  he  appears  to  have  cri- 
ticized many  works  of  considerable  note,  and  in  a  manner 
which   attracted  the  attention  of  the  public  to  a  journal, 
(already  the  highest  in  general  estimation)  in  no  common  de- 
gree.    In  1780,  when  a  controversy  arose  respecting  mate- 
rialism, Mr.  Badcock  published  *^  A  slight  sketch  of  the 
controversy  between  Dr.  Priestley  and  his  opponents,"  and 
from  this  time  he  became  the  decided  antagonist  of  the  doc- 
tor in  all  those  opinions  upon  which  they  formerly  corre- 
sponded, and  appeared  to  agree.     The  influence  of  Mr. 
Badcock's  education  seems  to  have  returned  with  increased 
force,  and  although  he  did  not  revert  to  some  of  the  prin- 
ciples of  his  early  days,  and  in  no  respect  resumed  the 
garb  or  the  behaviour  of  a  Puritan,  he  certainly  became 
a  zealous  contender  for  the  Trinitarian  system,  in  oppo-* 
sition  to  Socinianism  'in  all  its  modifications^    This  was 
particularly   displayed  in  his  review   of    Dr.  Priestley's 
**  History  of  the  Corruption  of  Christianity,"  in  1783,  and 
1784,  and  the  controversy  to  which  that  work  gave  rise 
between  Dr.  Priestley,  and  Dr.  Horsley,  then  archdeacon 
of  St.  Alban's,  and  successively  bishop  of  Rochester  and 
St  Asaph.     He  had  before  this,  however,  interested  the 
public  attention  by  the  review  of  Mr.  Madan's  **  The* 
iyphthora,"  and  displayed  a  force  of  genius,  skill  of  argu- 
ment,  and  depth  of  learning,   which  that  author  found 
irresistible.     No  work  apparently  of  eminence,  and  cal- 
culated for  popularity,  perhaps  ever  was  so  completely 
driven  into  oblivion  by  the  efforts  of   a  periodica}  re* 

B  A  D  C  O  C  K.  /        S9S 

viewer.     Nor  was  Mr.  Badcock's  triumph  less,  complete' 
over  the  believers   in  Chatterton's  imposture,    although 
it  must  be  owned  that  in  this  last  controversy  he  had  able 

While  at  Barnstaple,  Mr.  Badcock  became  acquainted 
with  a  daughter  of  Mr.  Samuel  Wesley,  master  of  Tiver* 
ton-school,  and  elder  brother  of  the  celebrated  John 
Wesley ;  from  her  he  received  a  considerable  quantity  of 
papers,  consisting  chiefly  of  letters  and  pieces  of  poetry,* 
Some  of  these  he  published  entire,  as  already  mentioned^ 
in  the  Westminster  Magazine  for  1774,  and  from  the 
^whole,  with  some  oral  communications,  he  drew  up  that 
^account  of  the  family  which  was  published  in  N®.  XX.  of 
the  "  Bibliotbeca  Top^grapbica  Britannica.?  The  whole 
of  these  letters  and  papers  fell  afterwards  into  Dr.  Priest- 
ley's hands,  who  published  them  upon  Mr.  Wesley's 
death.  Dr.  Whitehead,  the  biographer  of  Wesley,  seems 
to  think  there  is  some  mystery  in  this  transaction,  whicl^ 
he  confesses  he  was  not  able  to  clear  up. 

Among  his  other  literary  labours,  Mr.  Badcock  fre- 
ijuently  gave  assistance  to  authors  who  were  about  to  pub- 
lish, but  had  diffidence  in  their  own  abilities.  One  instance 
cf  this  kind  occasioned  a  temporary  controversy  a  few  years 
ago.  When  professor  White  of  Oxford  was  appointed 
Bampton  lecturer,  he  formed  the  plan  of  a  course  of  lec- 
tures, which  induced  him  to  apply  to  Mr.  Badcock,  wit^ 
whose  talents  he  had  become  acquainted,  for  some  as»- 
sist^nce;  his  application  was  accordingly  effectual,  and 
Mr.  Badcock,  to  whom  the  subjects  to  be  ^treated  were 
familiar,  contributed  very  considerably  to  the  first,  third^ 
fourth,  seventh,  and  eighth  lectures,  and  supplied  many 
of  the  notes.  There  was  certainly  nothing  in  this,  but 
what  one  man  of  learning  may  owe  to  another,  without 
detracting  much  from  his  own  character.  But  Dr.  White 
unfortunately  neglected  to  make  the  usual  compUmentary 
acknowledgements  of  assistance,  in  his  preface ;  and  upoi^* 
Mr.  Badcock's  death,  the  late  Dr.  Gabriel  of  Bath  pub-  . 
lisbed  a  pamphlet  tending  to  prove  that  Mr.  Badcock'^ 
contributions  were  so  large  as  to  leave  Dr.  White  the  repu- 
tation only  of  having  preached  and  published  these  very 
popular  lectures.  Dr.  Whitfe,  however,  answered  this 
charge  in  such  a  manner  as  to  vindicate  his  literary  fame  * 
from  the  attempts  made  to  diminish  it. 
.  We  are  pow  come  to  an  aera  in  Mr.  Badcock*s  life  which 
piay  appear  very  remarkable,  his  quitting  his  dissenting 

294  B  A  D  C  O  .C  K. 

connexions,  ancl  embracing  the  doctrines  and  discipline 
of  the  established  church.  This  brought  much  undeserved 
obloquy  on  bis  character,  for  there  appears  no  reason  to 
doubt  his  sincerity  in  reverting  to  principles  most  of  which 
bad  been  inculcated  in  his  youth,  and  of  which  he  had 
already  become  the  zealous  champion  when  he  could  have 
no  motive  but  the  love  of  truth,  and  no  expectations  but 
the  perishing  iame  of  a  polemic.  In  Sept.  1786,  he  thus 
^ivrites  to  a  friend :  "  I  have  resigned  my  function  as  dis» 
renting  minister.  It  was  long — long  a  most  grievous  op- 
pression. I  have  boldly  shook  it  off,  and  I  will  run  the 
risk  of  the  displeasure  of  my  relations,  and  defy  the  con-^ 
tumacy  of  my  enemies.  I  have  not  absolutely  determined 
on  my  future  plan.  Whatever  it  may  be,  I  hope  to  se- 
cure the  protection  of  Providence,  by  preserving  the  in- 
tegrity of  my  own  mind." 

It  has  been  supposed  that  his  acquaintance  with  the 
bishop  of  Exeter,  Dr.  Ross,  and  the  most  respectable 
clergymen  of  his  diocese,  might  have  led  him  to  examine 
the  foundation  Of  dissent ;  and  it  might  have  appeared  to 
bim,  as  it  has  to  very  many  of  sound  judgment  and  ac- 
knowledged abilities,  that  this  foundation  was  groundless. 
He  was  led  to  conform  by  no  promise,  and,  at  best,  by 
very  distant  views  of  advancement.  It  is,  indeed,  im- 
possible to  read  the  heart  of  man  :  but,  if  it  can  be  read 
by  an  intimate  acquaintajnce,  his  conformity  was  sincere. 
But  whatever  were  his  views,  or  the  views  of  those  who 
wiAed  to  see  him  among  the  defenders  of  the  established 
church,  they  were  disappointed  by  a  premature  death. 
In  the  spring  of  1787,  he  was  ordained  deacon  by  bishop 
Boss,  and,  by  a  very  distinguished  compliment,  received 
priest^s  orders  the  following  week.  The  title  upon  which 
be  was  ordained  was  the  curacy  of  Broad  Clyst,  neair  Exeter, 
and  he  afterwards  preached,  as  assistant  to  Dr.  Gabriel, 
in  the  Octagon  efaapel,  Bath.  He  was  much  afBicted  with 
bead-aches,  which  frequently  interrupted  his  public  ser- 
vices. In  May,  1788,  he  was  attacked  by  an  illness  which 
proved  fetal  on  the  19th  of  that  month,  while  on  a  visit 
to  his  friend  sir  John  Chichester,  hart,  in  Queen-street, 

Some  time  before  his  death,  he  was  requested  to  ar- 
range the  papers  which  Mr.  Chappie  had  collected  for  his 
improved  edition  of  Risdon's  "  Survey  of  Devon."  After 
tibis  was  done,  he  was  earnestly  urged,   from  these  ma- 

B  A  D  G  O  C  K.  295 

terialsy  with '  additional  assistance,  such  as  influenpe  or 
fortune  could  bestow,  to  write  the  history  anew.  For  this 
undertaking  he  had  many  qualifications,  if  his  health  could 
have  been  preserved.  When  at  Bath,  he  preached  a 
charity  sermon,  which  was  afterwards  printed,  but  not 
published.  In  his  person,  Mr.  Badcock  was  short,  but 
well  made,  active,  lively,  and  agreeable:  his  eyes  were 
pecnliarly  vivacious,  and  his  whole  countenance  indicated 
strong  intellectual  powers,  far  above  the  general  run  of 
mankind,  and  a  disposition  replete  with  sensibility,  ten- 
derness, and  generosity.  This  short  sketch  of  his  life  has 
been  taken  from  very  copious  materials,  published  in  the 
Gentleman's  Magazine,  voL  LVIII,  p.  595,  691,  780, 
781,  868;  UX,  p.  571,  713,  776,  871,  877;  and  the 
reader  may  form  a  judgment  of  his  critical  talents  by  per- 
using the  following  articles  ii;i  the  Monthly  Review,  in 
addition  to  what  have  been  already  mentioned :  Sherlock's 
Letters;  David  Williams's  Lectures;  Steevens's  Shakspeare^ 
edit.  1780 ;  Malone's  Supplement ;  Milne's  Sermons ; 
Mac-Nicol's  Remarks  on  Dr.  Johnson ;  History  of  Mo^ 
ravianism;  Japob  Behmen's  Life;  Mainwaring's  Sermons; 
Von  Troll's  Letters  on  Iceland ;  Milles's  edition  of  tlowteyTs 
poems ;  Nichols's  Life  of  Hogarth,  and  Bowyer's  Miscella- 
neous Tracts,  1785.  His  first  review  was  of  Ruhnkenius'd 
edition  of  Homer's  Hymn  to  Ceres,  which  he  sent  anony- 
mously to  the  Editor.  ^ 

BADEW  (Richard  de)>  who,  as  founder  of  Clare-hall, 
Cambridge,  is  justly  entitled  to  a  place  among  the  bene- 
factors of  learning,  was  descended  froni  a  knightly  family^ 
seated  at  Great  Badew,  or)Badow,  near  Chelmsford,  in  the 
county  of  Essex.  From  this  place,  they  took  their  surname ; 
and  here,  probably,  Richard  de  Badew  was  born.  In  1326, 
he  was  chancellor  of  the  university  of  C^unbridge;  and 
having  purchased  two  tenements  in  Miln-street,  of  Nigel 
Thornton,'  a  physician,  he  laid  there,  in  the  year  above- 
mentioned,  the  foiindation  of  a  building,  to  which  was 
given  the  name  of  University  hall.  Stow  differs  from 
tins  account,  in  asserting  that  the  two  houses  of  old  be<^ 
longed  to  the  chancellor  and  university.  Badew,  however, 
placed  a  principal  in  this  hall,  who  was  to  take  care  of  the 
pensioners  that  came  to  live  there  at  their  own  expence  ; 
or,  as  others  say,  at  the  charge  of  the  university :  for,  as 

1  Qituc  Mi^.  M  tiipr*. 

ip$  B  A  D  E  W. 

yety  it  w^  not  endowed,  and  this,  it  must  be  confesse<?^ 
suits  rather  better  with  the  term  pensioner.  University 
ball  continued  in  this  condition  for  the  space  of  sixteen 
years,  and  then  by  an  accidental  fire  was  burnt  dowi^.  Ri« 
5;hard  de  Badew  being  unable  to  rebuild  it,  it  lay  for  a  few 
years  in  ruins.  But  one  of  the  late  pensioners  having  ^ 
great  interest  with  Elizabeth,  daughter  of  sir  Gilbert  de 
jCiare,  earl  of  Gloucester,  and  third  sister  and  co-heir  of 
sir  Gilbert  de  Clare,  the  last  e^.rl  of  Gloucester  and  Hertf> 
ford,  of  that  name  and  family,  he  prevailed  upon  her  to 
undertake  what  de  Badew  was  not  able  to  perform.  Ac- 
cordingly this  lady,  after  the  resignation  of  Walter  Thaxted 
the  priuoipalf  and  with  the  consent  of  Richard  de  Badew, 
^rebuilt  that  hall,  and  endowed  it,  in  the  year  1347,  with 
revenues  for  one  master,  ten  fellows,  and  ten  scholars,  and 
at  the  same  time  i^^med  it  Clare  hall.  When  she  founded 
it,  king  Edward  III.  gave  licence  of  mortmain  to  the  mas- 
ter and  scholars  to  take  lands  and  tenements,  to  the  value 
<>f  forty  pounds  a  year.  The  revenues  of  this  hail  have 
been  augn^ented  since  by  ^  several  benefactors.  It  was 
again  rebuilt  in  1636,  and  the  magnificent  chapel  in  1763* 
It  contains  a  master,  ten  senior  fellows,  fifteen  juniors,  and 
ihree  lay-fell6w«,  ^ 

BADIUS  (JfossE),  or  in  Latin,  JODOCUS  BADIUS 
ASCENSIUS,  an  eminent  French  printer,  was  born  in 
1462,  at  Assche,  a  village  in  the  territory  of  Bmssels,  from 
which  he  derived  the  name  Ascensius.  He  first  studied  at 
Ghent,  then  at  Brussels,  and  lastly  at  Ferrara  in  Italy.  H^ 
made  great  progress  in  the  languages,  and  principally  in 
the  Greek,  which  he  learned  at  Lyons  and  at  Paris.  He 
printed  a  great  many  books,  and  usually  in  the  frontispiece 
had  a  printing  press  as  his  mark.  He  is  also  the  author  of 
some  books,  an^ong  which  are  ^^  Sylva  moralis  contra  vi* 
tia ;"  "  Psajteriun^  B.  Marise  versibus ;"  **  Epigrammatum 
Lib.  I  ;'*  "  Nayicula  stultarum  mulierum  ;"  *^  V4taThoma^ 
a  Kempis  ;'*  "  De  Gramnfiatica ;"  ^^  De  copscribendis 
Epistolis."  He  wrote  also  comn^entaries.  on  Horace,  Virgil, 
Juvenal,  Lucan,  Sallust,  Valerius  Ma^imus,  Quintilian, 
Aulus  Gellius,  and  some  parts  of  Cicero's  works.  At  Paris 
be  taught  Greek,  and  explained  the  poets  at  Lyons.  Hi9 
high  reputation  in  .these  studies  induced  Treschel,  the  fa^. 
inous  printer,  to  engage  him  as  corrector  of  his  pres$,  and 

}  Bio(«  BritaimicB* 

B  A  D  I  U  S.  897 

not  only  secured  his  valuable  services  by  taking  hind  ^s  a 
partner  in  the  business,  but  also .  gave  him  his  daughter 
Thalia  in  marriage,  who  was  also  a  learned  lady.  After 
the  death  of  "his  father-in-law,  in  1500,  he  was  engaged  by 
Gagnin,  the  royal  librarian,  to  visit  Paris,  where  he  re- 
moved with  his  family,  and  established  an  excellent  print- 
ing office,  by  the  name  of  Praelum  Ascensianum,  from  which 
many  good  editions  issued,  although  his  type  was  not  so 
much  admired  as  that  of  the  Stephens's.  He  died  in  I535. 
His  son  Conrad  Badius  settled  at  Geneva,  having  embrace^ 
Calvinism^  and  was  both  a  printer  and  an  author.  Two  of 
his  daughters  were  married  to  eminent  printers,  one  tQ 
Michel  Vascosan,  and  the  other  to  Robert  Stephens.  ^ 

BADOARO,  or  BADUARO  (Daniel),  a  senator  of 
.Vienice,  who  died  in  1580,  has  left  various  treatises  on  the 
civil  law^  which  were  printed  at  Venice  in  1593,  and  re- 
printed at  Boulogne  in  1744.  His  son  Peter  Badoaro,  was 
also  celebrated  for  bis  knowledge  of  law,  and  died  in  1 59 U 
His  i^  Orationi  Civili,"  were  published  in  1593,  if  this  be 
not,  as  we  suspect,  a  production  of  the  father.  Frederick 
Badoaro,  of  the  same  family,  was  distinguished  for  his 
learning,  and  talents  as  a  negociator.  He  was  Venetian 
ambassador  at  the  court  of  Charles  V.  and  Philip  II.  and 
was  the  founder  of  the  academy  known  by  the  name  of 
Delia  Fama,  at  Venice.  He  died  in  1593.  From  the 
three  concurring  events  under  this  year,  it  is  probable^ 
there  are  some  mistakes  in  this  account,  which  we  have 
laken  from  the  Diet.  Hist.^ 

BADOLOCCHI,  or  BADALOCCHIO  (Sisto),  an  emi^ 
nent  Italian  painter,  born  at  Parma,  according  to  Basan^ 
in  1581,  was  €i  disciple  of  Annibal  Caracci,  by  whose  ^dr 
mirable  precepts  he  made  an  extraordinary  progress  in  a 
short  time,  and  proved  the  best  designer  of  any  of  those 
who  were  educated  with  him  in  that  illustrious  school.  He 
possessed  a  lively  imagination,  and  a  singular  readiness  of 
hand ;  and  it  was  concluded  by  allr\^o  saw  his  perform* 
ances,  that  be  would  have  arrived  at  a  high  degree  of  me- 
rit, if  he  had  not  died  in  the  very  bloom  of  life,  and  if  he 
had  applied  himself  with  more  assiduity  to  his  profession^ 
Sasan^s  account,  however,  makes  him  reach  his  sixty-sixth 
yfQdX,  but  it  does  not  appear  on  what  authority.     Badq- 

9  <Ben.  Diet.— Moreri.— Marchand  Diet.  Hist.— Foppen  BiU.  Belg.-r-Saxii 
OnoBiasticOD.       .  , 

9  Diet.  Hist. 

'298  B  A  D  O  L  O  C  G  H  L 

locchi  is  to  be  ranked  among  engravers  also,  and  there  are 
mainy  etchings  by  him,  in  a  slight,  free,  masterly  style. 
"They  are  generally  more  finished  than  those  of  Guido ;  but 
the  extremities  are  by  no  means  so  finely  drawn.  Amongst 
the  best,  is  RaphaePs  Bible,  from  the  pictures  of  Raphael 
in  the  Vatican,  small  plates,  lengthways,  engraved  con- 
jointly with  Lanfranchi.     This  is  2l  w^Htnown  work.  * 

BADUEL  (Claude),  in  Latin  BADUELLUS,  a  Pro- 
testant  divine  of  the  sixteenth  century,  was  a  native  of 
Nismes,  and  taught  in  the  university  of  that  city.  In  1557 
he  w^nt  into  Switzerland,  and  became  the  pastor  of  a 
church  in  the  vi<:;inity  of  Geneva,  and  taught  philosophy 
and  mathetnatics  till  his  death  in  1561.  He  translated  se- 
verial  of  Calvia^s  sermons  into  Latin,  which  he  published 
at  Geneva,  also  *^  Acta  Martyrum  nostri  saeculi,*'  Genev. 
1556  ;  ^'  Oratio  ad  In&tituendum  Gymnasium  Nemausensi 
*le  Studiis  Literarum ;'-  "  De  Collegio  et  Universitate  Ne- 
mausensi ;*'  <^  Epistola  Parsenetica  ad  Paulum  filium  de 
vero  patrimonio  et  hasreditate  quam  Christian!  parentes 
«uis  liberis  debent  relinquere,''  and  some  other  works,  all 
iu  Latin,  which  he  was  thought  to  write  -ytrith  great  fluency. 
But  his  most  remarkable  work  was  entitled  *^  De  ratione 
vitsB  studibssa  ac  literats  in  Matrimonio  coUacandae  ac  de- 
gendse,''  which  has  been  three  times  printed  in  8vo  and  4to^ 
1544,  1577,  and  1581.  A  defence  of  marriage,  at  that 
time,  was  an  object  of  some  importance,  and  its  advantages 
to  men  of  literature  are  displayed  with  good  sens^  in  this 
work.  Bayle  gives  a  long  account  of  it,  and  a  farther  list 
of  Baduel's  works  may  be  seen  in  Gesner's  Bibliotfaeca.  * 

BAELI  (Francis),  a  native  of  Milazzo  in  Sicily,  was 
born  in  1639,  and  cultivated  with  success  the  dissimilar 
studies  of  mathematics  and  poetry.  After  travelling  from 
3660  to  1680  over  most  parts  of  Europe,  he  remained  for 
some  years  at  Paris  and  Madrid,  and  then  returned  to  his 
native  country,  where  he  produced  two  dramatic  pieces, 
the  "  Temple  of  Tempe,"  and  "  Polixenes,"  and  pub- 
lished "  Odes,"  **  Sonnets,'*  and  an  **  Historical  account 
of  the  City  of  Messina,'*  Fraincfort,  1676.  The  time  of  his 
death  is  uncertain.* 

'  BAENGIUS  (Pbter),  son  of  Eric  Basngiu?,  a  divine, 
was  born  at  Helsingborg  in  Sweden,  in  1633,  and  studied 
first  at  Stregnes  in  Sudermania,  and  afterwards  at  UpsaL 

1  Pilkington  and  Strutt's  Dictionaries,  9  Gen.  DicU 

>  Cbaufepie  Diet.  Hist.— Diet.  Hist.  ' 

B  A  E  N  G  I  U  S.  '299 

Colonel  Sylver  Sparre,  bearing  of  his  good  character  aiid 
abilities, .  appointed  him  tutor  to  his  son,  with  whom  BaBH- 
gius  travelled  into  Denmark,  Germany,  and  the  Nether- 
lands, and  visited  eleven  universities.  On  his  return  to 
his  own  country,  he  was  called  to  the  theological  chair  of 
Abo  in  Finland,  when  only  in  his  thirty-second  year.  In 
1682,  Charles  IX.  king  of  Sweden,  appointed  him  to  the 
bishopric  of  Wyburgh  in  Carelia.  Baengius  introduced 
many  liseful  regulations  in  his  diocese,  particularly  with, 
respect  to  schools,  and  established  a  printing-office.  He 
died  in  16^6.  He  wrote  a  commentary,  in  Latin,  on  the 
epistle  of  St.  Paul  to  the  Hebrews,  which  was  printed  at 
Abo  in  1671,  4to ;  the  **  Life  of  St.  Anscharius  ;"  a  work 
on  the  ecclesiastical  hist©ry  of  Sweden ;  a  treatise  on  the 
sacraments ;  a  Lutheran  catechism ;  several  disputations, 
and  funeral  orations,  and  a  sacred  chronology.  * 

BAERSIUS,  or  VEKENSTIL  (Henry),  a  learned 
printer  at  Louvain,  of  the  sixteenth  century,  was  also  an 
able  mathematician,  and  wrote,  1.  "  De  compositione  et 
usu  Decretoril  Planetarum,"  1530,  4to.  2.  "  De  com- 
positione et  usu  Quadi-antis,"  1534,  4to.  He  published 
also,  but  without  his  name,  **  Tabulae  perpetuae  Longitu- 
dinum  ac  Latitudinum  Planetarum,  ad  Meridianum  Lo- 
vaniensem,**  edited  by  Gilbertus  Masius,  1528,  4to.* 

BAGARD  (Charles),  an  eminent  French  physician, 
was  born  at  Nancy,  Jan.  2,  1686,  and  died  there,  Dec.  7, 
1772.  We  have  no  farther  particulars  of  his  life,  but  his 
works  were  numerous,  and  accounted  valuable.  They  are, 
1.  "  Histoire  de  la  Theriaque,'*  1725,  8vo.  2.  "Disser- 
tation sur  les  Tremblemens  de  Terre,  et  les  Epidemics  qu'ils 
occasionnent,'*  8vo.  3.  "  Explication  d'un  passage 
d- Hippocrate  sur  les  Scythes  qui  deviennent  Eunuques,** 
1759,  :8yo.  4.  "Analyses  des  eaux  Minefrales  de  Cdn- 
trexevilte  et  de  Nancy.**  5,  "  Des  Memoires  sur  la  petite 
verole,  les  centenaires,  et  les  vomissemens,  produits  par  la 
passion  Diaque."  He  published  also  in  Latin,  a  Dispien* 
s^tory,  in  folio,  and  a  treatise  on  the  Materia  Medica,  both 
about  the  year  1771,  the  laUer  in  8  vo.  ' 

BAODEDIN  (Mahomet),  an  Arabian  mathematician, 
is  usually  classed  among  the  authors  of  the  tenth  century. 
He  is  said  to  have  written  some  treatises  on  geometry,  and 
among  others,  one  entitled  "  De  superficierum  divisioni- 

«  Morpri.-.Dict.  Hist.  «  Foppen  Bibl.  Beig,  »  Diet  Hist* 

300  B  A  G  P  E  D  I  N. 


bus,"  which  Dr.  Dee  of  London,  and  Frederic  ComnTan* 
dini  of  Urbino,  translated  into  Latin.  The  latter  published 
his  translation  at  Pesaro  in  1570|  with  another  on  the  same 
subject  of  his  own'  composition.  Some,  however,  are  of 
opinioti  that  the  original  treatise  was  by  Euclid,  to  whooft 
Proclus  ascribes  one  on  that  subject,  and  that  Bagdedia 
was  only  the  translator  of  it  into  the  Arabic  language.  ^ 

PAGE  (Robert),  an  English  writer  of  considerable  ta* 
lents,  was  born  Feb.  29,  1728,  at  Darley,  a  hamlet  in  the 
parish  of  St.  Alkmond^s^  Derby,  where  his  father  was  em-* 
ployed  oil  $i  p^per-milL  When  put  to  school,  this  son 
inadean  uncommon  progress  in  such  learning  as  waswithiq 
his  reach,  and  after  remaining  there  the  usual  time,  he  wasf 
trained  to  bis  father's  business.  When  he  advanced  in 
life,  married,  and  became  settled  in  the  business  of  paper- 
making,  he  continued  to  cultivate  his  mind,  by  adding  a. 
knowledge  of  the  French  and  It^li^,u  languages,  and  even 
the  Riore  abstruse  branches  of  mathematics.  Hi^  conver-* 
nation  and  correspondence  sps^rkled  with  all  the  wit  an4 
information  which  ^re  expected  in  m^n  of  a  literary  turn, 
t)Ut  he  was  considerably  advanced  in  life  befqre  he  tried 
his  powers  in  any  regular  compositiop.  A  loss  sustained! 
in  business  is  said  to  have  first  induced  him  to  take  up  the 
pen,  not  as  a  source  of  emolument,  but  tp  divert  his  mind 
from  repining  reflections.  With  this  view  he  wrote,  and 
in  J 781^  published  "  Moun^  Henetbi"  a  novel  which  be-r 
came  justly  popular,  from  the  itivicity  of  its  style,  and 
dialogue,  and  the  many  well-drawn  characters,  and,appo<v 
site  reflections  on  questions  of  morality  and  humanity. 
This  was  followed  by  other  productions  of  the  same  khid, 
"  Barham  Downs,"  the  "  Fair  Syrian,"  and  "  James  Wal- 
lace," which  were  all  favourably  received  by  ^he  public, 
as  far  superior  to  the  commpn  run  of  novel?.  In  private 
life,  Mr.  Hutton  of  Birmingham,  has  celebrated  him  as  ^ 
man  of  most  amiable  and  benevolent  character ;  but  we 
are  sorry  that  he  ^dds;,  that  ^'  he  laid  no  stress  upon  reve-? 
lation,"  and  was  "  barely  a  Cbristian.'*-jr-There  are,  in- 
deed, passages  in  his  works  jtrhicb  justify  this  character, 
and  leave  us  much  to  regret  in  the  history  of  a  man  of  such 
ie2;;cellent  talents  and  personal  worth  in  other  respects, 
Mr.  Bage  died  Sept  1,  1801,  in  the  74th  year  of  his  a^e^ 
at  Tamworth,  * 

\  Morertr**Vo88iu9  de  Matliemat. 

«  Oent.  Maf.  1601 ^Huttou's  Hist,  of  I>erb7, 

3  A  G  F  O  R  D.  301 

BAGFORD  (John),  an  industrious  antiquary  and  col- 
lector of  literary  curiosities,  the  son  of  John  and  Elizabeth 
Bagford,  of  the  parish  of  St  Anne,  Blackfriars,  London, 
was  bom  in  October  1675,  and  bred  to  the  humble  occu- 
pation of  shoemaker.  He  was  early  led,  by  whatever 
means,  to  inquiries  respecting  the  antiquities  of  bis  own 
country,  and  its  literary  history,  and  in  the  course  of  his 
researches  he  acquired  an  extensive  knowledge  of  old 
English  books,  prints,  and  fariries,  dear  to  the  heart  of  a 
collector,  which  he  carefully  picked  up  at  low  prices,  and 
sold  again  for  a  moderate  profit.  In  this  mixture  of  study 
and  trade  he  passed  the  greater  part  of  his  life,  and  with 
such  zeal,  that  he  more  than  once  travelled  abroad,  with 
commissions  from  booksellers,  and  collectors,  whom  he 
amply  satisfied  by  his  skilful  punctuality,  and  moderate 
charges.  In  the  course  of  his  labours,  he  made  himself 
acquainted  with  the  history  of  printing,  and  of  the  arts  con* 
nected  with  it,  and  in  1707,  published  in  the  Philosophical 
Transactions,  his  ^^  Proposals  for  a  History  of  Printing, 
Printers,  Illuminators,  Chalcography,  Paper*making,  &c." 
soliciting  the  humble  price  of  one  pound  for  a  folio  volume, 
to  consist  of  two  hundred  sheets.  These  proposals,  of 
which  there  are  several  copies  in  the  British  museum,  are 
printed  on  a  half-sheet,  with  a  specimen  on  another,  con- 
taining the  life  of  Caxton,  and  a  list  of  his  books.  The 
numerous  manuscripts  by  him  on  this  subject,  now  in  the 
British  museum,  prove  that  he  had  at  least  provided  ample 
materials  for  a  work  of  this  description,  and  was  not  upon 
the  whole  ill  qualified  to  have  written  it,  as  far  as  a  liberal 
education  could  have  been  dispensed  with.  He  had  pro*- 
bably  no  encouragement,  however,  and  at  his  death,  nine 
years  afterwards,  these  MS  collections  were  purchased  by 
Mr.  Humphrey  Wanley,  for  lord  Oxford's  library,  and 
came  in  course  with  the  Harleian  MSS.  into  the  British 
museum.  I'be  assertion,  in  the  last  edition  of  this  dic- 
tionary, that  a  part  of  his  collections  were  deposited  in  the 
public  library  at  Cambridge,  and  never  opened,  has  been 
contradicted  on  the  authority  of  Dr.  Farmer,  the  late  learn- 
.ed  master  of  Emanuel  college. 

It  appears  that  Bagford  practised  the  art  of  printing, 
although  in  an  humble  way.  There  are  among  hiscoUec- 
tions  two  whimsical  cards,  printed  by  him,  on  the  Thames 
ivhen  it  was  frozen  over,  Jan.  18,  1715-16,  with  devices 
and  inscriptions  alluding  to  the  history  of  printing.     T 

802  B  A  G  F  O  R  *)• 

curious  letter  to  H^sarne^  iii  the  first  volame  of  the  second 
edition  of  "Leland*s  Collectanea^"  p.  58,  relative  to  Lon- 
don>  and  the  antiquities  in  its  vicinity,  is  very  creditable  to 
his  talents  as  an.  antiquary.  He  was  much  employed  and 
jrespected  by  lord  Oxford,  Or.  John  Moore  bishop  of  Ely, 
^ir  Hans  Sbane,  sir  James  Austins,  Mr.  Clavel,  &c.  and 
it  is  said,  that  for  having  enriched  bishop  Moore^s  library 
with  many  curiosities  (which  were  purchased  by  George  I. 
and  given  to  the  university  of  Cambridge),  his  lordship  pro- 
cured him  an  admission  into  the  charter-house,  as  a  pen- 
sioner on  that  foundation,  in  the  cemetery  of  which  he 
was  buried.  He  died  at  Islington,  May  15,  1716,  aged 
sixty-five.  In  Mr.  Dibdin's  Bibliomania,  are  many  curious 
particulars  respecting  Bagford,  and  an  estimate  of  his 
talents  and  usefulness  founded  on  Mr.  Dibdin^s  very  labo- 
rious inspection  of  his  MSS.  ' 

BAGGER  (John),  bishop  of  Copenhagen,  was  born  at 
Lunden  in  1646.  His  father  Olaus  Bagger  taught  theo^ 
logy  in  the  school  of  Lunden,  but  sent  his  son  to  Copen- 
hagen for  education.  He  afterwards  travelled  to  Germany, 
the  Netherlands,  and  England,  studying  under  the  most 
able  masters  in  divinity  and  the  oriental  languages,  and 
then  returned  to  Copenhagen.  When  Lunden  became  a 
part  of  the  Swedish  dominions,  the  king  established  an 
academy  there,  and  Bagger  was' appointed  to  teach  the 
oriental  languages.  He  had  scarcely  begun  to  give  lessons, 
how'ever,  when  by  the  advice  of  his  friends  of  Copen- 
hagen, he  solicited  and  obtained,  in  1674,  the  office  of  first 
pastor  of  the  church  of  the  Holy  Virgin  in  that  metropolis. 
In  1675,  after  the  usual  disputation,  he  got  the  degree  of 
doctor,  and  on  the  death  of  John  WandaUn^  bishop  of 
Zealand  or  Copenhagen,  he  was  appointed  to  succeed 
him,  at  the  very  early  age  of  twenty-nine.  His  promotion 
is  said  to  have  been  in  part  owing  to  his  wife  Margaret 
Schumacher,  the  widow  of  Jacob  Fabri,  his  predecessor, 
in  the  church  of  the  Holy  Virgin  at  Copenhagen,  and  to 
the  brother  of  this  lady,  the  count  de  GrifFenfeld,  who 
had  great  interest  at  court.  Bagger,  however,  filled  this 
high  of&ce  with  reputation,  as  well  as  that  of  dean  of  theo*- 
logy^  which  is  attached  to  the  bishopric  of  Copenhagen. 
He  revised  the  ecclesiastical  rites  which  Christian  V.  had 

1  Nichols's  Life  of  Bowyer.«-Taaer>  8ro  edit,  wiUi  ttotti,  toI.IIL  p.  511.— 
Dlb^n's  Bibliom.  p.  430. 


{Htssed  into  a  law,  as  well  as  the  liturgy,  epistles,  and  gos- 
pels, collects,  &c.  to  which  he  prefixed  a  preface.  Ho 
also  composed  and  published  several  discourses,  very 
learned  and  eloquent,  some  in  Latin,  ahd  others  in  the 
Danish  tongue*  He  died. in  1693,  at  the  age  of  47.  By 
his  second  wife,  he  left  a  son  Christian  Bagger,  who  be** 
came  an  eminent  lawyer,  and  in  1737  rose  to  be  grand 
bailly  of  Bergen,  and  a  counsellor  of  justice. ' 

BAGLIONI  Giovanni),  a  Roman  artist,  was  born  about 
1573,  and  acquired  the  rudiments  of  art  from  Francesco 
Morel  li,  a  Florentine,  but  formed  himself  on  better  mas- 
ters :  feeble  in  design  and  expression,  he  is  distinguished 
by  chiaroscuro,  and  a  colour  which  approaches  that  of 
Cigoli ;  his  praised  picture  of  the  Resuscitation  of  Tabitha^ 
is  lost,  but  bis  frescoes  in  the  Vatican  and  the  Capella 
Paolina  at  S.  Maria  Maggiore,  still  remain  to  give  an  idea 
of  his  powers.  He  lived  long,  employed  and  ennobled  by 
pontiffs  and  princes  ;  but  owes  the  perpetuity  of  his  name 
perhaps  more  to  his  ^^  Lives  of  Painters,  Sculptors,  and 
Architects,"  than  to  great  technic  eminence.  That  work 
was  entitled  "  Le  Vite  de'  Pittori,  Scultori,  ed  Architetti 
dal  1572  al  1642,"  Rome,  1642,  and  again  in  1649,  4to. 
It  forms  a  continuation  of  Yasari's  Lives.  Baglioni  died 
about  the  time  of  publication.  ^ 

BAGLIVI  (Georoi^),  an  eminent  Italian  physician,  was 
born  at  Ragusa,  in  the  year  1669,  of  a  family  which  origi* 
Bally  came  from  Armenia.  Pietro  Angelo  Baglivi,  an 
eminent  and  opulent  physician,  is  said  to  have  adopted  this 
youth,  and  bestowed  on  him  his  name,  while  he  charged 
himself  witk  his  maintenance  and  education.  George  Bag- 
livi,. accordingly,  was  sent  to  Salerno^  where  he  took  his 
first  degree,  and  where  he  became  partial  to  the  study  of 
natural  history.  The  same  pursuit  he  afterwards  followed 
at  Padua  and  Bononia,  but  his  chief  instructor  and  most 
intimate  friend  was  Malpighi,  whom  he  visited  at  Rome, 
and  by  wht)se  influence  be  was  promoted  to  teach  anatomy 
in  that  city.  With  many  friends,  this  occupation  pro- 
cured him  also  some  enemies,  excited  probably  by  the 
fame  he  obtained.  He  persisted,  however,  in  his  lectures, 
and  published  his  ^^  Praxis,"  which  differed  much  from 
that  in  common  use,  as  he  recommended  a  closer  atten^ 
tion  to  clinical  observations  than  had  been  usual,  and  dis« 

1  Moreru  <  PUkingtOD,  edit.  ISIO. 

$64  B  A  G  L  1*V  t. 

carded  the  humoral  system  altogether,  attribotirig  tbd 
cause  of  diseases  to  the  altered  tone  of  the  solids.  H^ 
supposed  likewise  an  alternate  motion  between  the  hearl 
and  the  dura  mater^  by  which  the  whole  aninial  machiiiM 
was  actuated.  He  had,  however,  no  sooner  published  these 
doctrines,  than  Antonio  Pacchione  accused  him  of  havio^ 
stolen  them  from  his  works,  if  he  denied  the  charge^  or 
t)f  having  taken  them,  if  he  would,  confess  it;  but'Bag>^. 
livi  proved  that  Pacchione's  observations  were  published, 
almost  a  year  later  than  his  own,  and  urged,  that  whatever, 
coincidence  there  might  be,  he  bad  the  credit  of  establish* 
ing  his  doctrines  upon  a  more  firm  basis.  His  enthusiaspt 
in  his  profession  led  him  to  devote  much  of  his  time  td 
writing,  and  his  pieces  went  through  many  editipusr  before, 
they  were  collected,  and  printed,  together  at  Nurimberg^ 
4738,  4to,  but  afterwards  much  more  completely  at.  Ve- 
nice, in  1752,  and  lastly,  with  a  preface,  notes, andemeiQ- 
.dations  by  Phil.  Pinel,  M.  D.  2  vols.  178a,  8vo.  There 
are  also  Paris  editions  in  4to,  ,1711  and  1765.  His  bip-> 
grapher  represents  him  as  a  man  of  piety  and  benevolenc^i: 
and  of  much  learning,  indepeudent  of  his  more  immediate: 
studies.     He  died  March  1707.* 

BAGNOLl  or  BAGNIO  LI  (Julius  C^sar),  an  Italiari 
poet,  a  man  of  opulence  as.  well  as  fame  by  his  writings, 
and  esteemed  among  the  good  poets  of  his  age.  His  faiU. 
ing  is  said  to  have  been  that  of  being  difficult  to  please  in 
bis  own  compositions,  which  he  filed  and  polished  till  he 
wore  off  the  strength  of  the  metal.  He  knew  how  to  draw 
an  exact  outline,  and  to  give  a  strong  colouring,  but  he 
held  his  pencil  too  long,  and  was  over-anxious  in  the  finish-* 
iug  part.  These  were  not,  however,  the  failings  of  bia 
time.  He  is  best  known  at  present  to  those  who  study 
Italian  poetry  by  "  The  Arragonians,^*  a  tragedy,  aiid 
"  The  Judgment  of  Parij.''  We  have  no  dates  of  hi*  birth 
or  death,  except  that  he  was  famed  as  a  poet,  about  1590, 
and  Erythrsus  (Le  Koux)  says  that  he  died  an  old  man. ' 

BAGOT  (Lewis),  an  English  prelate,  son  of  sir  WaJter . 
Bagot,  hart,  and  brother  to  the  first  lord  Bagot,  was  bora 
Jan.  1,  1740.     He  was  educated  at  Westminster  school,, 
and  chosen  thence  student  of  Christ-church,  took  the  de^ 
gree  of  M.A.  May  23^  1764,  and  LL.D.  Feb.  i29,  1772.  In 

>  Fabroni    Vite  Italorum,  vol.  IV.— -Haller  Bibl.  Med.— but  more  com- 
pletely in  Manget. 
*  JiryUirei  Fiaacotlieca.--M9refi.-i»SaiUet  Jui^emtfnt.ded  SayanSi  toI.  VIU' 

B  A  G  O  T.  tos 

16  1771  lie  WHS  made  canom  of  Chrkt-eburch  in  the  toom 
0f  Dr.  Moore,  the  late  archbishop  of  Canteribniy,  imd.  th# 
same  year  he  married  Miss  M.  Hay,  niece  to  the  eiii  of 
KimiouL  He  was  installed  dean  of  Christ-dmrcb,  Jan* 
5t5,  1777,  on  the  tnuisiation  of  Dr,  Markham  to  the  see  <lf 
York,  about  which  time  he  resigned  the  lirinrgs  of  Jeving-^ 
ton  and  Eastbourne  in  Susset,  in  lisivoiir  of  his  nephew,  the 
Kev.  Ralph  Sneyd.  In  1782  be  was  promoted  to  the  see  of 
Biistol,  translated  to  Norwich  the  yoar  following,:  and 
thence  t4»  St  Asaph  in  1790,  wbere  he  rebuilt  the  palace 
on  an  uncommon  plan,  but  neces^ury  for  the  sitoatioti^ 
where,  among  the  mountaiDS,  and  in  tho  Ticinity  of  the 
tea,  storms  are  often  riolent  ^  The  palace,  therefore,  is 
low;  and  being  on  the  ascent  of  a  hill,  the  Testibule,  din-i> 
ing-^foom,  and  drawing«room,  which  occupy  the  whole  front 
of  the  building,  are  on  »  level  with  the  first  floor  in  the 
other  apartments,  two  of  ^^diich,  on  the  gfooad^floor^  are  a 
neat  domestic  chapel  and  a  library. 

>    Dn  Bagot  was  a  man  of  great  learning,  an  Itccomplished 
scholar,  and  of  the  most  gentle  and  amiable  manners*     As 
n  patron,  he  deserves  much  praise  for  bestowing  the  ample 
patronage  of  his  see^with  great  disinterestedness  and  im« 
partiality,  among  the  learned  and  meritorious  clergy  of  his 
diocese,  acquainted  with  the  language  «nd  manners  of  the 
district     His  publications  were  not  very  numerous.     In  the 
*^  Pielas  et  Gratutatio  Univ.  Oxon.- 1761,"  on  die  accession 
of  his  present  majesty,  are  some  English  blank  verses,  by 
him ;  and  he  also  contributed  some  verses  on  bis  majesty's 
marriage,  nnd  on  the  birth  of  the  prince  of  Wales,  all  which 
are  mserted  in  vol.  VIII.  of  Nichols's  poems.    In  ]77S^ 
When  the  question  of  subscription  to  the  thirty-nine  articles 
was  agitated,  be  published  *^  A  defence  of  subscription  tO: 
the  XXXIX  Articles,  as  it  is  required  in  the  miiverstty  of 
Oxford.*'    7*his  was  anonymous,  and  occasioned  by  a  pam- 
phiec,  ^Iso  anonymous,  entitled  ^^Reflections  on  tiiie  im" 
propriety  and  expediency  of  Lay  Subscription  in  the  uni- 
versity of  Oxford."     In  1 7  7  9  he  preached  and  published  the 
Radclife  Infirmary  sermon,  and  in  1780  his  priucipal  work 
appeared,  '^Twelve  discourses  on  the  Prophecies,"  preached 
at  the  Warburtonian  lecture  in  Lincoln's  Ion  chapel.    The 
earnestness  with  which  he  contends  iu  these  discourses 
tor  the  essentM  doctrines  of  the  church,  was  again  appa^ 
^nt  ii\  bis  next  publication,  *^  A  letter  tp  the  Rev.  W.  Bell, 
D.D."  on  the  subject  of  his  late  pu'biicatians  upoa  the 
Vol.  HI,  X 

806  B  A  G  O  T. 

ituthority^  nature,  and  design  of  the  Lord'si  Supper,*'  178li 
9w.  In  this  Dr.  Bagot  objects  to  the  Socinian  tendency 
tpf  Ih*^  Bell's  arguments ;  and  about  the  same  time  he  re-* 
printed^  with  a  short  prefiice, .  Dr.  Isaac  Barrow's  '^  Dis* 
fcpurse  on  the  doctrines  of  thq  Sacrament,''  which  is  now 
one.  of  the  tracts  dispersed  by  the  Society  for  promoting 
£!bri9tian' Knowledge.  His  other  publications  were,  a  ser-* 
Inon  before  the  house  of  lords,  Jan.  SO,  17H3 ;  one  for  the 
]tftirwich  hospital ;.  and  two  others  before  the  Society  for 
ipxomoting  Christian  Knowledge,  1788,  and  the  Society  for 
propagating  the  Gospel,  1790.  A  small  pamphlet  against 
the  Anabaptists,  and  a  charge  delivered  when  bishop  €>f 
Norwich,  were  printed  by  Dr.  Bagot,  but  not  genemlly 
published.  In  all  his  works  he  displays  a  fervent  zeal  for 
the  principles  of  religion  and  of  loyalty,  joined  \yith  much 
knowledge  of  the  true  grounds  of  both;  nor  will  it  be 
thought  an  objection  of  much  consequence,  that  be  did  not 
stand  high  in  the  opinion  of  those  who  contended  for  such 
Innovations  as  in  his  opinion  endangered  the  whole  febric 
of  church  government  and  doctrine. 

For  nearly  ten  years  before  the  death  of  this  worthy  pre« 
late,  he  had  been  in.  a  declining  st-^.te  of  health,  and  was 
wasted  to  the  appearance  of  a  mere  skeleton.  He  was  coa« 
fined  to  bed,  however,  only  the  day  before  he  departed  this 
life,  June  4,  1 802.  His  remains  were  interred  at  St.  Asaph 
.with  those  of  Mrs.  Bagot,  whom  be  survived  not  quite  three 
years.  * 

BAGSHAW  (Edward),  a  gentleman  of  a  Derbyshire 
family,^ was  born  in  London,  and  in  1604  became  a  com* 
Aioner  of  Brazen-nose  college,  Oxford,  under  the  tuition 
of  the  pious  Mr.  Robert  Bolton ;  four  years  after,  he  took 
a  degree  in  arts,  and  then  removed  to  the  Middle  Temple, 
where  he  studied  law,  became  a. bencher,  and  of  consider* 
able  reputition  in  his  profession.  In  1639  he  was  elected 
Xent  reader,  and:  i^hose  for  his  first  reading-  an  argument 
>very  suitable  to  the  growing  turbulence  of  the  times,  en- 
deaj^ouring  to  prove  that  a  parliament  may  be  held  without 
.bishops,  and  that  bishops  ought  no:t  .to  meddle  in  civil  af-^ 
fairs,  but  the  lord  keep^  Finch,  at  archbishop  Laud's  re- 
quest, ordered.himto  df^sist.  This,  however,' giving  him 
a  character  unhappily  too  poptj^fu*,  he  was  elected  M.  P.  for 
the  borough  oi  Southwark,  ihv|^e  parliament  of  1640 }  but 

*    1^  Nichols*!  life  of  Bowyer,  vol.  V.J<2fttt.  May.  1802.— Nich»lf*i  PoelB^ 

*oL  VUt  ...... 

B  A  G  S  H  A  Wi  30T! 

perceiving  the  outrages  the  members  were  about  to  tsQai-*; 
mit,  beyond  all,  bounds  of  temperate  refqrmatioji,  he  went 
to  Oxford,  and  sat  in  the  parliament  called  there  by  the  king,: 
After  continuing  at  Oxford  for  some  time,  he  was  taken 
prisoner  by  the  rebels  in  Oxford^ire,  and  seqt  to  London,: 
where  the  house  of  commons  committed  him  to  the  king's* 
bench,  and  he  suffered  afterwards  in  his  estate  in  Nor-* 
thamptonsbire.  On  the  Restoration  we  find  him  treasurer 
of  the  Middle  Temple.  He  died  in  VS62,  and  was  interred- 
in  Morton-Pinkney  in  Northamptonshire,  leaving^  two  sons^ 
Henry  and  Edward,  of  whom  some  notice  will  be  takem 
He  published,  1.  ^'  The  life  and  death  of  Mr.  Robert  BqU 
ton,"  London,  1633,  4to.  2.  ^^^  Several  speeches  in  par- 
liament," 1640,  1641,  4to.  3.  <^  Two  argun^nts  in  parlia^ 
meat,  on  the  Canons  and  Praemunire,"  London,  1641,  4tQ« 
4.  '^  Treatise  defending  the  revenues  of  the  church  int 
Tithes  and  Glebe,"  ib.  1646,  4to.  5.  "  Treatise  maintain** 
iiig  the  doctrine,  liturgy,  and  discipline  of  the  Church  of 
England,"     The  two  last  written  during  his  imprisonment* 

6.  *'  Short  censure  of  the  book  of  Will.  Prynne,  entitled 
f  The  university  of  Oxford's  plea  refuted',"    1648,  4to. 

7.  <^  Just  vindication  of  the  questioned  part  of  hi^  reading 
had  in  the  Middle  Temple  hall,  Feb.  24,  16^9,"  London, 
1660,  4to,  8.  ^<  True  narrative  of  the  cause  of  silencing' 
him,  by  the  archbishop  of  Canterbury,"  printed  with  the 
preceding.  See  Rusbworth's  Collections,  p.  990,  9.  <^  The 
rights  of  the  Crown  of  England,  as  it  is  established  by. 
law,"  London,  1660,  8vo,  written,  as  most  of  the  others 
were,  during  his  confinement.  ^  ^ 

;  BAGSHAW  (Edwarp),  son  of  the  preceding,  was  born 
at  Broughton  in  Northamptonshire,  in  1609,  educated  at 
Westminster  school,  and  elected* student  of  Christ*church 
in  1646,  where,  according  to  Wood,  bis  coaduct  for  some 
time  was  turbulent  and  disorderly.  Having  finished  his 
studies,  however,  he  was  in  1656  appointed  to  officiate  as 
second  master  of  Westminster-  school,  and  in  1657  was 
(XMifirmed  in  the  office.  Behaving  improperly  to  the  cele- 
brated Busby,  he  was,  in  .1658,  turned  out  of  this;  place; 
but  soon  after  be  became  vicar  of  Ambrosden  in  Oxford- 
shire, having  taken  orders  fromt;  Brownrig,  bishop  of  Exe- 
ter.   After  the  Restoration,  •  Arthur  earl  of  Anglesey  sij)** 

^  Wood's  Athene,  Vol.  II. 

■      ■     '  xa 

-^    I 

S0«  B  A  G  S  H  A  Ti^ 

pointed  him  h\9  chaplaiii^  cm  whidi  Mr.  Bagshaw  left 
Ambrosden,  in  hopes  of  farther  promotion,  which,  however^ 
he  never  attained,  having  written  and  preached  doctrioetf 
against  the  chtirch  and  stale,  for  which  he  was^  committed 
prisoner,  first  to  the  Gatehouse  in  Westminster,  next  to 
the  Tower,  and  thence  to  South  Sea  castle,  Hampshire,  in 
1664.  After  his  release  be  returned  to  London,  and  fell 
imder  fresh  suspicions,  and  having  refused  the  oaths  of  al« 
legiance  and  supremacy,  was  committed  to  Newgate,  where 
he  continued  twenty-two  weeks*  He  appears  to  have  beea 
a^n  released,  as  he  died  at  a  house  in  Tothill-street, 
Westminster,  Dec.  2S,  1671,  and  was  buried  in  BunhilU 
fidds  cemetery,  with  an  altar  monument,  and  an  inscription 
written  by  the  celebrated  Dr.  Owen,  implying  that  he  had 
been  persecuted  for  his  adherence  to  the  gospel,  and  had 
now  taken  sanctuary  ^from  the  reproaches  of  pretended 
friends,  and  the  persecutions  of  professed  adversaries.^* 
Baxter's  account  is  less  favourable :  he  records  him  as  an 
anabaptist,  fiMi<-monarchy  man,  and  a  separatist,  a  man  c^ 
an  extraordinary  vehement  spirit,  but  he  allows  thajt  he  had 
been  exasperated  by  many  years  '^  hard  and  grievous  im- 
prisonment.'' Wood  has  a  long  list  of  his  writings,  mostly 
controversial  with  Baxter,  L' Estrange,  and  others,  and  pro- 
bably forgotten.  AU  his  biographers,  however,  allow  him 
to  have  been  a  man  of  abilities.  * 

'  BAGSHAW  (Henry),  D.  D.  brother  of  the  above,  was 
also  born  at  Broughton  in  1632,  and  edu(fated  at  Westmin^ 
ster  school,  and  ele<;ted  studbnt  of  Christ-church  in  165]> 
of  which  he  was  M.  A.  1 657.  He  was  chaplain  to  sir  Rich- 
ard Fanshaw,  ambassador  in  Spain  and  Portugal,  and  on 
his  return  was  made  ehapkdin  to  archbishop  8tern,  who  gave 
him  the  prebend  of  Southwell  and  rectory  of  Castleton  in 
Sjrnderick.  In  1667,  he  held  the  prebend  of  Bamaby  in 
York  cathedral,  and  in  1668,  that  of  Friday  Thovp.  He 
look  the  degreeof  B.D.  1668,  and  D.D.  1671.  In  1&72 
he  was  miade  chaplain  to  the  lord  treasure!*  Danby,  and 

'  rector  of  St.  Botdph's  chuvch,  Bishopsgate^  London,  which 
he  ejichanged  for  Houghton-le-8prine.  In  1680  he  wad 
installed  a  prebendary  of  Durham,  and  died  at  Houghton^ 
Dec.  30,  1 709.  He  was  of  a  totally  diflferent  character  from 
hia  brother.     He  published  ^  Diatribse,  or  discourses  upistfi 

1  Wood's  Atb.  vol.  II.— Palmer't  Noncoaf.  Memorial,  yoI.  III.*f*ope'» 
life  of  Bishop  Ward;  p.  39. 

B  A  G  S  H  A  W.  to* 

leleet  texts,  against  Papists  and  Socinians/'  London,  1690, 
ByOy  and  several  single  sermons. ' 

.  BAQSHAW  (William),  a  nonconformist  minister,  was 
born  at  Litton  in  the  parish  of  Tidsweli,  Jan.  17,  1627-S, 
and  educated  in  Coipus  Christ!  colleg^e,  Cambridge ;  after 
which  he  entered  into  orders,  and  preached  with  great  ap* 
plause  in  different  parts  of  Derbyshire.  He  obtained  the 
living  of  Glessop,  which  he  held  till  1662,  when  he  was 
obliged  to  resign  itj  because  he  would  not  comply  with  the 
act  of  uniformity ;  and  then  he  preached  privately  at  difier* 
ent  places  till  the  Revolution,  when  a  large  meeting-house 
was  built  for  him,  and  he  continued  pastor  of  a  numerous 
congregation  till  his  death,  April  1,  1702.  He  was  the 
author  of  several  small  practical  treatises,  much  esteemed 
in  that  age.  Among  these  is  a  work,  partly  of  a  biographic 
/ckI  kind,  entitled  ^^  De  Spiritualibus  Pecci,  or  nptes  con* 
cerning  the  work  of  God,  and  some  that  have  been  wockeri 
jtogether  with  God,  in  the  High  Peak,''  (of  Derbyshire), 
1702.  Besides  his  printed  works,  he  left  behind  him  fifty 
yolumes,  on  various  subjects,  some  in  folio  and  some  in  4to, 
fairly  written  with  his  own  hand.  * 

B  AHIER  (John),  a  French  Latin  poet,,  was  bom  at  Cha«» 
tillon  in  the  Lower  Maine,  and  became  a  priest  of  the  Ora« 
jtory  at  Paris,  in  1659.  He  had  considerable  genius,  and 
was  much  addicted  to  study,  so  that  he  soon  became  one 
«£  the  best  scholars  and  best  poets  of  his  order.  When  M* 
Fouquet,  superintendant  of  finances,  was  arrested,  he  pub- 
lished a  Latin  poem,  entitled  ^^  Fuquetius  in  vincuhs,'* 
which  was  much  applauded.  He  published  another  poem 
at  Troy es  in  1668,  the  title  of  which  was,  ^^  In  tabellas  ex- 
cellentissimi  pictoris  du  Wernier,  ad  nobilem  et  eximium 
vinim  Eustachium  Quinot,  apud  quern  iUas  yisuntur  Trecis^ 
carmen.'*  Father  Bahier  translated  this  production  after- 
wards into  French  verse,  under  the  title  of  **  Peinture  po« 
etique  des  tableaux  de  mignatare  de  M.  Quinot,  fiuts  par 
Joseph  de  Werner.?  At  the  time  he  taught  rhetoric  at 
Marseilles,  in  1670,  he  delivered  and  publisdied  an  oration 
on  Henrietta  of  Elngland,  duchess  of  Orleans,  and  the  same 
year  printed  a  Latin  poem  of  six  hundred  verses  in  praise 
of  Toossalat  Fourbin  de  Janson,  bishop  of  Marseilles.  He 
wrote  some  other  pieces,  which  were  less  known ;  such  was 

>  Ath.  Ox.  vol.  IT.— Hutchiosoo's  History  of  Durbam,  vol.  II.  p.  206. 
*  Calamy. — Life  and  Funeral  Sermon  by  J,  Ashe,  1704, 12mo. 

»10  .      B  A  H  I  E  R. 

|iis  jreptstation,  I^owever,  that  he  was  chosen  secretary  of 
the  Oratory,  an  office  which  he  filled  with  great  credit  for 
Itbirty  years  -,  his  latter  days  were  distinguished  by  many 
9icts  of  charity,  and  it  was  during  his  attendance  on  a  dy- 
ing friend  that  he  caught  a  disorder,  which  ^proved  fatal  in 
the  month  of  April  1707.  * 

BAHRDT  (Chaules  Frederick),  one  of  those  German 
writers  who  have  of  late  years  disgraced  the  profession  of 
religion  and  philosophy,  was  born  in  1741,  at  Leipsic, 
jwherehis  father  was  a  clergyman,  and  educated  this  son  for 
the  church,  but  with  so  little  success  that  he  soon  left  coU 
lege,  and  enUsted  in  the  army.  Being  bought  off,  how* 
*Yer,  he  returned  to  the  university,  and  in  1761  was  ad- 
mitted to  the  degree  of  M.  A.  Soon  afterwards  he  became 
^QStechist  in  his  father's  church,  was  a  popular  preacher,  and 
in  1765  published  sermons  and  some  controversial  writings, 
«rhich  evinced  that  he  possessed  both  learning  and  genius. 
JFrom  his  early  days  he  appears  to  have  been  of  a  debauched 
turn,  with  a  propensity  to  satire  which  no  considerations 
could  restrain ;  and  these  two  qualities,  which  he  persisted 
in  all  bis  life,  laid  the  foundation  of  what  he  termed  his 
•snisfortunes,  although  they  were  no  other  than  the  con*» 
4;empt  which,  his  infamous  conduct  and  impious  doctrines 
.have  a  natural  tendency  to  produce  in  every  well-ordered 
^society.  His  life  became  a  series  of  adventures  too  uu^ 
jnerous  for .  the  plan  of  this  work  -,  but  the  principal  were 
4:hese.        ,       .  - 

Qne  of  his  shameful  amours  having  rendered  it  necessary 
;fbr  him  to  leave  Leipsic,  his  friends,  with  some  difficulty^ 
-obtained  for  him  a  professorship  at  Erlangen,  afterwards  at 
.Erfurth,  and  in  1771  at  Giessen.  But  the  boldness  of  his 
,  doctrines,  and  the  malignity  of  his  satirical  compositions, 
-of  which  he  was  very  fond^  would  soon  have  expelled  hioi 
-from  Giessen,  if,  just  as  he  was  about  to  be  dismissed  from 
vhis  professorship,,  he  had  not  received  an  invitation  to  Mars*- 
;chlins  in  Switzerland,  to  superintend  an  academy.     To  thi^ 

place  he  went  about  1776,  and  began  his  new  career  by 

forming  the  seminary  after  the  model  of  an  academy  which 
'bad  before  been  projected  by  Basedow,  .in  the  principality 

of  Anhalt  Dessau,   under  the  name  of  P/ulaTiihropinum. 
:The  plan  of  this  was  professedly,  to  form  the  young  miud 

to  the^love  of  mankind  and  of  virtue,  without  any  aid  froo) 

>  Moreri. 

B  4:  H  K  D  T.  Ml 

region,  except  what  he  was  {|leased  to^'Call  philosopbical 
religion.  But  the  Swiss  were  not  yet  prepared  forsog^reat 
a  change  of  system,  and  after  disgusting  them.with.doc- 
Jtrines,.  the  immoral  tendency  of  some  of  which  o^uld  ito 
longer  be  mistaken,  he  nemoved  to  .Durkheim,'- a  tpiyn.i^ 
the  Palatinate,  and  foraied  an  association  for  3,  Fhilafitkro^ 
pinum  of  his  own.  A  large  fund  was  collected,  and  he  w^ 
enabled  to  trav.el  into  Holland  and  Englaticl  to  engage  pil- 
pils.     England  is  said* to  have  furnished  four.   .  .         r 

On  his  return  he  obtained  the  ca^e  of  count  Leining 
Hartzburgh  at  Heidesheim;  for  his  Philantkropinum^* stnd  in 
1778  it  was  consecrated  by  a  solemn  religious  festival. 
Hii  conduct  here,  however,  was  too  tibitoxious  both  iu 
principle  and  practice,  to  permit  him. a  long  coutinuaupe^ 
«nd  his  shocking  treatment  of -his  wife^ctmtribut^d  ta  ren- 
der the  scheme  abortive.  His*  academy  became  in  debt, 
and  be  took  to  flight,  but  was  imprisoned  at.Dienheim*  Oa 
his  release  he  settled  at  Halle,  as  the  keeper  of.  a  taveryi 
and  billiard  table,  and  lived  in  open  adultery  with  a  woman 
who  was  his  assistant,  and  for  whom  he  turned  his  wife  and 
daughter  out  of  doors.  #.     . 

His  next  design  was  to  direct  the  operations  of  a  secret 
society  called  the  "  German  Union  for  rooting  out  super*- 
stition  and  prejudices,  and  for  advanciiig  true  Christianity.'* 
To  forward  this  project,  which  was  but  a  branch  of  the  ge- 
neral conspiracy  then  carrying  on  by  the  enemies  of  reli* 
gion  and  government,  he  published  a  great  many  booJj:si 
containing  principles, fortunately  so  wild  and  extravagant  as 
to  prove  in  some  measure  an  antidote  against  the.  intended 
mischief.  When  he  had  laboured  in.  tbi^  cause  about  two 
years,  some  of  the  secrets  of  the  Union  transpired  j  bis  for* 
mer  conduct  and  his  constant  imprudence  made  him  sus* 
pected  ;  his  associated  friends  lodged  informations  against 
him;  his  papers  were  seized,  and  he  himself .  was  sent  to 
prison,  first  at  Halle,  and  then  at  Magdeburg.  After  a 
yeaf's  confinement  he  was  released,  and  would  probably 
have  concerted  some  new  projects,-  had  he  not  been  at* 
tacked  by  a  disorder  which  put  an  end  to  hi^  life,  April  23, 

His  numerous  works  evince  learning  and  sageqity,  much 
critical  taste,  and  considerable  powers  of  discussion,  but 
their  general  tendency  is  sd  hostile  to  all  that  the  good  and 
wise  hold  sacred,  and  to  all  that  the  well-being  of  society 
rec[uires  to  be  held  sacred,  that  an  enumeration  of  thorn 

9ie  B  A  R  R  D  T. 

isn&y  well  be«spar6^9  ^ecpHy  ^^  it  is  irelry  luiKke^  jthey 
^will  ever  be  imported  ioto  thU  country,  ai^d  probably  have 
«ireedy  sunk  into  eblivion  on  the  contiaent.  Of  bk  private 
efaaracter  enough  n^y  be  seen  to  iUustiate  the  principles  of 
tucb  philosophers,  in  bis  life  in  Dr.  Gleig's  supplement  t» 
the  Encyclopedia  Britannica,  from  which  this  sketch  has 
been  extfacted,  and  in  professor  Robiusoa's  Proofs  of  ^ 
Conspiracy.  If  higher  proof  be  wanting,  it  may  be  taken. 
from  his  Gernmi  biogr^her  SchlichtegroU,  or  firom  his  life 
written  by  himself,  which  is  a  wonderful  specimen  of  the 
effi'ontery  of  acknowledged  depravity. ' 

BAIER  (John  Jambs),  a  celebrated  phpician,  born  stjL 
Jena  in  1677,  practised  bis  art  in  several  towns  of  Ger- 
cnany ;  among  others,  at  Nuremberg,  Ratisbon,  and  Altorf. 
He  was  professoi^  at  this  last-mentioned  place,  and  member 
ef  the  Academy  des  Curieux  de  la  Nature,  in  1720.  He 
was  chosen  president  of  it  in  1730,  and  died  4it  Altorf  the 
14th  of  July  1735,  He  was  author  of,  1.  <*  Thesaurus 
Gemmarum  zffabrii  sculptarum,  coUectus  a  J.  M.  ab  £ber« 
mayer,**  Nuremberg,  1720,  folio.  2.  **  Horti  medici  acad. 
Altorf.  Historia,''  Altorf,  1727,  4t%  3»^  A  great  number  of 
dissertiltions  or  theses,  on  particular  plants,  in  4to,  from 
J710to  1721.  ■ 

BAIF.     SeeBAYF. 

BAIL  (Lewis),  a  French  divine,  and  subpenitentiary  of 
the  metropolitan  church  of  Paris,  was  born  at  Abbeville,  it 
is  supposed  of  English  parents.  He  arrived  at  bis  doctor's 
degree  in  1628.  In  1651  he  published  his  most  celebrated 
work,  dedicated  to  the  archbishop  of  Paris;  <<  De  triplici 
examine  ordinand.  confess*  et  poenitent."  8vo,  which  passed 
through  many  editions  in  his  life-time.  He  assisted  also  in 
the  publication  of  some  editions  of  the  Councils.  In  1666 
he  published  a  work  upon  the  most  celebrated  preachers 
from  the  earliest  times  to  the  beginning  of  the  seventeenth 
4^entury,  a  4to  volume,  under  the  title  of  ^^  Sapientia  foris 
prssdicaus,*'  in  which  he  nqt  only  gives  a  succinct  account 
of  the  lives  of  the  most  celebrated  preachers,  but  also  points 
out  in  what  they  excelled^  and  the  most  remarkable  pas<* 
sages  in  their  discourses.  Before  this  he  published  a  trea* 
tise,  "  De  Beneficio  Crucis,"  Paris,  1653,  8vo,  in  opposi*- 
tion  to  the  sentiments  of  Jansenius  on  the  subjects  of  grace 
and  predestination.     His  *^  Pfailosopbie  affective"  appeared 

1  Encyclop.  Brit,  ubi  supra.*~Dicl.  Hist, 
s  Moreri. — Hftller.^->SBxii  Onoinastiam. 

BAIL,  ftlJ 

fiiPar^in  1659»  ISmo.  It  coiitaifis  mtny  snifiU  devotional 
l^ecet,  aiid  a  corious  coUectioii  qf  i^  Pieus^s  repaitie$/*  or 
pious  repartees,  selected  from  various  authors,  and  scrnie 
inom  }m  own  expmence.  The  tioie  of  hia  death  is  not 
apeoified  in  Moreri,.  os  any  of  the  -aatborities  from  which 
t)us  article  is  taken. ' 

.:  BAILEY  (Nathan),  the  author  of  a  well-known  dictio* 
Jiary  of  the  English  language,  resided  principiiUy  at  Step-" 
ney,  and  there  probably  died,  June  27,  1742,  leaving  n^ 
joiemoriala  of  hi3  personal  history  or  character.  In  reli« 
gion  he  is  said  to  have  been  a  Sabbatarian.  His  life,  how« 
tesrer,  appears  to  have  been  spent  in  useful  pursuits.  His 
£fliglish  dictionary,  printed  first  in  the  early  part  of  the  laat 
century,  in  8vo  (iMlit.  4ih,  1728),  was  long  the  only  one  in 
use,  and  still  continues  a  favourite  with^  a'  certain  class  of 
readers.  '  It  was  afterwards  enlarged  into  2  vols,  dvo,  and 
Wax^  years  after  printed  in  folio,  with,  additions  in  the 
mathematical  part  by  G.  Gordon,  in  the  botanical  by  |^hi). 
Miller,  aud  in.  the  etymological  by  T.  Lidiard,  the  whole 
revised  by  Pr.  Joseph  Nieol  Scott,  a  physician.  Of  this 
there  was.  an  improved  f^dition  in  1759,  abput  which  tinuft 
tUe  fifteenth  .edition  of  the  8vo  was  published.  The  Svo, 
about  twenty^five  years  ago,  was  revised  by  Dr.  Harwood. 
Bailey  also  published  a  '^  Dictionarium  domesticum,  or  a 
household  dictionary,''  1736^  <<  The  Antiquities  of  London 
and  Westminster,"  24mo9  1726,  an  useful  abridgment; 
^^  An  inU*oduction  to  the  English  Tongue^  two  parts;''  and 
j»chool  editions  of  Ovid's  Metamorphosis,  Ovid's  Epistles, 
Justin^  Erasmus's  Dialogues,  Phsedrus's  Fables,  and  a  book 
of  Exercises,  which  are  all  still  in  use.  ^ 

.  BAILLET  (Adrian),  an  eminent  French  critic,  was 
born  at  NeuviUe  near  Beauvais  in  Picardy,  June  13,  1649. 
His  fether,  who  vras  poor,  and  unable  to  give  him  a  learned 
education,  seat  him  to  a  small  school  in  the  neighbourhood,^ 
wjiere  he  soon  learned  all  that  was  taught  there,  and  desir^- 
Otts  of  xRioe,  went  frequently  to  a  nei^bouring  convent, 
where,  by  his. assiduities  in  performing  little  menial  of- 
fices, he  ingratiated  himself  with  them,  ahd  by  their  inte- 
rest was  presented  to  the  bishop  of  ^Beauvais.  The  bisbop 
fdaeed  him  in  the  eoUege  or  seminary  of  that  name,  viiiere 

>  Morart.-^I>kt  Hiit 

**  from  various  sources,  catalogues,  Icc-^eRt.  Mag.  vol.  XII.  p.SS'/,  &e»  , 

5U  B  A ^  L  Lt  T. 

-he  studied  thie  classics  with  <«nwearied  assiduity,  borrowing 
books  from  bis  fciend^^  and  it  is  even  said  be  took  money 
privately  from  his  father,  in  order  to  buy  books.  In  the 
course  of  his  reading,  which  was  accurate  and  even  critic- 
•cal,  he  formed,  about  the  age  of  seventeen,  a  common- 
place book  of  extracts,  which  he  called  his  '^  Juvenilia^** 
in  two  large  volumes,  very  conducive  to  his  own  improve- 
ment, and  afterwards  to  that  of  M.  de  Lamoignon,  his  pa- 
iron^s  son>  He  then  studied  philosophy,  but  with  less  relisb> 
his  predilection  being  in  favour  of  history,  Chronology,  and 
geography;  yet  in  defending  his  philosophical  theses,  he 
always  proved  his  capacity  to  be  fully  equal  to  bis  subject!; 
In  1 670  he  ^ent  to  one  of  those  higher  seminaries,  for- 
merly established  by  the  Fi'eifch  bishops  for  the  study  of 
divinity,  which  he  pursued  with  his  usual  ardour  and  suc- 
cess, although  here  his  early  taste  discovered  itself,  in  his 
applying  with' most  eagerness  to  the  fathers  and  councils, 
^s  more -nearly  connected  with  ecclesiastical  history.  So 
intent  was  he  on  researches  of  this  kind,  that  he  fancied 
himself  solely  qualified  for  a  life  of  studious  retirement,  and 
had  a  design  of  going,  along  with  his  brother  Stephen,  to 
xhe  abbey  La  Trappe,  but  this  was  prevented  by  the  bishop 
of  Beauvais  bestowing  upon  hfan,  in  1672,  the  appointment 
of  teacher  of  the  fifth  form  in  the  college,  from  which, 
in  1674,  he  was  promoted  to  the  fourth.  This  produced 
him  about  sixty  pounds  a-year,  with  part  of  which  be  as- 
sisted his  poor  relations,  and  laid  out  the  rest  in  books,  and 
had  made  a  very  good  collection  when  he  left  the  college. 
Among  other  employments  at  his  leisure  hours  he  compiled 
two  volumes  of  notices  of  authors  who  had  disguised  their 
names,  of  which  the  preface  only  has  been  publishecL 

In  1676,  he  received  holy  orders,  and  passed  his  exa- 
.minations  with  high  approbation.  Monnoye,  one  of  his 
biographers,  mentions  a  circumstance  very  ereditable  to  his 
superiors,  that,  although  tbey  were  satisfied  with  hi^  learn^ 
ing,  they  would  not  have  admitted  him  into  orders,  if  they 
bad  not  discovered  that  he  was.iiiiperior  to  die  vanity  which 
sotnetimes  accompanies  a  reputation  for  learning.  The 
bishop  of  Beauvais  now  gave  him.  the  vicaxage  of  Lardieres, 
w^hich  netted  only  30/.  yearly,  yet  with  this.f>ittance,  Bail- 
Jet,  who  maintained  a  brother,  and  a  servant,,  contrived  tp 
indulge  his  humanity  to  the  poor,  and  his  passion  for  books^ 
to  purchase  which  he  used  to  go  once  a  year  to  Paris.  His 
domestic  cstablisbineut  was  upon  the  most  temperate  scaleji 

3  AT  LL  ET.  31S 

fit)  drinU  but  water,  and  no  meat,  l>at  bro\in  bread,  and 
sometimeft  a  little  bacon,  and  a  fev«r  herbs  ftom  his  garden 
boiled  in  water  with  salt,  and  whitened  with  a  little  milk; 
The  cares  of  hitf^parish,  however,  so  mach  interru{>ted  his 
favourite  studies  that  he  petitioned,  and  obtained  another 
living,  the  only  duties  of  which  were  singing  at  churchy 
and  explaining  the  catechism.  A  higher  and  more  grateful 
promotion  now  awaited  him,  as  in  1680,  he  was  made 
librarian  to  M.  Lamoignon,  not  the  first  president  of  tb^ 
parliament,  as  Niceron  says^  for  he  was  then  dead,  but  his 
«on,  who  at  that  time  was  advocate-geueraL  To  this  place 
he  was  recommended  by  M.  Hermant,  a  doctor  of  the  Sor-p 
bonne,  who  told  Lamoignon  that  Baillet  was  the  proper 
person  for  him,  if  he  could  excuse  his  awkwardness.  La«- 
moignon  answered  that  be  wanted  a  man  of  learning,  and 
did  not  regard  his  outward  appearance.  To  Baillet  suck 
an  appointment  was  so  gratifying  that  for  some  time  he 
'Could  scarcely  believe  M.  Hermant  to  be  serious«  Whea 
he  found  it  confirmed,  however,  he  entered  upon  his  new 
office  with  alacrity,  and  one  of  his  first  employments  was 
to  draw  up  an  index  of  the  library,  which  extended  to 
-thirty  «five  folio  volumes,  under  two  divisions,  subjects  and 
author^s  names.  The  Latin  preface  to  the  index  of  sub- 
jects, when  published,  was  severely,  but  not  very  justly  cen- 
sured by  M.  Menage,  as  to  its  style.  After  this,  he  com*- 
pleted  tour  volumes  of  his  celebrated  work  *^  Jugemens  des 
Savans,*'  and  gave  them  to  the  bookseller  with  no  other 
reserve  than  that  of  a  few  copies  for  presents.  The  suc- 
cess of  the  work  was  very  great,  and  the  bookseller 
urged  him  to  finish  the  five  volumes  that  were  to  follow^ 
He  did  not,  however,  accomplish  the  whole  of  his  design 
which  was  to  consist  of  six  parts.  I.  In  the  first  he  was  to 
treat  of  those  printers,  who  had  distinguished  themselves 
by  their  learning,  ability,  accuracy,  and  fidelity.  Of 
critics,  that  is,  of  ^those  who  acquaint  us  with  authors,  and 
their  books,  and  in  general  tb^e,  who  give  an  account 
of  the  state  of  literature^  and  of  all  that  belongs  to  the  re- 
public of  lettefs.  Of  philologists,  and  all  those  who  treat 
of  polite  literature.  Of  grammarians  and  translators  of  all 
kinds,  n.  Poets,  ancient  and  modern  ^  writers  of  ro- 
mances and  tales  in. prose ;  rhetoricians,  orators,  and  writers 
of  letters,  either  in  Latin,  or  in  any  of  the  modern  lan- 
guages. III.  Historians,  geographers,  and  chronologists 
of  all  sorts.     IV.  Philosophers,  physicians,  and  mathema- 

S16  B  A  I  L  L  £  T. 

ticians.  V.  Authors  upon  the  civii  and  caiidn  law,  po-* 
litics,  and  ethics.  VI.  Writers qn  divinity;  particularly 
the  fathers,  school-divinity ;  heretics^  &c.  He  published^ 
howfever,  only  the  6rst  of  these  divisionsfaod  ludf  of  tint 
second,  under  tlie  title  of  '^  Jugenaens  des  Savans  sur  les 
priocipaux  ouvrages  des  Auteurs,^'  Paris,  1685,  12mo.  It 
Is,  in  fact,  a  collection  ef  the  opinions  of  others,  with  seU 
dom  those  of  the  author,  yet  it  attracted  the  attention  of 
the  literary  world,  and  excited  the  hostility  of  some  critics, 
particularly  M.  Menage,  to  whom^  indeed,  Baillet  had 
given  a  previous  provocation,  by  treating  him  rather  dis« 
respectfully.  The  first  attack  was  by  father  Commire,  in 
a  ^ort  poem  entitled  '^  Asious  in  Pamasso,^'  the  Ass  on 
Parnassus,  followed  afterwards  by  ^<  Asinus  ad  Lyram,'* 
and  ^'  Asinus  Judex,'^  all  in  defence  of  Menage  and  the 
poets ;  and  an  anonymous  poet  wrote  ^'  Asinus  Pictor.'-^- 
It  does  not  appear,  however,  that  these  injured  the  sale  of 
the  work ;  and  in  1 686,  the  five,  other  v